Results for 'D. Benjamin Barros'

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  1. Natural selection as a mechanism.D. Benjamin Barros - 2008 - Philosophy of Science 75 (3):306-322.
    Skipper and Millstein (2005) argued that existing conceptions of mechanisms failed to "get at" natural selection, but left open the possibility that a refined conception of mechanisms could resolve the problems that they identified. I respond to Skipper and Millstein, and argue that while many of their points have merit, their objections can be overcome and that natural selection can be characterized as a mechanism. In making this argument, I discuss the role of regularity in mechanisms, and develop an account (...)
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  2. Negative causation in causal and mechanistic explanation.D. Benjamin Barros - 2013 - Synthese 190 (3):449-469.
    Instances of negative causation—preventions, omissions, and the like—have long created philosophical worries. In this paper, I argue that concerns about negative causation can be addressed in the context of causal explanation generally, and mechanistic explanation specifically. The gravest concern about negative causation is that it exacerbates the problem of causal promiscuity—that is, the problem that arises when a particular account of causation identifies too many causes for a particular effect. In the explanatory context, the problem of promiscuity can be solved (...)
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  3.  12
    Igualdade – trajetórias de Uma noção no pensamento E no imaginário político.José D’Assunção Barros - 2007 - Revista de Filosofia Aurora 19 (24):147.
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  4. Odors: from chemical structures to gaseous plumes.Benjamin D. Young, James A. Escalon & Dennis Mathew - 2020 - Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 111:19-29.
    We are immersed within an odorous sea of chemical currents that we parse into individual odors with complex structures. Odors have been posited as determined by the structural relation between the molecules that compose the chemical compounds and their interactions with the receptor site. But, naturally occurring smells are parsed from gaseous odor plumes. To give a comprehensive account of the nature of odors the chemosciences must account for these large distributed entities as well. We offer a focused review of (...)
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  5. Perceiving Smellscapes.Benjamin D. Young - 2020 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 101 (2):203-223.
    We perceive smells as perduring complex entities within a distal array that might be conceived of as smellscapes. However, the philosophical orthodoxy of Odor Theories has been to deny that smells are perceived as having a distal location. Recent challenges have been mounted to Odor Theories’ veracity in handling the timescale of olfactory perception, how it individuates odors as a distal entities, and their claim that olfactory perception is not spatial. The paper does not aim to dispute these criticisms. Rather, (...)
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  6.  26
    Unnoticed intrusions: Dissociations of meta-consciousness in thought suppression.Benjamin Baird, Jonathan Smallwood, Daniel Jf Fishman, Michael D. Mrazek & Jonathan W. Schooler - 2013 - Consciousness and Cognition 22 (3):1003-1012.
    The current research investigates the interaction between thought suppression and individuals’ explicit awareness of their thoughts. Participants in three experiments attempted to suppress thoughts of a prior romantic relationship and their success at doing so was measured using a combination of self-catching and experience-sampling. In addition to thoughts that individuals spontaneously noticed, individuals were frequently caught engaging in thoughts of their previous partner at experience-sampling probes. Furthermore, probe-caught thoughts were: associated with stronger decoupling of attention from the environment, more likely (...)
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  7.  4
    Critique of Religion and Critical Religion in Fichte’s Addresses to the German Nation.Benjamin D. Crowe - 2016 - In Daniel Breazeale & Tom Rockmore (eds.), Fichte's Addresses to the German Nation Reconsidered. SUNY Press. pp. 103-115.
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  8.  6
    Lectures on the Theory of Ethics.Benjamin D. Crowe (ed.) - 2015 - State University of New York Press.
    _Lectures from the late period of Fichte’s career, never before available in English._.
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  9. Smell's puzzling discrepancy: Gifted discrimination, yet pitiful identification.Benjamin D. Young - 2019 - Mind and Language 35 (1):90-114.
  10.  46
    Reasons for worship: a response to Bayne and Nagasawa: BENJAMIN D. CROWE.Benjamin D. Crowe - 2007 - Religious Studies 43 (4):465-474.
