Each chapter of this beginning textbook is followed by an extensive list of questions, but bibliography and guides for supplementary source readings are absent. Positions other than St. Thomas's--such as those of Suarez, Scotus, and Kant--are briefly considered on specific issues. --R. D. G.
The purpose of Lawrence’s study is "to examine certain problems concerning ‘intention', ‘motive', and related concepts." He begins by stating that "one’s pre-theoretical conception of human motives, plans, purposes, and the like is not that of present states of the individual." Using historical sources and philosophical positions which run counter to his thoughts on human action, Lawrence clearly illustrates that concepts of human action do not have to fit into ill-conceived theories, rather he looks at them phenomenologically, i.e., in the (...) way these concepts reveal themselves in various modes of communication. Much of his discussion centers on the concept of intention which he believes is a kind of action that is not to be thought as a desirous foreknowledge. This book is polemical in parts, but it makes for interesting reading for analysts and phenomenologists.—G. D. (shrink)
This volume--one of several in a series on contemporary philosophy in Italy and in the U. S.--presents the principal philosophic and cultural currents in Italy through the works of representative writers. The coverage of philosophy is quite complete. Besides the expected articles on Croce, Gentile, existentialism, neo-scholasticism, and the philosophy of history, there are, among others, articles on analytic philosophy, marxism, and the philosophy of science. The appendix supplies information on Italian philosophic centers, organizations, and journals, as well as brief (...) biographies of the contributors.--R. D. G. (shrink)
This fourth edition has been enlarged by over 400 pages through the addition of 762 new articles and some revision of a number of others. Bibliographies have been updated, and a chronological table added. The best of its kind in Spanish.--R. D. G.
This well organized and interesting anthology concerns the image of the self-directed individual as replaced by a deterministic model of his behavior. Since legal, personal-social, and religious institutions still see man as self-controlled and therefore responsible, Mr. Klausner views this replacement as particularly troublesome. The first third of the book is predominantly historical and draws from an extremely tolerant range of sources including yoga, philosophy, psychology, hypnosis and self-help publications. The remainder of the volume is psychological and sociological, with emphasis (...) on the individual acting under stress, and with the traditional philosophical problems completely ignored. While the thematic problem is not obviously tackled there is fruitful examination of significant concepts with detailed and well-researched relationships of these concepts with a manifold of phenomena. There are several extensive bibliographies accompanying the readings. Not including introductory contributions the book includes: "Self-Control in the Perspective of History": Klausner, B. Nelson, Moses Hadas; "Self-Control in a Sociological Perspective": S. M. Dornbusch, M. K. Opler, Guy E. Swanson; "Self-Control in Psychological Perspective": I. L. Janis, S. J. Korchin, H. Liddel; "Self-Control in Psychiatric Perspective": M. T. Orne, O. McK, Rioch, K. Goldstein; and "Scientific Hermeneutics": Klausner.—D. A. G. (shrink)
This very short and less than solemn volume deals with approximately fifty aspects of eleven broad philosophical problems. The questions chosen are believed by the author to be capable of further resolution and among these we find: "What is Philosophy?," "What do we know?," and also, "What is God like?," "How does God Operate?," "Who is my neighbor?," and "What is life?" Little attention is paid to the questions themselves, that is to their understanding or clarification, but Mr. Keleher directly (...) proceeds to answer them, a move which at times, as in his discussion of natural law, leaves much wanting. On the whole, the issues are handled in a glib and oversimplified fashion which is perhaps all that can be expected of an edition which devotes two pages to the question "What is logic?," one and a half pages to the refutation of the theory of evolution, one to the categorical imperative and one-half to "The market... of Western Civilization." Where there is insightful comment—as in some of the epistemological discussions—it is all too brief in a way that is neither introductory nor satisfying.—D. A. G. (shrink)
Originally published in different form this is a commentary on "modern man" that is not, and does not pretend to be, a sociological or psychological study. It does claim to be philosophical, but if it is, it is surely not in the Anglo-American analytic tradition. It is concerned with such thinkers as Marcel, Proust, Nietzsche, Sartre, Buber, Dostoyevsky, Kierkegaard, Kafka, Marx and Heidegger, although there is often gross over-simplification of their views and a frequent tendency to confuse the lives of (...) the philosophers with the content of their works. Through the framework of the tale of the Sleeping Beauty and by way of commentary Mr. Harper examines such notions as poetic justice, hope, longing, mystery, promise, waiting, nostalgia and "presence": "something that moves one." The text is ridden with highly dubious and at times unintelligible assertions. But only a minimum of sensitivity is needed to understand that dramatic emphasis is being placed upon certain aspects of the experience of those who may be seriously concerned with the lack of God in the world, those who are shaken, disturbed, and homesick, who turn toward the past to complete a hungry and hollow present. Mr. Harper believes there are few who do not.—D. A. G. (shrink)
