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Donald Gillies [105]D. A. Gillies [17]Donald A. Gillies [10]D. Gillies [9]
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Donald Gillies
University College London
  1. Mechanisms and the Evidence Hierarchy.Brendan Clarke, Donald Gillies, Phyllis Illari, Federica Russo & Jon Williamson - 2014 - Topoi 33 (2):339-360.
    Evidence-based medicine (EBM) makes use of explicit procedures for grading evidence for causal claims. Normally, these procedures categorise evidence of correlation produced by statistical trials as better evidence for a causal claim than evidence of mechanisms produced by other methods. We argue, in contrast, that evidence of mechanisms needs to be viewed as complementary to, rather than inferior to, evidence of correlation. In this paper we first set out the case for treating evidence of mechanisms alongside evidence of correlation in (...)
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  2. Philosophical Theories of Probability.Donald Gillies - 2000 - Routledge.
    The Twentieth Century has seen a dramatic rise in the use of probability and statistics in almost all fields of research. This has stimulated many new philosophical ideas on probability. _Philosophical Theories of Probability_ is the first book to present a clear, comprehensive and systematic account of these various theories and to explain how they relate to one another. Gillies also offers a distinctive version of the propensity theory of probability, and the intersubjective interpretation, which develops the subjective theory.
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  3. Philosophical Theories of Probability.Donald Gillies - 2003 - Philosophical Quarterly 53 (210):132-134.
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  4.  42
    The Evidence That Evidence-Based Medicine Omits.Brendan Clarke, Donald Gillies, Phyllis Illari, Federica Russo & Jon Williamson - 2013 - Preventive Medicine 57:745-747.
    According to current hierarchies of evidence for EBM, evidence of correlation is always more important than evidence of mechanisms when evaluating and establishing causal claims. We argue that evidence of mechanisms needs to be treated alongside evidence of correlation. This is for three reasons. First, correlation is always a fallible indicator of causation, subject in particular to the problem of confounding; evidence of mechanisms can in some cases be more important than evidence of correlation when assessing a causal claim. Second, (...)
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  5. The Russo-Williamson Thesis and the Question of Whether Smoking Causes Heart Disease.Donald Gillies - 2011 - In Phyllis McKay Illari, Federica Russo & Jon Williamson (eds.), Causality in the Sciences. Oxford University Press. pp. 110--125.
     
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  6.  21
    An Objective Theory of Probability (Routledge Revivals).Donald Gillies - 2010 - Routledge.
    This reissue of D. A. Gillies highly influential work, first published in 1973, is a philosophical theory of probability which seeks to develop von Mises’ views on the subject. In agreement with von Mises, the author regards probability theory as a mathematical science like mechanics or electrodynamics, and probability as an objective, measurable concept like force, mass or charge. On the other hand, Dr Gillies rejects von Mises’ definition of probability in terms of limiting frequency and claims that probability should (...)
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  7. Varieties of Propensity.Donald Gillies - 2000 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 51 (4):807-835.
    The propensity interpretation of probability was introduced by Popper ([1957]), but has subsequently been developed in different ways by quite a number of philosophers of science. This paper does not attempt a complete survey, but discusses a number of different versions of the theory, thereby giving some idea of the varieties of propensity. Propensity theories are classified into (i) long-run and (ii) single-case. The paper argues for a long-run version of the propensity theory, but this is contrasted with two single-case (...)
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  8.  75
    Hempelian and Kuhnian Approaches in the Philosophy of Medicine: The Semmelweis Case.Donald Gillies - 2005 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 36 (1):159-181.
    Semmelweis’s investigations of puerperal fever are some of the most interesting in the history of medicine. This paper considers Hempel’s analysis of the Semmelweis case. It argues that this analysis is inadequate and needs to be supplemented by some Kuhnian ideas. Kuhn’s notion of paradigm needs to be modified to apply to medicine in order to take account of the classification schemes involved in medical theorising. However with a suitable modification it provides an explanation of Semmelweis’s failure which is argued (...)
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  9. Philosophy of Science in the Twentieth Century: Four Central Themes.Donald Gillies - 1993 - Blackwell.
  10. The Fregean Revolution in Logic.Donald Gillies - 1992 - In Revolutions in Mathematics. Oxford University Press. pp. 265--305.
     