    Worship is a topic that is rarely considered by philosophers of religion. In a recent paper, Tim Bayne and Yujin Nagasawa challenge this trend by offering an analysis of worship and by considering some difficulties attendant on the claim that worship is obligatory. I argue that their case for there being these difficulties is insufficiently supported. I offer two reasons that a theist might provide for the claim that worship is obligatory: a divine command, and the demands of justice with (...)
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  11. Smelling matter.Benjamin D. Young - 2016 - Philosophical Psychology 29 (4):1-18.
    While the objects of olfaction are intuitively individuated by reference to the ordinary objects from which they arise, this intuition does not accurately capture the complex nature of smells. Smells are neither ordinary three-dimensional objects, nor Platonic vapors, nor odors. Rather, smells are the molecular structures of chemical compounds within odor plumes. Molecular Structure Theory is offered as an account of smells, which can explain the nature of the external object of olfactory perception, what we experience as olfactory objects, and (...)
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  12. Quality-space theory in olfaction.Benjamin D. Young, Andreas Keller & David Rosenthal - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
    Quality-space theory (QST) explains the nature of the mental qualities distinctive of perceptual states by appeal to their role in perceiving. QST is typically described in terms of the mental qualities that pertain to color. Here we apply QST to the olfactory modalities. Olfaction is in various respects more complex than vision, and so provides a useful test case for QST. To determine whether QST can deal with the challenges olfaction presents, we show how a quality space (QS) could be (...)
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  13. Smelling Molecular Structure.Benjamin D. Young - 2019 - In Steven Gouveia, Manuel Curado & Dena Shottenkirk (eds.), Perception, Cognition and Aesthetics. New York: Routledge Studies in Contemporary Philosophy. pp. 64-84.
    There is consensus within the chemosciences that olfactory perception is of the molecular structure of chemical compounds, yet within philosophical theories of smell there is little agreement about the nature of smell. The paper critically assesses the current state of debate regarding smells within philosophy in the hopes of setting it upon firm scientific footing. The theories to be covered are: Naïve Realism, Hedonic Theories, Process Theory, Odor Theories, and non-Objectivist Theories. The aforementioned theories will be evaluated based on their (...)
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  14.  8
    The Athenian Year.Benjamin D. Meritt - 1961 - University of California Press.
    This title is part of UC Press's Voices Revived program, which commemorates University of California Press’s mission to seek out and cultivate the brightest minds and give them voice, reach, and impact. Drawing on a backlist dating to 1893, Voices Revived makes high-quality, peer-reviewed scholarship accessible once again using print-on-demand technology. This title was originally published in 1961.
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  15. Enactivism's Last Breaths.Benjamin D. Young - 2017 - In M. Curado & S. Gouveia (eds.), Contemporary Perspective in the Philosophy of Mind. Cambridge Scholars Press.
    Olfactory perception provides a promising test case for enactivism, since smelling involves actively sampling our surrounding environment by sniffing. Smelling deploys implicit skillful knowledge of how our movement and the airflow around us yield olfactory experiences. The hybrid nature of olfactory experience makes it an ideal test case for enactivism with its esteem for touch and theoretical roots in vision. Olfaction is like vision in facilitating the perception of distal objects, yet it requires us to breath in and physically contact (...)
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  16.  24
    Heidegger's Religious Origins: Destruction and Authenticity.Benjamin D. Crowe - 2006 - Indiana University Press.
    Sheds new light on Heidegger's early theological development.
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  17. The Many Problems of Distal Olfactory Perception.Benjamin D. Young - 2019 - In Tony Cheng, Ophelia Deroy & Charles Spence (eds.), Spatial Senses: Philosophy of Perception in an Age of Science. Routledge Press.
    The chapter unfolds in the following sections. The first section exam- ines the reasons for claiming that olfactory perception is spatially unstruc- tured and our experience of smells has an abstract structure. The second section elucidates the further arguments that olfaction cannot generate figure-ground segregation. The third section assesses the conclusion that olfactory perception and experience cannot solve the MPP. Following the overview of the many problems inherent to distal olfactory percep- tion, MST will be introduced as an alternative perspective (...)
