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Donald Gillies [110]D. A. Gillies [21]Donald A. Gillies [10]D. Gillies [9]
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  1. Mechanisms and the Evidence Hierarchy.Brendan Clarke, Donald Gillies, Phyllis Illari, Federica Russo & Jon Williamson - 2014 - Topoi 33 (2):339-360.
    Evidence-based medicine (EBM) makes use of explicit procedures for grading evidence for causal claims. Normally, these procedures categorise evidence of correlation produced by statistical trials as better evidence for a causal claim than evidence of mechanisms produced by other methods. We argue, in contrast, that evidence of mechanisms needs to be viewed as complementary to, rather than inferior to, evidence of correlation. In this paper we first set out the case for treating evidence of mechanisms alongside evidence of correlation in (...)
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  2. Philosophical Theories of Probability.Donald Gillies - 2000 - Routledge.
    The Twentieth Century has seen a dramatic rise in the use of probability and statistics in almost all fields of research. This has stimulated many new philosophical ideas on probability. _Philosophical Theories of Probability_ is the first book to present a clear, comprehensive and systematic account of these various theories and to explain how they relate to one another. Gillies also offers a distinctive version of the propensity theory of probability, and the intersubjective interpretation, which develops the subjective theory.
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  3. Philosophical Theories of Probability.Donald Gillies - 2000 - Philosophical Quarterly 53 (210):132-134.
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  4. Varieties of Propensity.Donald Gillies - 2000 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 51 (4):807-835.
    The propensity interpretation of probability was introduced by Popper ([1957]), but has subsequently been developed in different ways by quite a number of philosophers of science. This paper does not attempt a complete survey, but discusses a number of different versions of the theory, thereby giving some idea of the varieties of propensity. Propensity theories are classified into (i) long-run and (ii) single-case. The paper argues for a long-run version of the propensity theory, but this is contrasted with two single-case (...)
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  5.  45
    The Evidence That Evidence-Based Medicine Omits.Brendan Clarke, Donald Gillies, Phyllis Illari, Federica Russo & Jon Williamson - 2013 - Preventive Medicine 57:745-747.
    According to current hierarchies of evidence for EBM, evidence of correlation is always more important than evidence of mechanisms when evaluating and establishing causal claims. We argue that evidence of mechanisms needs to be treated alongside evidence of correlation. This is for three reasons. First, correlation is always a fallible indicator of causation, subject in particular to the problem of confounding; evidence of mechanisms can in some cases be more important than evidence of correlation when assessing a causal claim. Second, (...)
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  6.  25
    An Objective Theory of Probability (Routledge Revivals).Donald Gillies - 2010 - Routledge.
    This reissue of D. A. Gillies highly influential work, first published in 1973, is a philosophical theory of probability which seeks to develop von Mises’ views on the subject. In agreement with von Mises, the author regards probability theory as a mathematical science like mechanics or electrodynamics, and probability as an objective, measurable concept like force, mass or charge. On the other hand, Dr Gillies rejects von Mises’ definition of probability in terms of limiting frequency and claims that probability should (...)
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  7. The Russo-Williamson Thesis and the Question of Whether Smoking Causes Heart Disease.Donald Gillies - 2011 - In Phyllis McKay Illari, Federica Russo & Jon Williamson (eds.), Causality in the Sciences. Oxford University Press. pp. 110--125.
     
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  8.  90
    Hempelian and Kuhnian Approaches in the Philosophy of Medicine: The Semmelweis Case.Donald Gillies - 2005 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 36 (1):159-181.
    Semmelweis’s investigations of puerperal fever are some of the most interesting in the history of medicine. This paper considers Hempel’s analysis of the Semmelweis case. It argues that this analysis is inadequate and needs to be supplemented by some Kuhnian ideas. Kuhn’s notion of paradigm needs to be modified to apply to medicine in order to take account of the classification schemes involved in medical theorising. However with a suitable modification it provides an explanation of Semmelweis’s failure which is argued (...)
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  9. Philosophy of Science in the Twentieth Century: Four Central Themes.Donald Gillies - 1993 - Blackwell.
  10. The Duhem Thesis and the Quine Thesis.Donald Gillies - 1998 - In Martin Curd & Jan Cover (eds.), Philosophy of Science: The Central Issues. Norton. pp. 302--319.
     
