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Deborah G. Johnson [46]David Johnson [28]David Kyle Johnson [24]David K. Johnson [17]
D. M. Johnson [16]David Martel Johnson [16]David M. Johnson [16]Daniel M. Johnson [12]

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Daniel Johnson
Shawnee State University
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Open University (UK)
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  1.  66
    The Relevance (and Irrelevance) of Questions of Personhood (and Mindedness) to the Abortion Debate.David Kyle Johnson - 2019 - Socio-Historical Examination of Religion and Ministry 1 (2):121‒53.
    Disagreements about abortion are often assumed to reduce to disagreements about fetal personhood (and mindedness). If one believes a fetus is a person (or has a mind), then they are “pro-life.” If one believes a fetus is not a person (or is not minded), they are “pro-choice.” The issue, however, is much more complicated. Not only is it not dichotomous—most everyone believes that abortion is permissible in some circumstances (e.g. to save the mother’s life) and not others (e.g. at nine (...)
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  2. Computers and Intractability. A Guide to the Theory of NP-Completeness.Michael R. Garey & David S. Johnson - 1983 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 48 (2):498-500.
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  3. A Reconsideration of an Argument Against Compatibilism.Thomas J. McKay & David Johnson - 1996 - Philosophical Topics 24 (2):113-122.
  4.  72
    Computer Systems: Moral Entities but Not Moral Agents. [REVIEW]Deborah G. Johnson - 2006 - Ethics and Information Technology 8 (4):195-204.
    After discussing the distinction between artifacts and natural entities, and the distinction between artifacts and technology, the conditions of the traditional account of moral agency are identified. While computer system behavior meets four of the five conditions, it does not and cannot meet a key condition. Computer systems do not have mental states, and even if they could be construed as having mental states, they do not have intendings to act, which arise from an agent’s freedom. On the other hand, (...)
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  5.  22
    God’s Punishment and Public Goods.Dominic D. P. Johnson - 2005 - Human Nature 16 (4):410-446.
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  6.  18
    Socrates in the Schools From Scotland to Texas: Replicating a Study on the Effects of a Philosophy for Children Program.Frank Fair, Lory E. Haas, Carol Gardosik, Daphne D. Johnson, Debra P. Price & Olena Leipnik - 2015 - Journal of Philosophy in Schools 2 (1).
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  7.  48
    Ethics and Technology 'in the Making': An Essay on the Challenge of Nanoethics. [REVIEW]Deborah G. Johnson - 2007 - NanoEthics 1 (1):21-30.
    After reviewing portions of the 21st Century Nanotechnology Research and Development Act that call for examination of societal and ethical issues, this essay seeks to understand how nanoethics can play a role in nanotechnology development. What can and should nanoethics aim to achieve? The focus of the essay is on the challenges of examining ethical issues with regard to a technology that is still emerging, still ‘in the making.’ The literature of science and technology studies (STS) is used to understand (...)
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  8.  83
    The Biological and Evolutionary Logic of Human Cooperation.Terence C. Burnham & Dominic D. P. Johnson - 2005 - Analyse & Kritik 27 (2):113-135.
    Human cooperation is held to be an evolutionary puzzle because people voluntarily engage in costly cooperation, and costly punishment of non-cooperators, even among anonymous strangers they will never meet again. The costs of such cooperation cannot be recovered through kin-selection, reciprocal altruism, indirect reciprocity, or costly signaling. A number of recent authors label this behavior "strong reciprocity", and argue that it is: a newly documented aspect of human nature, adaptive, and evolved by group selection. We argue exactly the opposite; that (...)
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  9.  84
    Technology with No Human Responsibility?Deborah G. Johnson - 2015 - Journal of Business Ethics 127 (4):707-715.
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  10.  78
    Un-Making Artificial Moral Agents.Deborah G. Johnson & Keith W. Miller - 2008 - Ethics and Information Technology 10 (2-3):123-133.
    Floridi and Sanders, seminal work, “On the morality of artificial agents” has catalyzed attention around the moral status of computer systems that perform tasks for humans, effectively acting as “artificial agents.” Floridi and Sanders argue that the class of entities considered moral agents can be expanded to include computers if we adopt the appropriate level of abstraction. In this paper we argue that the move to distinguish levels of abstraction is far from decisive on this issue. We also argue that (...)
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  11.  6
    Going Against the Grain Works: An Attributional Perspective of Perceived Ethical Leadership.Chenwei Li, Keke Wu, Diane E. Johnson & James Avey - 2017 - Journal of Business Ethics 141 (1):87-102.
    This study provides an attributional perspective to the ethical leadership literature by examining the role of attributed altruistic motives and perceptions of organizational politics in a moderated mediation model. Path analytic tests from two field studies were used for analyses. The results support our hypotheses that attributed altruistic motives would mediate the relationship between perceived ethical leadership and affective organizational commitment. Moreover, the relationship between perceived ethical leadership and attributed altruistic motives was stronger when perceptions of organizational politics were high (...)