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  18. Olfactory Amodal Completion.Benjamin D. Young & Bence Nanay - 2021 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 103 (2):372-388.
    Amodal completion is the representation of those parts of the perceived object that we get no sensory stimulation from. While amodal completion is rife and plays an essential role in all sense modalities, philosophical discussions of this phenomenon have almost entirely been limited to vision. The aim of this paper is to examine in what sense we can talk about amodal completion in olfaction. We distinguish three different senses of amodal completion – spatial, temporal and feature-based completion – and argue (...)
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  19. Olfactory imagery: is exactly what it smells like.Benjamin D. Young - 2019 - Philosophical Studies 177 (11):3303-3327.
    Mental Imagery, whereby we experience aspect of a perceptual scene or perceptual object in the absence of direct sensory stimulation is ubiquitous. Often the existence of mental imagery is demonstrated by asking one’s reader to volitionally generate a visual object, such as closing ones eyes and imagining an apple. However, mental imagery also arises in auditory, tactile, interoceptive, and olfactory cases. A number of influential philosophical theories have attempted to explain mental imagery in terms of belief-based forms of representation using (...)
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  20. Smelling Phenomenal.Benjamin D. Young - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5:71431.
    Qualitative-consciousness arises at the sensory level of olfactory processing and pervades our experience of smells to the extent that qualitative character is maintained whenever we are aware of undergoing an olfactory experience. Building upon the distinction between Access and Phenomenal Consciousness the paper offers a nuanced distinction between Awareness and Qualitative-consciousness that is applicable to olfaction in a manner that is conceptual precise and empirically viable. Mounting empirical research is offered substantiating the applicability of the distinction to olfaction and showing (...)
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  21.  33
    Emancipacionism and Abolicionism – a debate in Brasil of slavery.José D’Assunção Barros - 2008 - Cultura:199-231.
    Este artigo, inserido no âmbito da História das Ideias, busca elaborar um panorama das posições que se contrastam no interior do conjunto de discursos anti-escravistas do século XIX, enfatizando as nuances presentes nas posturas “emancipacionista” e “abolicionista”, e no interior desta última as nuances que podem ser identificadas e que distinguem um abolicionismo moderado de um abolicionismo radical. O ponto de partida da análise é a distinção entre dois modos de conceber a Escravidão: como Desigualdade ou como Diferença. A análise (...)
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  22.  1
    The knight ideal and its dialogue with the aristotelian ethics: a study about the ancestral books of of the portuguese middle ages.José D’Assunção Barros - 2011 - Archai: Revista de Estudos Sobre as Origens Do Pensamento Ocidental 7:43-53.
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  23.  84
    Formative Non-Conceptual Content.Benjamin D. Young - 2015 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 22 (5-6):201-214.
    The olfactory system processes smells in a structural manner that is unlike the composition of thoughts or language, suggesting that some of the content of our olfactory experiences are represented in a format that does not involve concepts. Consequently, formative non-conceptual content is offered as an alternative theory of non-conceptual content according to which the difference between conceptual and non-conceptual states is simply a matter of the format of their structural parts and relations within a system of representations. Aside from (...)
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  24.  24
    Deciding Together: Bioethics and Moral Consensus.Martin Benjamin, Kurt Bayertz & Jonathan D. Moreno - 1996 - Hastings Center Report 26 (1):39.
    Book reviewed in this article: The Concept of Moral Consensus: The Case of Technological Interventions into Human Reproduction. Edited by Kurt Bayertz. Deciding Together: Bioethics and Moral Consensus. By Jonathan D. Moreno.
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  25.  56
    Heidegger's Phenomenology of Religion: Realism and Cultural Criticism.Benjamin D. Crowe - 2007 - Indiana University Press.
