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David Degrazia [86]D. Degrazia [8]David Dion Degrazia [1]
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Profile: David DeGrazia (George Washington University, National Institutes of Health)
  1.  62
    Moral Enhancement, Freedom, and What We (Should) Value in Moral Behaviour.D. DeGrazia - 2014 - Journal of Medical Ethics 40 (6):361-368.
  2.  95
    Relieving Pain Using Dose-Extending Placebos.Luana Colloca, Paul Enck & David DeGrazia - 2016 - PAIN 157:1590-1598.
    Placebos are often used by clinicians, usually deceptively and with little rationale or evidence of benefit, making their use ethically problematic. In contrast with their typical current use, a provocative line of research suggests that placebos can be intentionally exploited to extend analgesic therapeutic effects. Is it possible to extend the effects of drug treatments by interspersing placebos? We reviewed a database of placebo studies, searching for studies that indicate that placebos given after repeated administration of active treatments acquire medication-like (...)
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  3.  87
    Nonhuman Primates, Human Need, and Ethical Constraints.David DeGrazia - 2016 - Hastings Center Report 46 (4):27-28.
    “The Ethics of Infection Challenges in Primates,” by Anne Barnhill, Steven Joffe, and Franklin Miller, is an exceptionally timely contribution to the literature on animal research ethics. Animal research has long been both a source of high hopes and a cause for moral concern. When it comes to infection challenge studies with nonhuman primates, neither the hope—to save thousands of human lives from such diseases as Ebola and Marburg—nor the concern—the conviction that primates deserve especially strong protections—could be much higher. (...)
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  4. Moral Vegetarianism From a Very Broad Basis.David DeGrazia - 2009 - Journal of Moral Philosophy 6 (2):143-165.
    This paper defends a qualified version of moral vegetarianism. It defends a weak thesis and, more tentatively, a strong thesis, both from a very broad basis that assumes neither that animals have rights nor that they are entitled to equal consideration. The essay's only assumption about moral status, an assumption defended in the analysis of the wrongness of cruelty to animals, is that sentient animals have at least some moral status. One need not be a strong champion of animal protection, (...)
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  5.  45
    Special Section: Moving Forward in Animal Research Ethics Guest Editorial Reassessing Animal Research Ethics.David DeGrazia - 2015 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 24:385-389.
    Animal research has long been a source of biomedical aspirations and moral concern. Examples of both hope and concern are abundant today. In recent months, as is common practice, monkeys have served as test subjects in promising preclinical trials for an Ebola vaccine or treatment 1 , 2 , 3 and in controversial maternal deprivation studies. 4 The unresolved tension between the noble aspirations of animal research and the ethical controversies it often generates motivates the present issue of the Cambridge (...)
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  6.  17
    Creation Ethics: Reproduction, Genetics, and Quality of Life.David DeGrazia - 2012 - Oup Usa.
    Creation Ethics illuminates an array of issues in "reprogenetics" through the lens of moral philosophy. With novel frameworks for understanding prenatal moral status and human identity, David DeGrazia tackles the ethics of abortion and embryo research, genetic enhancement and prenatal genetic interventions, procreation and parenting, and obligations to future generations.
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  7.  11
    Prozac, Enhancement, and Self‐Creation.David Degrazia - 2000 - Hastings Center Report 30 (2):34-40.
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  8. Enhancement Technologies and Human Identity.David Degrazia - 2005 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 30 (3):261 – 283.
    As the President's Council on Bioethics emphasized in a recent report, rapid growth of biotechnologies creates increasingly many possibilities for enhancing human traits. This article addresses the claim that enhancement via biotechnology is inherently problematic for reasons pertaining to our identity. After clarifying the concept of enhancement, and providing a framework for understanding human identity, I examine the relationship between enhancement and identity. Then I investigate two identity-related challenges to biotechnological enhancements: (1) the charge of inauthenticity and (2) the charge (...)
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  9. Animal Rights: A Very Short Introduction.David DeGrazia - 2002 - Oxford University Press.