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  12.  23
    Socrates in the Schools From Scotland to Texas: Replicating a Study on the Effects of a Philosophy for Children Program.Frank Fair, Lory E. Haas, Carol Gardoski, Daphne Johnson, Debra Price & Olena Leipnik - 2015 - Journal of Philosophy in Schools 2 (1).
    In this article we report the findings of a randomised control clinical trial that assessed the impact of a Philosophy for Children program and replicated a previous study conducted in Scotland by Topping and Trickey. A Cognitive Abilities Test was administered as a pretest and a posttest to randomly selected experimental groups and control groups. The students in the experimental group engaged in philosophy lessons in a setting of structured, collaborative inquiry in their language arts classes for one hour per (...)
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  13.  15
    Valencies of the Lanthanides.David A. Johnson & Peter G. Nelson - 2018 - Foundations of Chemistry 20 (1):15-27.
    The valencies of the lanthanides vary more than was once thought. In addition to valencies associated with a half-full shell, there are valencies associated with a quarter- and three-quarter-full shell. This can be explained on the basis of Slater’s theory of many-electron atoms. The same theory explains the variation in complexing constants in the trivalent state. Valency in metallic and organometallic compounds is also discussed.
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  14.  7
    Socrates in the Schools: Gains at Three-Year Follow-Up.Frank Fair, Lory E. Haas, Carol Gardosik, Daphne Johnson, Debra Price & Olena Leipnik - 2015 - Journal of Philosophy in Schools 2 (2).
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  15.  68
    A Refutation of Skeptical Theism.David Kyle Johnson - 2013 - Sophia 52 (3):425-445.
    Skeptical theists argue that no seemingly unjustified evil (SUE) could ever lower the probability of God's existence at all. Why? Because God might have justifying reasons for allowing such evils (JuffREs) that are undetectable. However, skeptical theists are unclear regarding whether or not God's existence is relevant to the existence of JuffREs, and whether or not God's existence is relevant to their detectability. But I will argue that, no matter how the skeptical theist answers these questions, it is undeniable that (...)
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  16.  44
    Socrates and Alcibiades - M. Johnson, H. Tarrant Alcibiades and the Socratic Lover-Educator. Pp. X + 254, Figs. London: Bristol Classical Press, 2012. Cased, £50. Isbn: 978-0-7156-4086-9. [REVIEW]David Johnson - 2013 - The Classical Review 63 (1):58-60.
  17. God, Fatalism, and Temporal Ontology.David Kyle Johnson - 2009 - Religious Studies 45 (4):435-454.
    Theological incompatibility arguments suggest God's comprehensive foreknowledge is incompatible with human free will. Logical incompatibility arguments suggest a complete set of truths about the future is logically incompatible with human free will. Of the two, most think theological incompatibility is the more severe problem; but hardly anyone thinks either kind of argument presents a real threat to free will. I will argue, however, that sound theological and logical incompatibility arguments exist and that, in fact, logical incompatibly is the more severe (...)
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  18.  8
    A Theoretical Investigation of Reference Frames for the Planning of Speech Movements.Frank H. Guenther, Michelle Hampson & Dave Johnson - 1998 - Psychological Review 105 (4):611-633.
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  19.  56
    Hand of God, Mind of Man.Dominic Johnson & Jesse Bering - 2009 - In Jeffrey Schloss & Michael J. Murray (eds.), The Believing Primate: Scientific, Philosophical, and Theological Reflections on the Origin of Religion. Oxford University Press. pp. 26--44.
    Accession Number: ATLA0001788471; Hosting Book Page Citation: p 26-43.; Physical Description: diag, table ; Language(s): English; Issued by ATLA: 20130825; Publication Type: Essay.
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  20.  17
    Age Differences in Age Perceptions and Developmental Transitions.William J. Chopik, Ryan H. Bremner, David J. Johnson & Hannah L. Giasson - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
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  21.  82
    Computer Systems and Responsibility: A Normative Look at Technological Complexity.Deborah G. Johnson & Thomas M. Powers - 2005 - Ethics and Information Technology 7 (2):99-107.
    In this paper, we focus attention on the role of computer system complexity in ascribing responsibility. We begin by introducing the notion of technological moral action (TMA). TMA is carried out by the combination of a computer system user, a system designer (developers, programmers, and testers), and a computer system (hardware and software). We discuss three sometimes overlapping types of responsibility: causal responsibility, moral responsibility, and role responsibility. Our analysis is informed by the well-known accounts provided by Hart and Hart (...)
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  22.  45
    Reframing AI Discourse.Deborah G. Johnson & Mario Verdicchio - 2017 - Minds and Machines 27 (4):575-590.
    A critically important ethical issue facing the AI research community is how AI research and AI products can be responsibly conceptualised and presented to the public. A good deal of fear and concern about uncontrollable AI is now being displayed in public discourse. Public understanding of AI is being shaped in a way that may ultimately impede AI research. The public discourse as well as discourse among AI researchers leads to at least two problems: a confusion about the notion of (...)
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  23.  43
    Hume, Holism, and Miracles.David Johnson - 1999 - Cornell University Press.