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  11. Should Causal Models Always Be Markovian? The Case of Multi-Causal Forks in Medicine.Donald Gillies & Aidan Sudbury - 2013 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 3 (3):275-308.
    The development of causal modelling since the 1950s has been accompanied by a number of controversies, the most striking of which concerns the Markov condition. Reichenbach's conjunctive forks did satisfy the Markov condition, while Salmon's interactive forks did not. Subsequently some experts in the field have argued that adequate causal models should always satisfy the Markov condition, while others have claimed that non-Markovian causal models are needed in some cases. This paper argues for the second position by considering the multi-causal (...)
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  12.  1
    Frege's Conception of Numbers as Objects. [REVIEW]Donald Gillies - 1984 - Mind 93 (372):613-617.
  13.  87
    Revolutions in Mathematics.Donald Gillies (ed.) - 1992 - Oxford University Press.
    Social revolutions--that is critical periods of decisive, qualitative change--are a commonly acknowledged historical fact. But can the idea of revolutionary upheaval be extended to the world of ideas and theoretical debate? The publication of Kuhn's The Structure of Scientific Revolutions in 1962 led to an exciting discussion of revolutions in the natural sciences. A fascinating, but little known, off-shoot of this was a debate which began in the United States in the mid-1970's as to whether the concept of revolution could (...)
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  14. The Fregean Revolution in Logic.Donald Gillies - 1992 - In Revolutions in Mathematics. Oxford University Press. pp. 265--305.
     
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  15.  10
    The Nature of Mathematical Knowledge.Donald Gillies - 1985 - Philosophical Quarterly 35 (138):104-107.
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  16.  5
    Commentary on Kate E. Lynch, Emily C. Parke, and Maureen A. O’Malley: ‘How Causal Are Microbiomes? A Comparison with the Helicobacter Pylori Explanation of Ulcers’. [REVIEW]Donald Gillies - 2019 - Biology and Philosophy 34 (6):56.
    This commentary focuses on the authors’ treatment of Koch’s postulates. It argues in favour of a modification of Koch’s postulates and their analysis in terms of necessary and sufficient conditions. This leads to a criticism of the authors’ treatment of the C. difficile case, and to query the need for the criteria of specificity and proportionality.
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  17.  1
    Commentary on Kate E. Lynch, Emily C. Parke, and Maureen A. O’Malley: ‘How Causal are Microbiomes? A Comparison with the Helicobacter pylori Explanation of Ulcers’. [REVIEW]Donald Gillies - 2019 - Biology and Philosophy 34 (6):1-3.
    This commentary focuses on the authors’ treatment of Koch’s postulates. It argues in favour of a modification of Koch’s postulates and their analysis in terms of necessary and sufficient conditions. This leads to a criticism of the authors’ treatment of the C. difficile case, and to query the need for the criteria of specificity and proportionality.
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  18.  8
    Hempelian and Kuhnian Approaches in the Philosophy of Medicine: The Semmelweis Case.Donald Gillies - 2005 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 36 (1):159-181.
    Semmelweis’s investigations of puerperal fever are some of the most interesting in the history of medicine. This paper considers Hempel’s analysis of the Semmelweis case. It argues that this analysis is inadequate and needs to be supplemented by some Kuhnian ideas. Kuhn’s notion of paradigm needs to be modified to apply to medicine in order to take account of the classification schemes involved in medical theorising. However with a suitable modification it provides an explanation of Semmelweis’s failure which is argued (...)
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  19.  52
    An Action-Related Theory of Causality.Donald Gillies - 2005 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 56 (4):823-842.
    The paper begins with a discussion of Russell's view that the notion of cause is unnecessary for science and can therefore be eliminated. It is argued that this is true for theoretical physics but untrue for medicine, where the notion of cause plays a central role. Medical theories are closely connected with practical action (attempts to cure and prevent disease), whereas theoretical physics is more remote from applications. This suggests the view that causal laws are appropriate in a context where (...)
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  20.  43
    In Defense of the Popper-Miller Argument.Donald Gillies - 1986 - Philosophy of Science 53 (1):110-113.
    In their 1983 article, Popper and Miller present an argument against inductive probability. This argument is criticized by Redhead in his 1985 article. The aim of the present note is to state one form of the Popper-Miller argument, and defend it against Redhead's criticisms.
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  21. Popper and Computer Induction.Donald A. Gillies - 2001 - Bioessays 23 (9):859-860.
  22.  37
    Intersubjective Probability and Confirmation Theory.Donald Gillies - 1991 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 42 (4):513-533.
    This paper introduces what is called the intersubjective interpretation of the probability calculus. Intersubjective probabilities are related to subjective probabilities, and the paper begins with a particular formulation of the familiar Dutch Book argument. This argument is then extended, in Section 3, to social groups, and this enables the concept of intersubjective probability to be introduced in Section 4. It is then argued that the intersubjective interpretation is the appropriate one for the probabilities which appear in confirmation theory whether of (...)
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  23.  43
    Informational Realism and World 3.Donald Gillies - 2010 - Knowledge, Technology & Policy 23 (1-2):7-24.
    This paper takes up a suggestion made by Floridi that the digital revolution is bringing about a profound change in our metaphysics. The paper aims to bring some older views from philosophy of mathematics to bear on this problem. The older views are concerned principally with mathematical realism—that is the claim that mathematical entities such as numbers exist. The new context for the discussion is informational realism, where the problem shifts to the question of the reality of information. Mathematical realism (...)
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  24. A Bayesian Analysis of Hume's Argument Concerning Miracles.Philip Dawid & Donald Gillies - 1989 - Philosophical Quarterly 39 (154):57-65.
  25. Should Philosophers of Mathematics Make Use of Sociology?Donald Gillies - 2014 - Philosophia Mathematica 22 (1):12-34.
    This paper considers whether philosophy of mathematics could benefit by the introduction of some sociology. It begins by considering Lakatos's arguments that philosophy of science should be kept free of any sociology. An attempt is made to criticize these arguments, and then a positive argument is given for introducing a sociological dimension into the philosophy of mathematics. This argument is illustrated by considering Brouwer's account of numbers as mental constructions. The paper concludes with a critical discussion of Azzouni's view that (...)
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  26. Mathematical Reasoning and Heuristics.Carlo Cellucci & Donald Gillies (eds.) - 2005 - College Publications.
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  27. Causality, Probability, and Medicine.Donald Gillies - 2017 - Routledge.
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  28. Artificial Intelligence and Scientific Method.Donald Gillies - 1996 - Oxford University Press.
    Artificial Intelligence and Scientific Method examines the remarkable advances made in the field of AI over the past twenty years, discussing their profound implications for philosophy. Taking a clear, non-technical approach, Donald Gillies shows how current views on scientific method are challenged by this recent research, and suggests a new framework for the study of logic. Finally, he draws on work by such seminal thinkers as Bacon, Gdel, Popper, Penrose, and Lucas, to address the hotly-contested question of whether computers might (...)
     