    This volume provides a general overview of the basic ethical and philosophical issues of animal rights. It asks questions such as: Do animals have moral rights? If so, what does this mean? What sorts of mental lives do animals have, and how should we understand welfare? By presenting models for understanding animals' moral status and rights, and examining their mental lives and welfare, David DeGrazia explores the implications for how we should treat animals in connection with our diet, zoos, and (...)
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  10.  98
    Moral Status as a Matter of Degree?David DeGrazia - 2008 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 46 (2):181-198.
    Some people contend that fetuses have moral status but less than that of paradigm persons. Many people hold views implying that sentient animals have moral status but less than that of persons. These positions suggest that moral status admits of degrees. Does it? To address this question, we must first clarify what it means to speak of degrees of moral status. The paper begins by clarifying the more basic concept of moral status and presenting two models of degrees ofmoral status. (...)
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  11.  80
    Human-Animal Chimeras: Human Dignity, Moral Status, and Species Prejudice.David Degrazia - 2007 - Metaphilosophy 38 (2-3):309–329.
  12. Is It Wrong to Impose the Harms of Human Life? A Reply to Benatar.David DeGrazia - 2010 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 31 (4):317-331.
    Might it be morally wrong to procreate? David Benatar answers affirmatively in Better Never to Have Been , arguing that coming into existence is always a great harm. I counter this view in several ways. First, I argue against Benatar’s asserted asymmetry between harm and benefit—which would support the claim that any amount of harm in a human life would make it not worth starting—while questioning the significance of his distinction between a life worth starting and one worth continuing. I (...)
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  13.  59
    Moving Forward in Bioethical Theory: Theories, Cases, and Specified Principlism.David Degrazia - 1992 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 17 (5):511-539.
    The field of bioethics has deployed different models of justification for particular moral judgments. The best known models are those of deductivism, casuistry, and principlism (under one, rather limited interpretation). Each of these models, however, has significant difficulties that are explored in this essay. An alternative model, suggested by the work of Henry Richardson, is presented. It is argued that specified principlism is the most promising model of justification in bioethics. Keywords: casuistry, deductivism, ethical theories, intuition principlism, specified principlism, specification (...)
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  14.  37
    Self-Awareness in Animals.David DeGrazia - 2009 - In Robert W. Lurz (ed.), The Philosophy of Animal Minds. Cambridge University Press. pp. 201--217.
  15. The Case for Moderate Gun Control.David DeGrazia - 2014 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 24 (1):1-25.
    In addressing the shape of appropriate gun policy, this essay assumes for the sake of discussion that there is a legal and moral right to private gun ownership. My thesis is that, against the background of this right, the most defensible policy approach in the United States would feature moderate gun control. The first section summarizes the American gun control status quo and characterizes what I call “moderate gun control.” The next section states and rebuts six leading arguments against this (...)
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  16.  57
    Parents of Adults with Diminished Self-Governance.Jennifer Desante, David Degrazia & Marion Danis - 2016 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 25 (1):93-107.
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  17.  85
    Ethical Reflections on Genetic Enhancement with the Aim of Enlarging Altruism.David DeGrazia - 2016 - Health Care Analysis 24 (3):180-195.
    When it comes to caring about and helping those in need, our imaginations tend to be weak and our motivation tends to be parochial. This is a major moral problem in view of how much unmet need there is in the world and how much material capacity there is to address that need. With this problem in mind, the present paper will focus on genetic means to the enhancement of a moral capacity—a disposition to altruism—and of a cognitive capacity that (...)
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  18.  78
    Advance Directives, Dementia, and 'The Someone Else Problem'.David Degrazia - 1999 - Bioethics 13 (5):373-391.
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  19.  51
    Necessary Conditions for Morally Responsible Animal Research.David Degrazia & Jeff Sebo - 2015 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 24 (4):420-430.
    In this paper, we present three necessary conditions for morally responsible animal research that we believe people on both sides of this debate can accept. Specifically, we argue that, even if human beings have higher moral status than nonhuman animals, animal research is morally permissible only if it satisfies (a) an expectation of sufficient net benefit, (b) a worthwhile-life condition, and (c) a no unnecessary-harm/qualified-basic-needs condition. We then claim that, whether or not these necessary conditions are jointly sufficient conditions of (...)