    Throughout his long and controversial career, Martin Heidegger developed a substantial contribution to the phenomenology of religion. In Heidegger's Phenomenology of Religion, Benjamin D. Crowe examines the key concepts and developmental phases that characterized Heidegger's work. Crowe shows that Heidegger's account of the meaning and structure of religious life belongs to his larger project of exposing and criticizing the fundamental assumptions of late modern culture. He reveals Heidegger as a realist through careful readings of his views on religious attitudes (...)
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  26. Stinking Consciousness!Benjamin D. Young - 2012 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 19 (3-4):223-243.
    Contemporary neuroscientific theories of consciousness are typically based on the study of vision and have neglected olfaction. Several of these (e.g. Global Workspace Theories, the Information Integration theory, and the various theories offered by Crick and Koch) claim that a thalamic relay is necessary for consciousness. Studies on olfaction and the olfactory system's anatomical structure show this claim to be incorrect, thus showing these theories to be either false or inadequate as general and comprehensive accounts of consciousness. Attempts to rescue (...)
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  27.  25
    Religion and the ‘sensitive branch’ of human nature: BENJAMIN D. CROWE.Benjamin D. Crowe - 2010 - Religious Studies 46 (2):251-263.
    While the theses that human beings are primarily passional creatures and that religion is fundamentally a product of our sensible nature are both closely linked to David Hume, Hume's contemporary Henry Home, Lord Kames , also defended them and explored their implications. Importantly, Kames does not draw the same sceptical conclusions as does Hume. Employing a sophisticated account of the rationality of what he calls the ‘sensitive branch’ of human nature, Kames argues that religion plays a central role in the (...)
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  28. Mind, Cognition, and Neuroscience: A Philosophical Introduction.Benjamin D. Young & Carolyn Dicey Jennings (eds.) - 2021 - Routledge.
    This carefully designed, multi-authored textbook covers a broad range of theoretical issues in cognitive science, psychology, and neuroscience. With accessible language, a uniform structure, and many pedagogical features, Mind, Cognition, and Neuroscience: A Philosophical Introduction is the best high-level overview of this area for an interdisciplinary readership of students. Written specifically for this volume by experts in their fields who are also experienced teachers, the book’s thirty chapters are organized into the following parts: I. Background Knowledge, II. Classical Debates, III. (...)
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  29.  74
    Reasons for worship: A response to Bayne and Nagasawa.Benjamin D. Crowe - 2007 - Religious Studies 43 (4):465-474.
    Worship is a topic that is rarely considered by philosophers of religion. In a recent paper, Tim Bayne and Yujin Nagasawa challenge this trend by offering an analysis of worship and by considering some difficulties attendant on the claim that worship is obligatory. I argue that their case for there being these difficulties is insufficiently supported. I offer two reasons that a theist might provide for the claim that worship is obligatory: (1) a divine command, and (2) the demands of (...)
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  30. Smelling Odors and Tasting Flavors: distinguishing orthonasal smell from retronasal olfaction.Benjamin D. Young - 2023 - In Aleksandra Mroczko-Wrasowicz & Rick Grush (eds.), Sensory Individuals: Unimodal and Multimodal Perspectives. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    It is arguably the case that olfactory system contains two senses that share the same type of stimuli, sensory transduction mechanism, and processing centers. Yet, orthonasal and retronasal olfaction differ in their types of perceptible objects as individuated by their sensory qualities. What will be explored in this paper is how the account of orthonasal smell developed in the Molecular Structure Theory of smell can be expanded for retronasal olfaction (Young, 2016, 2019a-b, 2020). By considering the object of olfactory perception (...)
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  31.  19
    Immunolocalisation of nucleoside transporters in human placental trophoblast and endothelial cells: evidence for multiple transporter isoforms.L. F. Barros, D. L. Yudilevich, Simon M. Jarvis, N. Beaumont, J. D. Young & S. A. Baldwin - unknown
    Polyclonal antibodies raised against the human erythrocyte nucleoside transporter were used to investigate the distribution of the nucleoside transporters in the placenta. Immunoblots of brush-border membranes isolated from the human syncytiotrophoblast revealed a cross-reactive species that co-migrated with the erythrocyte nucleoside transporter as a broad band of apparent M 55,000. In contrast, no labelling was detected in basal membranes containing a similar number of equilibrative nucleoside transporters as assessed by nitrobenzylthioinosine -binding. The absence of cross-reactive epitopes in basal membranes and (...)