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  29. A Falsifying Rule for Probability Statements.Donald A. Gillies - 1971 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 22 (3):231-261.
  30.  3
    The Empirical Success of Keynesianism.Donald Gillies - 2020 - Economic Thought 9 (1):24.
    The main thesis of this paper is that the empirical success of Keynesianism shows it to be scientific. Keynesianism here refers not to a specific theory, but to a paradigm. It is argued that Kuhn's notion of paradigm can be applied to economics, but, in contrast to the natural sciences, in economics there are always competing paradigms. The principal ones in contemporary economics are the Neoclassical, Keynesian and Marxist. To investigate whether the Keynesian paradigm is scientific we need a criterion (...)
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  31. Dynamic Interactions with the Philosophy of Mathematics.Donald Gillies & Yuxin Zheng - 2001 - Theoria: Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia 16 (3):437-459.
    Dynamic interaction is said to occur when two significanrly different fields A and B come into relation, and their interaction is dynamic in the sense that at first the flow of ideas is principally from A to B, but later ideas from B come to influence A. Two examples are given of dynamic interactions with the philosophy of mathematics. The first is with philosophy of scicnce, and thc sccond with computer science. Theanalysis cnables Lakatos to be charactcrised as thc first (...)
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  32.  7
    An Objective Theory of Probability.Mark Pastin & D. A. Gillies - 1975 - Philosophical Review 84 (2):270.
  33.  11
    Mechanisms in Medicine.Donald Gillies - 2017 - Axiomathes 27 (6):621-634.
    This paper begins by developing a causal theory of mechanisms in medicine, and illustrates the theory with the example of the mechanism of the disease anthrax as elucidated by Koch. The causal approach to mechanisms is then compared to the Machamer, Darden, Craver approach. At first sight the two approaches appear to be very different, but it is argued that the divergence is less than it initially seems. There are some differences, however, and it is argued that, where these differences (...)
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  34. An Objective Theory of Probability.D. A. Gillies - 1976 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 27 (3):292-295.
     