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  20. Handguns, Moral Rights, and Physical Security.David DeGrazia - 2014 - Journal of Moral Philosophy 11 (1):56-76.
    Guns occupy a major—sometimes terrible—place in contemporary American life. Do Americans have not only a legal right, but also a moral right, to own handguns? After introducing the topic, this paper examines what a moral right to private handgun ownership would amount to. It then elucidates the logical structure of the strongest argument in favor of such a right, an argument that appeals to physical security, before assessing its cogency and identifying two questionable assumptions. In light of persisting reasonable disagreement (...)
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  21.  41
    Identity, Killing, and the Boundaries of Our Existence.David Degrazia - 2003 - Philosophy and Public Affairs 31 (4):413-442.
  22. The Ethics of Animal Research: What Are the Prospects for Agreement?David Degrazia - 1999 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 8 (1):23-34.
    Few human uses of nonhuman animals have incited as much controversy as the use of animals in biomedical research. The political exchanges over this issue tend to produce much more heat than light, as representatives of both biomedicine and the animal protection community accuse opponents of being and the like. However, a healthy number of individuals within these two communities offer the possibility of a more illuminating discussion of the ethics of animal research.
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  23.  75
    Single Payer Meets Managed Competition: The Case for Public Funding and Private Delivery.David DeGrazia - 2008 - Hastings Center Report 38 (1):23-33.
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  24.  42
    Sentient Nonpersons and the Disvalue of Death.David DeGrazia - 2016 - Bioethics 30 (7):511-519.
    Implicit in our everyday attitudes and practices is the assumption that death ordinarily harms a person who dies. A far more contested matter is whether death harms sentient individuals who are not persons, a category that includes many animals and some human beings. On the basis of the deprivation account of the harm of death, I argue that death harms sentient nonpersons. I next consider possible bases for the commonsense judgment that death ordinarily harms persons more than it harms sentient (...)
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  25.  60
    Are We Essentially Persons? Olson, Baker, and a Reply.D. Degrazia - 2002 - Philosophical Forum 33 (1):81-99.
  26. Animal Ethics Around the Turn of the Twenty-First Century.D. DeGrazia - 1998 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 11 (2):111-129.
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  27.  18
    On the Moral Status of Infants and the Cognitively Disabled: A Reply to Jaworska and Tannenbaum.David DeGrazia - 2014 - Ethics 124 (3):543-556.
    Agnieszka Jaworska and Julie Tannenbaum address a central problem confronting efforts to understand moral status: the Problem of Nonparadigm Humans. The authors contend that human infants and cognitively disabled human beings whose capacities are comparable to those of dogs nevertheless have higher moral status. In this discussion, I will first reconstruct the authors’ assumptions and argumentative goals. In the article’s two major sections, I will examine the authors’ reasoning in pursuit of those goals and contend that the chain of argumentation (...)
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  28.  19
    Persons, Dolphins, and Human–Nonhuman Chimeras.David DeGrazia - 2014 - American Journal of Bioethics 14 (2):17-18.
  29.  10
    Moral Status, Human Identity, and Early Embryos: A Critique of the President's Approach.David DeGrazia - 2006 - Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 34 (1):49-57.
    Underlying President Bush's view regarding stemcell research and cloning are two assumptions: we originate at conception, and we have full moral status as soon as we originate. I will challenge both assumptions, argue that at least the second is mistaken, and conclude that the President's approach is unsustainable.
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  30.  71
    Great Apes, Dolphins, and the Concept of Personhood.David DeGrazia - 1997 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 35 (3):301-320.
  31.  32
    Value Theory and the Best Interests Standard.David Degrazia - 1995 - Bioethics 9 (1):50–61.
    The idea of a patient's best interests raises issues in prudential value theory–the study of what makes up an individual's ultimate good or well‐being. While this connection may strike a philosopher as obvious, the literature on the best interests standard reveals almost no engagement of recent work in value theory. There seems to be a growing sentiment among bioethicists that their work is independent of philosophical theorizing. Is this sentiment wrong in the present case? Does value theory make a significant (...)