The principal aim of this book is to show the relevance of Jung's psychology for the study of history, culture, and the social sciences generally. While the exposition of Jung's thought in Part I is not as thorough as some other presentations, it is accurate as far as it goes. In Part II, the author successfully makes out his case for the social implications of this immense body of thought and indicates some of the paths that might be followed by (...) further research. The Epilogue is a particularly good statement of the conclusions and of Jung's bearings in relation to his predecessors and contemporaries. --D. R. (shrink)
I understand Pluralism to be the doctrine that, either generally or with reference to some particular area of judgement, there is more than one basic principle. It endorses the possibility that some particular case may arise which will be adjudicated in one way if one principle is applied while another principle points otherwise and to an answer which, at least in practice, is incompatible. Thus in morality, according to pluralism there may be more than one correct answer to the question (...) of which of the decisions available in some particular situation is the best. (shrink)
Christopher Miles Coope offers a letter, drafted by Helen Taylor but certified by Mill, in which Mill asserts the duty to vote, as evidence that he could not have regarded harmfulness to others as a necessary condition of moral wrongness. But it is clear that Mill regarded the duty to vote as one of imperfect obligation, and the wrongness of not fulfilling it as a matter roughly of not doing enough, in this case not doing one's fair share. He has (...) room for the common-sense harmlessness of staying at home. At the same time he grounds political duties in the harmfulness of neglecting the power of legislation and in the possibility, consistently maintained, that one can harm by inaction. Mill's view, central to his relation between morality and liberty, remains at work here, while also suggesting reflections on the peculiarity of his conception of harm. (shrink)
In his contribution to socialist thought G.D.H. Cole adopted and revised Rousseau’s concept of the general will. During his early guild socialist phase Cole drew on the general will in his scheme for a functional, associational democracy. In the late 1920s Cole began to question whether the socially oriented element of individual will might be expressed in the existing social and economic circumstances. In the 1930s he combined social democratic and Marxist tenets. Nevertheless, his interest in Rousseau persisted. Will was, (...) for him, crucial to socialism. He made a significant, if neglected, contribution to the socialist tradition of Rousseau scholarship. (shrink)
L. Albertazzi, G. J. van Tonder, and D. Vishwanath (eds): Perception Beyond Inference: The Information Content of Visual Processes Content Type Journal Article Pages 53-55 DOI 10.1007/s11023-011-9253-z Authors Lorenzo Magnani, Department of Philosophy and Computational Philosophy Laboratory, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy Journal Minds and Machines Online ISSN 1572-8641 Print ISSN 0924-6495 Journal Volume Volume 22 Journal Issue Volume 22, Number 1.
Pour étendre la notion d'entropie, l'auteur tente de dégager la signification de la “probabilité relative” w de Boltzmann dans sa formule S = k.log.w. Celui-ci introduit implicitement une partition d'un ensemble E de molécules en classes d'équivalence, les divers états macroscopiques du gaz; w est le rapport de la probabilité de l'état dont on cherche à définir l'entropie à celle de l'état le plus improbable.L'auteur propose de généraliser le concept toutes les fois ob sur un ensemble probabilisable E il sera (...) possible de faire une partition.La “complexité d'une structure” peut être définie par le nombre d'aspects différents que peut prendre le graphe sous-jacent à celle-ci. Alors toute stricture a une probabilité d'occurrence, et l'on peut y définir une G-entropie.Appliquant ensuite ce concept à la théorie de l'information de Shannon, l'auteur montre que la quantité d'information apportée par un message est différente de la G-entropie, mais que les deux grandeurs y prennent fortuitement la même valeur. Le concept permet également d'introduire une information liée au message, une autre au “code”, et une information totale.Le concept d'émergence permet ensuite de comprendre la raison pour laquelle celle-ci s'accompagne d'une augmentation de G-neguentropie.L'entropie est considérée depuis Boltzmann comme une borne mesure du désordre d'un gaz, d'où son intérêt en morphogénèse, en théorie des systèmes, et de l'information. Cependant son application directe pose des problèmes, et il parait préférable de tenter auparavant de généraliser le concept en le randant plus abstrait. La première difficulté à laquelle on se heurte alors est l'interprétation du nombre w de la formule de Boltzmann. (shrink)
Die Sculpturen des Vaticanischen Museums, im Auftrage und unter Mitwirkung des kaiserlick deutschen archaeologischen Instituts beschrieben von Walter Amerlung. Berlin: In Kommission bei Georg Reimer. Vol. I., 1903; Vol. II., 1908. Text, 8vo, pp. x + 935, 768. Plates, 4to, 121 + 83. M. 50 per vol.Guida illustrata del Museo Nazionale di Napoli; approvata dal Ministero della Pubblica Istruzione. Compilata da D. Bassi, E. Gábrici, L. Mariani, O. Maruchhi, G. Patroni, G. de Petra, A. Sogliano; per cura di A. Ruesch. (...) Naples: Richter & Co.; Munich: Buchholz, 1908. 8vo. Pp. 500. 129 illustrations in the text. Lire 25. (shrink)