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  35. Artificial Intelligence and Scientific Method.Donald Gillies, Robert Cummins & John Pollock - 1997 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 48 (4):610-612.
     
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  36.  94
    Hasok Chang Inventing Temperature: Measurement and Scientific Progress: Review.Donald Gillies - 2009 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 60 (1):221-228.
  37.  33
    Bayesianism and the Fixity of the Theoretical Framework.Donald Gillies - 2001 - In David Corfield & Jon Williamson (eds.), Foundations of Bayesianism. Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 363--379.
  38. Reply to de Maré.D. A. Gillies - 1972 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 23 (4):335-336.
  39. Artificial Intelligence and Scientific Method.Donald Gillies - 1998 - Mind 107 (428):882-886.
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  40.  6
    An Empiricist Philosophy of Mathematics and its Implications for the History of Mathematics.Donald Gillies - 2000 - In Emily Grosholz & Herbert Breger (eds.), The Growth of Mathematical Knowledge. Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 41--57.
  41.  93
    Operationalism.D. A. Gillies - 1972 - Synthese 25 (1-2):1 - 24.
  42.  40
    Darrell P. Rowbottom Popper's Critical Rationalism: A Philosophical Investigation.D. Gillies - 2013 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 64 (1):229-232.
  43.  14
    Economics and Research Assessment Systems.Donald Gillies - 2012 - Economic Thought 1 (1):23-47.
    This paper seeks to analyse the effects on Economics of Research Assessment Systems, such as the Research Assessment Exercise which was carried out in the UK between 1986 and 2008. The paper begins by pointing out that, in the 2008 RAE, economics turned out to be the research area which was accorded the highest valuation of any subject in the UK, even though economists were then under attack for failing to predict the global financial crash which had occurred a few (...)
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  44. Philosophy of Science in the Twentieth Century: Four Central Themes.Donald Gillies - 1994 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 45 (4):1066-1069.
     
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  45. A Bayesian Proof of a Humean Principle.Donald Gillies - 1991 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 42 (2):255-256.
    Hume bases his argument against miracles on an informal principle. This paper gives a formal explication of this principle of Hume’s, and then shows that this explication can be rigorously proved in a Bayesian framework.
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  46.  68
    La natura e il futuro della filosofia.Donald Gillies - 2003 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 54 (3):501-507.
  47.  56
    Lessons From the History and Philosophy of Science Regarding the Research Assessment Exercise.Donald Gillies - 2007 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 61:37-73.
    The Research Assessment Exercise was introduced in 1986 by Thatcher, and was continued by Blair. So it has now been running for 21 years. During this time, the rules governing the RAE have changed considerably, and the interval between successive RAEs has also varied. These changes are not of great importance as far as the argument of this paper is concerned. We will concentrate on the main features of the RAE which can be summarised as follows.
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  48. Alan White, "The Nature of Knowledge".Donald Gillies - 1985 - Philosophical Quarterly 35 (138):104.
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  49.  24
    Frege, Dedekind, and Peano on the Foundations of Arithmetic.Donald Gillies - 1982 - Wiley-Blackwell.
    First published in 1982, this reissue contains a critical exposition of the views of Frege, Dedekind and Peano on the foundations of arithmetic. The last quarter of the 19th century witnessed a remarkable growth of interest in the foundations of arithmetic. This work analyses both the reasons for this growth of interest within both mathematics and philosophy and the ways in which this study of the foundations of arithmetic led to new insights in philosophy and striking advances in logic. This (...)
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  50. Causality, Propensity, and Bayesian Networks.Donald Gillies - 2002 - Synthese 132 (1-2):63 - 88.
    This paper investigates the relations between causality and propensity. Aparticular version of the propensity theory of probability is introduced, and it is argued that propensities in this sense are not causes. Some conclusions regarding propensities can, however, be inferred from causal statements, but these hold only under restrictive conditions which prevent cause being defined in terms of propensity. The notion of a Bayesian propensity network is introduced, and the relations between such networks and causal networks is investigated. It is argued (...)
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