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  32.  11
    The Definition of Death.David DeGrazia - forthcoming - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  33.  10
    Do Guns Make Us Free?: Democracy and the Armed Society by Firmin DeBrabander.David DeGrazia - 2016 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 26 (3):15-19.
    Many critics of American gun culture and policy argue that the public health benefits of stricter regulations compensate for the associated loss of freedom: a bit less freedom is an acceptable cost for the expected gains in public safety. By contrast, gun advocates sometimes claim that freedom to own guns underlies all other important freedoms and therefore deserves priority over considerations of public health. In this volume, philosopher Firmin DeBrabander takes a distinct critical approach, denying any significant loss of freedom (...)
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  34.  74
    The Harm of Death, Time-Relative Interests, and Abortion.David Degrazia - 2007 - Philosophical Forum 38 (1):57–80.
    Regarding the sinking lifeboat scenario involving several human beings and a dog, nearly everyone agrees that it is right to sacrifice the dog. I suggest that the best explanation for this considered judgment, an explanation that appears to time-relative interests, contains a key insight about prudential value. This insight, I argue, also provides perhaps the most promising reply to the future-like-ours argument, which is widely regarded as the strongest moral argument against abortion. Providing a solution to a longstanding puzzle in (...)
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  35.  11
    Meets: Managed Competition.David DeGrazia - 2008 - Hastings Center Report 38 (1):23-33.
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  36.  3
    On Singer: More Argument, Less Prescriptivism.David DeGrazia - 1990 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 13 (1):18.
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  37. Gewirth: Critical Essays on Action, Rationality, and Community.Anita Allen, Lawrence C. Becker, Deryck Beyleveld, David Cummiskey, David DeGrazia, David M. Gallagher, Alan Gewirth, Virginia Held, Barbara Koziak, Donald Regan, Jeffrey Reiman, Henry Richardson, Beth J. Singer, Michael Slote, Edward Spence & James P. Sterba - 1998 - Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    As one of the most important ethicists to emerge since the Second World War, Alan Gewirth continues to influence philosophical debates concerning morality. In this ground-breaking book, Gewirth's neo-Kantianism, and the communitarian problems discussed, form a dialogue on the foundation of moral theory. Themes of agent-centered constraints, the formal structure of theories, and the relationship between freedom and duty are examined along with such new perspectives as feminism, the Stoics, and Sartre. Gewirth offers a picture of the philosopher's theory and (...)
     
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  38. Genetic Enhancement, Post-Persons and Moral Status: A Reply to Buchanan.D. DeGrazia - 2012 - Journal of Medical Ethics 38 (3):135-139.
    Responding to several leading ideas from a paper by Allen Buchanan, the present essay explores the implications of genetic enhancement for moral status. Contrary to doubts expressed by Buchanan, I argue that genetic enhancement could lead to the existence of beings so superior to contemporary human beings that we might aptly describe them as post-persons. If such post-persons emerged, how should we understand their moral status in relation to ours? The answer depends in part on which of two general models (...)
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  39.  40
    Must We Have Full Moral Status Throughout Our Existence? A Reply to Alfonso Gomez-Lobo.David DeGrazia - 2007 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 17 (4):297-310.
    : Those who are morally opposed to abortion generally make several pivotal assumptions. This paper focuses on the assumption that we have full moral status throughout our existence. Coupled with the assumption that we come into existence at conception, the assumption about moral status entails that all human fetuses have full moral status, including a right to life. Is the assumption about moral status correct? In addressing this question, I respond to several arguments advanced, in this journal and other venues, (...)
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  40.  97
    Pain, Suffering, and Anxiety in Animals and Humans.David DeGrazia & Andrew Rowan - 1991 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 12 (3).
    We attempt to bring the concepts of pain, suffering, and anxiety into sufficient focus to make them serviceable for empirical investigation. The common-sense view that many animals experience these phenomena is supported by empirical and philosophical arguments. We conclude, first, that pain, suffering, and anxiety are different conceptually and as phenomena, and should not be conflated. Second, suffering can be the result — or perhaps take the form — of a variety of states including pain, anxiety, fear, and boredom. Third, (...)