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  11. Should Causal Models Always Be Markovian? The Case of Multi-Causal Forks in Medicine.Donald Gillies & Aidan Sudbury - 2013 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 3 (3):275-308.
    The development of causal modelling since the 1950s has been accompanied by a number of controversies, the most striking of which concerns the Markov condition. Reichenbach's conjunctive forks did satisfy the Markov condition, while Salmon's interactive forks did not. Subsequently some experts in the field have argued that adequate causal models should always satisfy the Markov condition, while others have claimed that non-Markovian causal models are needed in some cases. This paper argues for the second position by considering the multi-causal (...)
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  12. The Duhem Thesis and the Quine Thesis.Donald Gillies - 1998 - In Martin Curd & Jan Cover (eds.), Philosophy of Science: The Central Issues. Norton. pp. 302--319.
     
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  13.  46
    An Action-Related Theory of Causality.Donald Gillies - 2005 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 56 (4):823-842.
    The paper begins with a discussion of Russell's view that the notion of cause is unnecessary for science and can therefore be eliminated. It is argued that this is true for theoretical physics but untrue for medicine, where the notion of cause plays a central role. Medical theories are closely connected with practical action (attempts to cure and prevent disease), whereas theoretical physics is more remote from applications. This suggests the view that causal laws are appropriate in a context where (...)
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  14. Popper and Computer Induction.Donald A. Gillies - 2001 - Bioessays 23 (9):859-860.
  15.  3
    Hempelian and Kuhnian Approaches in the Philosophy of Medicine: The Semmelweis Case.Donald Gillies - 2005 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 36 (1):159-181.
    Semmelweis’s investigations of puerperal fever are some of the most interesting in the history of medicine. This paper considers Hempel’s analysis of the Semmelweis case. It argues that this analysis is inadequate and needs to be supplemented by some Kuhnian ideas. Kuhn’s notion of paradigm needs to be modified to apply to medicine in order to take account of the classification schemes involved in medical theorising. However with a suitable modification it provides an explanation of Semmelweis’s failure which is argued (...)
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  16.  41
    In Defense of the Popper-Miller Argument.Donald Gillies - 1986 - Philosophy of Science 53 (1):110-113.
    In their 1983 article, Popper and Miller present an argument against inductive probability. This argument is criticized by Redhead in his 1985 article. The aim of the present note is to state one form of the Popper-Miller argument, and defend it against Redhead's criticisms.
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  17. Should Philosophers of Mathematics Make Use of Sociology?Donald Gillies - 2014 - Philosophia Mathematica 22 (1):12-34.
    This paper considers whether philosophy of mathematics could benefit by the introduction of some sociology. It begins by considering Lakatos's arguments that philosophy of science should be kept free of any sociology. An attempt is made to criticize these arguments, and then a positive argument is given for introducing a sociological dimension into the philosophy of mathematics. This argument is illustrated by considering Brouwer's account of numbers as mental constructions. The paper concludes with a critical discussion of Azzouni's view that (...)
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  18.  35
    Intersubjective Probability and Confirmation Theory.Donald Gillies - 1991 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 42 (4):513-533.
    This paper introduces what is called the intersubjective interpretation of the probability calculus. Intersubjective probabilities are related to subjective probabilities, and the paper begins with a particular formulation of the familiar Dutch Book argument. This argument is then extended, in Section 3, to social groups, and this enables the concept of intersubjective probability to be introduced in Section 4. It is then argued that the intersubjective interpretation is the appropriate one for the probabilities which appear in confirmation theory whether of (...)