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  32. Trifuncionalidade medieval.José D’Assunção Barros - 2006 - Cultura:275-294.
    A Trifuncionalidade como Ideologia O estudo das ideologias, no âmbito da História das Idéias, tem gerado algumas das temáticas mais importantes e polêmicas da historiografia das últi­mas décadas, sendo estas particularmente significativas para a compreensão das relações entre representações sociais e Política nos vários períodos históri­cos. Neste ensaio, que examinará a clássica discussão historiográfica sobre a 'trifuncionalidade medieval', estaremos considerando "ideologia" como uma n...
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  33.  12
    As crises recentes da historiografia.Jos D. Barros - 2010 - Dialogos 14 (1).
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  34.  7
    História cultural e história das idéias.José D’Assunção Barros - 2005 - Cultura:259-286.
    Este artigo busca elaborar em sua parte inicial uma visão panorâmica sobre a História Cultural, esclarecendo e discutindo alguns aspectos relacionados a esta modalidade da História. Na sua segunda parte, a História das Idéias é apresentada em suas relações dialógicas com a História Cultural e outras modalidades historiográficas. No decorrer do texto, são discutidos diversos dos conceitos envolvidos na perspectiva da História Cultural e da História das Idéias, a partir de uma produção historiográfica diversificada que se desenvolveu ao longo do (...)
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  35.  22
    Rupturas entre o Presente e o Passado: Leituras sobre as Concepções de Tempo de Koselleck e Hannah Arendt.J. D. Barros - 2010 - Páginas de Filosofía 2 (2):65-88.
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  36.  11
    Soberania e deslegitimação da democracia.D. F. Barros - 2010 - Filosofia Unisinos 11 (3):287-297.
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  37.  6
    Ranke: considerações sobre sua obra e modelo historiográfico -doi: 10.4025/dialogos.v17i3.774.José Costa D.´Assunção Barros - 2013 - Diálogos (Maringa) 17 (3).
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  38.  3
    Ranke: considerações sobre sua obra e modelo historiográfico -doi: 10.4025/dialogos.v17i3.774.José Costa D.´Assunção Barros - 2014 - Dialogos 17 (3).
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  39.  24
    No Sex or Age Difference in Dead-Reckoning Ability among Tsimane Forager-Horticulturalists.Benjamin C. Trumble, Steven J. C. Gaulin, Matt D. Dunbar, Hillard Kaplan & Michael Gurven - 2016 - Human Nature 27 (1):51-67.
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  40.  23
    The Interactions of Rational, Pragmatic Agents Lead to Efficient Language Structure and Use.Benjamin N. Peloquin, Noah D. Goodman & Michael C. Frank - 2020 - Topics in Cognitive Science 12 (1):433-445.
    Despite their diversity, human languages share consistent properties and regularities. Wherefrom does this consistency arise? And does it tell us something about the problem that all languages need to solve? The authors provide an intriguing analyses which focuses on the “communicative function of ambiguity” whose resolution entailed an equally intriguing “speaker–listener cross‐entropy objective for measuring the efficiency of linguistic systems from first principles of efficient language use.”.
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  41. Iain D. Thomson, Heidegger on Ontotheology: Technology and the Politics of Education Reviewed by.Benjamin D. Crowe - 2006 - Philosophy in Review 26 (4):301-303.
     
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  42.  25
    Unconsciously Smelling Self and Others.Benjamin D. Young - 2023 - In Michal Polák, Tomáš Marvan & Juraj Hvorecký (eds.), Conscious and Unconscious Mentality: Examining Their Nature, Similarities and Differences. Routledge.