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  41. Biomedical Ethics.David DeGrazia & Jeffrey Brand-Ballard (eds.) - 2010 - Mcgraw-Hill Higher Education.
     
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  42.  26
    Modal Personhood and Moral Status: A Reply to Kagan's Proposal.David DeGrazia - 2016 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 33 (1):22-25.
    Kagan argues that human beings who are neither persons nor even potential persons — if their impairment is independent of genetic constitution — are modal persons: individuals who might have been persons. Moreover, he proposes a view according to which both personhood and modal personhood are sufficient for counting more, morally, than nonhuman animals. In response to this proposal, I raise one relatively minor concern about Kagan's reasoning — that he judges too quickly that insentient beings can have interests — (...)
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  43. Earthcare: An Anthology in Environmental Ethics.Spencer Abraham, Ray Anderson, Nik Ansell, St Thomas Aquinas, St Francis of Assisi, William Baxter, Philip J. Bentley, Joachim Blatter, Murray Bookchin, Maya Brennan, Majora Carter, Carl Cohen, Deane Curtin, Herman Daly, David DeGrazia, Bill Devall, Calvin DeWitt, David Ehrenfeld, Paul, Anne Ehrlich, Robert Elliot, Stuart Ewen, Nuria Fernandez, Stephen Gardiner, Ramachandra Guha, Garrett Hardin, Eugene Hargrove, John Hasse, Po-Keung Ip, Ralf Isenmann, Kauser Jahan, Marianne B. Karsh, Andrew Kernohan, Marti Kheel, Kenneth Kraft, Aldo Leopold, Miriam MacGillis, Juan Martinez-Alier, Ed McGaa, Katie McShane, Roberto Mechoso, Arne Naess, Seyyed Hossein Nasr, Michael Nelson, Bryan Norton, Philip Nyhus, John O'Neil, Stephen Pacala, Ernest Partridge, Erv Peterson, Tom Regan, Holmes Rolston Iii, Lily-Marlene Russow, Mark Sagoff, Kristin Schrader-Frechette, Erroll Schweizer, George Sessions, Vandana Shiva, Peter Singer, Stephen Socolow, Paul Steidlmeier, Richard Sylvan, Bron Taylor & Paul Taylor - 2009 - Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    Earthcare: Readings and Cases in Environmental Ethics presents a diverse collection of writings from a variety of authors on environmental ethics, environmental science, and the environmental movement overall. Exploring a broad range of world views, religions and philosophies, David W. Clowney and Patricia Mosto bring together insightful thoughts on the ethical issues arising in various areas of environmental concern.
     
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  44.  2
    Moral Status, Human Identity, and Early Embryos: A Critique of the President's Approach.David DeGrazia - 2006 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 34 (1):49-57.
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  45.  40
    A Reply to Critics ofCreation Ethics.David DeGrazia - 2015 - Journal of Medical Ethics 41 (5):423-424.
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  46.  3
    Defining the Boundaries of a Right to Adequate Protection: A New Lens on Pediatric Research Ethics.David DeGrazia, Michelle Groman & Lisa M. Lee - 2017 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy: A Forum for Bioethics and Philosophy of Medicine 42 (2):132-153.
    We argue that the current ethical and regulatory framework for permissible risk levels in pediatric research can be helpfully understood in terms of children’s moral right to adequate protection from harm. Our analysis provides a rationale for what we propose as the highest level of permissible risk in pediatric research without the prospect of direct benefit: what we call “relatively minor” risk. We clarify the justification behind the usual standards of “minimal risk” and “a minor increase over minimal risk” and (...)
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  47. Biomedical Ethics.Thomas A. Mappes & David Degrazia - 1996
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  48.  35
    Persons, Organisms, and Death: A Philosophical Critique of the Higher-Brain Approach.David DeGrazia - 1999 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 37 (3):419-440.
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  49. Taking Animals Seriously: Mental Life and Moral Status.David Degrazia - 1999 - Mind 108 (432):764-769.
     
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  50.  64
    Carl Cohen and Tom Regan, The Animal Rights Debate:The Animal Rights Debate.David DeGrazia - 2003 - Ethics 113 (3):692-695.
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