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  19. A Bayesian Analysis of Hume's Argument Concerning Miracles.Philip Dawid & Donald Gillies - 1989 - Philosophical Quarterly 39 (154):57-65.
  20.  80
    Revolutions in Mathematics.Donald Gillies (ed.) - 1992 - Oxford University Press.
    Social revolutions--that is critical periods of decisive, qualitative change--are a commonly acknowledged historical fact. But can the idea of revolutionary upheaval be extended to the world of ideas and theoretical debate? The publication of Kuhn's The Structure of Scientific Revolutions in 1962 led to an exciting discussion of revolutions in the natural sciences. A fascinating, but little known, off-shoot of this was a debate which began in the United States in the mid-1970's as to whether the concept of revolution could (...)
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  21.  32
    Informational Realism and World 3.Donald Gillies - 2010 - Knowledge, Technology & Policy 23 (1-2):7-24.
    This paper takes up a suggestion made by Floridi that the digital revolution is bringing about a profound change in our metaphysics. The paper aims to bring some older views from philosophy of mathematics to bear on this problem. The older views are concerned principally with mathematical realism—that is the claim that mathematical entities such as numbers exist. The new context for the discussion is informational realism, where the problem shifts to the question of the reality of information. Mathematical realism (...)
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  22.  7
    Mechanisms in Medicine.Donald Gillies - 2017 - Axiomathes 27 (6):621-634.
    This paper begins by developing a causal theory of mechanisms in medicine, and illustrates the theory with the example of the mechanism of the disease anthrax as elucidated by Koch. The causal approach to mechanisms is then compared to the Machamer, Darden, Craver approach. At first sight the two approaches appear to be very different, but it is argued that the divergence is less than it initially seems. There are some differences, however, and it is argued that, where these differences (...)
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  23.  12
    Should We Distrust Medical Interventions?Donald Gillies - 2019 - Metascience 28 (2):273-276.
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  24. Mathematical Reasoning and Heuristics.Carlo Cellucci & Donald Gillies (eds.) - 2005 - College Publications.
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  25.  99
    Dynamic Interactions with the Philosophy of Mathematics.Donald Gillies & Yuxin Zheng - 2001 - Theoria: Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia 16 (3):437-459.
    Dynamic interaction is said to occur when two significanrly different fields A and B come into relation, and their interaction is dynamic in the sense that at first the flow of ideas is principally from A to B, but later ideas from B come to influence A. Two examples are given of dynamic interactions with the philosophy of mathematics. The first is with philosophy of scicnce, and thc sccond with computer science. Theanalysis cnables Lakatos to be charactcrised as thc first (...)
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  26. A Falsifying Rule for Probability Statements.Donald A. Gillies - 1971 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 22 (3):231-261.
  27.  1
    An Objective Theory of Probability.Mark Pastin & D. A. Gillies - 1975 - Philosophical Review 84 (2):270.
  28. Artificial Intelligence and Scientific Method.Donald Gillies - 1996 - Oxford University Press.
    Artificial Intelligence and Scientific Method examines the remarkable advances made in the field of AI over the past twenty years, discussing their profound implications for philosophy. Taking a clear, non-technical approach, Donald Gillies shows how current views on scientific method are challenged by this recent research, and suggests a new framework for the study of logic. Finally, he draws on work by such seminal thinkers as Bacon, Gdel, Popper, Penrose, and Lucas, to address the hotly-contested question of whether computers might (...)
     