    “I can smell you”—spoken as a factive statement, it is jarring and if uttered to a stranger it seems transgressive. Telling someone you see them generates a sense of affirming their identity, but your smell is private. Perhaps smell isn’t the lead sense, but what I hope to make clear throughout this chapter is that our sense of smell allows us to perceive aspects of our own and other’s identity. The chapter aims to show that our unconscious perception of the (...)
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  43.  27
    F. H. Jacobi on faith, or what it takes to be an irrationalist: BENJAMIN D. CROWE.Benjamin D. Crowe - 2009 - Religious Studies 45 (3):309-324.
    F. H. Jacobi , a key figure in the philosophical debates at the close of the eighteenth century in Germany, has long been regarded as an irrationalist for allegedly advocating a blind ‘leap of faith’. The central claim of this essay is that this venerable charge is misplaced. Following a reconstruction of what a charge of irrationalism might amount to, two of Jacobi's most important works, the Spinoza Letters and David Hume , are scrutinized for traces of irrationalism. Far from (...)
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  44. Religion and the 'sensitive branch' of human nature.Benjamin D. Crowe - 2010 - Religious Studies 46 (2):251-263.
    While the theses that (1) human beings are primarily passional creatures and that (2) religion is fundamentally a product of our sensible nature are both closely linked to David Hume, Hume's contemporary Henry Home, Lord Kames (1696–1782), also defended them and explored their implications. Importantly, Kames does not draw the same sceptical conclusions as does Hume. Employing a sophisticated account of the rationality of what he calls the 'sensitive branch' of human nature, Kames argues that religion plays a central role (...)
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  45.  42
    Herder's Moral Philosophy: Perfectionism, Sentimentalism and Theism.Benjamin D. Crowe - 2012 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 20 (6):1141-1161.
    While the last several decades have seen a renaissance of scholarship on J. G. Herder (1744?1804), his moral philosophy has not been carefully examined. The aim of this paper is to fill this gap, and to point the way for further research, by reconstructing his original and systematically articulated views on morality. Three interrelated elements of his position are explored in detail: (1) his perfectionism, or theory of the human good; (2) his sentimentalism, which includes moral epistemology and a theory (...)
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  46.  34
    Fichte's 1804 Wissenschaftslehre: essays on the "Science of knowing".Benjamin D. Crowe & Gabriel Gottlieb (eds.) - 2024 - Albany: State University of New York Press.
    Illuminating new essays on Fichte's 1804 Wissenschaftslehre, or The Science of Knowing.
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  47.  26
    Revisionism and religion in Fichte's jena wissenschaftslehre.Benjamin D. Crowe - 2008 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 16 (2):371 – 392.
  48.  50
    Romanticism and the ethics of style.Benjamin D. Crowe - 2009 - Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 91 (1):21-41.
    Alexander Nehamas and others have recently attempted to revive a conception of ethics that is centered on self-formation and the values of aesthetic coherence. This conception faces several difficulties, including the lack of fit between models of aesthetic coherence in literary works and individual lives and an absence of determinate content. The argument of this paper is that both of these defects are absent from the work of one of the earliest and most vocal exponents of this conception of ethics, (...)
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  49.  26
    Resoluteness in the Middle Voice: On the Ethical Dimensions of Heidegger’s Being and Time.Benjamin D. Crowe - 2001 - Philosophy Today 45 (3):225-241.
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  50.  20
    Public Health Legal Preparedness: A Framework for Action.Georges C. Benjamin & Anthony D. Moulton - 2008 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 36 (s1):13-17.
    Public health emergencies have occurred throughout history, encompassing such events as plagues and famines arising from natural causes, disease pandemics interrelated with wars, and industrial accidents such as the 1986 Chernobyl disaster, among others. Law and legal tools have played an important role in addressing such emergencies. Three prime U.S. examples are Congressional authorization of quarantine as early as 1796, legally mandated smallpox vaccination upheld in a landmark 1905 U.S. Supreme Court ruling, and the President's 2003 executive order adding SARS (...)
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