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  29.  32
    Bayesianism and the Fixity of the Theoretical Framework.Donald Gillies - 2001 - In David Corfield & Jon Williamson (eds.), Foundations of Bayesianism. Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 363--379.
  30. Artificial Intelligence and Scientific Method.Donald Gillies, Robert Cummins & John Pollock - 1997 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 48 (4):610-612.
     
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  31.  14
    Economics and Research Assessment Systems.Donald Gillies - 2012 - Economic Thought 1 (1):23-47.
    This paper seeks to analyse the effects on Economics of Research Assessment Systems, such as the Research Assessment Exercise which was carried out in the UK between 1986 and 2008. The paper begins by pointing out that, in the 2008 RAE, economics turned out to be the research area which was accorded the highest valuation of any subject in the UK, even though economists were then under attack for failing to predict the global financial crash which had occurred a few (...)
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  32.  22
    Frege, Dedekind, and Peano on the Foundations of Arithmetic.J. P. Mayberry & D. A. Gillies - 1984 - Philosophical Quarterly 34 (136):424.
    First published in 1982, this reissue contains a critical exposition of the views of Frege, Dedekind and Peano on the foundations of arithmetic. The last quarter of the 19th century witnessed a remarkable growth of interest in the foundations of arithmetic. This work analyses both the reasons for this growth of interest within both mathematics and philosophy and the ways in which this study of the foundations of arithmetic led to new insights in philosophy and striking advances in logic. This (...)
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  33. Reply to de Maré.D. A. Gillies - 1972 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 23 (4):335-336.
  34.  68
    La natura e il futuro della filosofia.Donald Gillies - 2003 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 54 (3):501-507.
  35.  66
    Hasok Chang Inventing Temperature: Measurement and Scientific Progress: Review.Donald Gillies - 2009 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 60 (1):221-228.
  36.  5
    An Empiricist Philosophy of Mathematics and its Implications for the History of Mathematics.Donald Gillies - 2000 - In Emily Grosholz & Herbert Breger (eds.), The Growth of Mathematical Knowledge. Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 41--57.
  37.  14
    Philosophy of Science in the Twentieth Century: Four Central Themes.Reading the Book of Nature: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Science.Common Sense, Science and Scepticism: A Historical Introduction to the Theory of Knowledge.Donald Gillies, Peter Kosso & Alan Musgrave - 1995 - Philosophical Quarterly 45 (180):379-384.
  38.  13
    Indeterministic Causality and Simpson's Paradox.Donald Gillies - unknown
    This paper argues for a claim made by Maria Carla Galavotti that the use of indeterministic causality involves one in Simpson's paradox. It is shown specifically that a consideration of Hesslow's well-known counter-example leads to Simpson's paradox.
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  39. Laws and Models in Science.Donald Gillies - 2006 - Erkenntnis 65 (3):427-432.
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  40.  81
    Operationalism.D. A. Gillies - 1972 - Synthese 25 (1-2):1 - 24.
  41.  85
    A Bayesian Proof of a Humean Principle.Donald Gillies - 1991 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 42 (2):255-256.
    Hume bases his argument against miracles on an informal principle. This paper gives a formal explication of this principle of Hume’s, and then shows that this explication can be rigorously proved in a Bayesian framework.
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  42.  88
    Debates on Bayesianism and the Theory of Bayesian Networks.Donald Gillies - 1998 - Theoria 64 (1):1-22.
  43. Artificial Intelligence and Scientific Method.Donald Gillies - 1998 - Mind 107 (428):882-886.
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  44.  15
    Untimely Meditations on the Disciplines of Education.Anne Pirrie & Donald Gillies - 2012 - British Journal of Educational Studies 60 (4):387-402.
    The aim of this article is to explore what the concept of interdisciplinarity can bring to our developing understanding of education as a field of enquiry. We shall draw upon some recent writing on the disciplines of education in order to explore the potentially negative consequences of the way in which the disciplines are institutionalised and territorialised. We also assign some prominence to a personal account of an eminent anthropologist's perambulations through a disciplinary landscape in order to put forward an (...)
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  45. Philosophy of Science in the Twentieth Century: Four Central Themes.Donald Gillies - 1994 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 45 (4):1066-1069.
     
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  46.  12
    Frege, Dedekind, and Peano on the Foundations of Arithmetic.Donald Gillies - 1982 - Wiley-Blackwell.
    First published in 1982, this reissue contains a critical exposition of the views of Frege, Dedekind and Peano on the foundations of arithmetic. The last quarter of the 19th century witnessed a remarkable growth of interest in the foundations of arithmetic. This work analyses both the reasons for this growth of interest within both mathematics and philosophy and the ways in which this study of the foundations of arithmetic led to new insights in philosophy and striking advances in logic. This (...)
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  47.  9
    Brouwer's Philosophy of Mathematics: Review of L. E. J. Brouwer (A. Heyting and H. Freudenthal Eds.), Collected Works[REVIEW]D. A. Gillies - 1980 - Erkenntnis 15 (1):105 - 126.
  48.  21
    Bayesianism Versus Falsificationism. [REVIEW]Donald Gillies - 1990 - Ratio 3 (1):82-98.
  49. An Objective Theory of Probability.D. A. Gillies - 1976 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 27 (3):292-295.
     
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  50.  90
    The Turing—Good Weight of Evidence Function and Popper's Measure of the Severity of a Test.Donald Gillies - 1990 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 41 (1):143-146.
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