    David Johnson seeks to overthrow one of the widely accepted tenets of Anglo-American philosophy -- that of the success of the Humean case against the rational ...
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  24.  53
    The Self as a Center of Narrative Gravity.P. Cole & D. Johnson - unknown
    This is a well-behaved concept in Newtonian physics. But a center of gravity is not an atom or a subatomic particle or any other physical item in the world. It has no mass; it has no color; it has no physical properties at all, except for spatio-temporal location. It is a fine example of what Hans Reichenbach would call an abstractum. It is a purely abstract object. It is, if you like , a theorist's fiction. It is not one of (...)
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  25.  36
    God as the True Self.David M. Johnson - 1999 - Ancient Philosophy 19 (1):1-19.
  26.  6
    Calvinism and the Problem of Evil.David E. Alexander & Daniel M. Johnson (eds.) - 2016 - Wipf & Stock.
    Contrary to what many philosophers believe, Calvinism neither makes the problem of evil worse nor is it obviously refuted by the presence of evil and suffering in our world. Or so most of the authors in this book claim. While Calvinism has enjoyed a resurgence in recent years amongst theologians and laypersons, many philosophers have yet to follow suit. The reason seems fairly clear: Calvinism, many think, cannot handle the problem of evil with the same kind of plausibility as other (...)
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  27. A Critique of the Minimalist Program.David Johnson & Shalom Lappin - 1997 - Linguistics and Philosophy 20 (3):273-333.
  28.  44
    Why Robots Should Not Be Treated Like Animals.Deborah G. Johnson & Mario Verdicchio - 2018 - Ethics and Information Technology 20 (4):291-301.
    Responsible Robotics is about developing robots in ways that take their social implications into account, which includes conceptually framing robots and their role in the world accurately. We are now in the process of incorporating robots into our world and we are trying to figure out what to make of them and where to put them in our conceptual, physical, economic, legal, emotional and moral world. How humans think about robots, especially humanoid social robots, which elicit complex and sometimes disconcerting (...)
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  29.  32
    Negotiating Autonomy and Responsibility in Military Robots.Merel Noorman & Deborah G. Johnson - 2014 - Ethics and Information Technology 16 (1):51-62.
    Central to the ethical concerns raised by the prospect of increasingly autonomous military robots are issues of responsibility. In this paper we examine different conceptions of autonomy within the discourse on these robots to bring into focus what is at stake when it comes to the autonomous nature of military robots. We argue that due to the metaphorical use of the concept of autonomy, the autonomy of robots is often treated as a black box in discussions about autonomous military robots. (...)
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  30.  15
    Corporate Excellence, Ethics, and the Role of IT.Deborah G. Johnson - 2006 - Business and Society Review 111 (4):457-470.
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  31.  13
    From Food Security to Food Wellbeing: Examining Food Security Through the Lens of Food Wellbeing in Nepal’s Rapidly Changing Agrarian Landscape.Pashupati Chaudhary, Kamal Khadka, Rachana Devkota, Derek Johnson, Kirit Patel & Hom Gartaula - 2017 - Agriculture and Human Values 34 (3):573-589.
    This paper argues that existing food security and food sovereignty approaches are inadequate to fully understand contradictory human development, nutrition, and productivity trends in Nepalese small-scale agriculture. In an attempt to bridge this gap, we developed a new food wellbeing approach that combines insights from food security, food sovereignty, and social wellbeing perspectives. We used the approach to frame 65 semi-structured interviews in a cluster of villages in Kaski district in the mid-hills of Nepal on various aspects of food security, (...)
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  32.  16
    Gaming Well: Links Between Videogames and Flourishing Mental Health.Christian M. Jones, Laura Scholes, Daniel Johnson, Mary Katsikitis & Michelle C. Carras - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
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  33.  37
    Computer Ethics: Philosophical Enquiry.Deborah G. Johnson, James H. Moor & Herman T. Tavani - 2000 - Acm Sigcas Computers and Society 30 (4):6-9.
  34. Book Excerpt: Computer Ethics, Second Edition by Deborah G. Johnson.Deborah G. Johnson - 1993 - Acm Sigcas Computers and Society 23 (3-4):10-14.
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  35. Proper Function and Defeating Experiences.Daniel M. Johnson - 2011 - Synthese 182 (3):433-447.
    Jonathan Kvanvig has argued that what he terms “doxastic” theories of epistemic justification fail to account for certain epistemic features having to do with evidence. I’m going to give an argument roughly along these lines, but I’m going to focus specifically on proper function theories of justification or warrant. In particular, I’ll focus on Michael Bergmann’s recent proper function account of justification, though the argument applies also to Alvin Plantinga’s proper function account of warrant. The epistemic features I’m concerned about (...)
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  36.  13
    Hinge Epistemology, Radical Skepticism, and Domain Specific Skepticism.Drew Johnson - 2019 - International Journal for the Study of Skepticism 9 (2):116-133.
    This paper explores how hinge epistemology might fruitfully be applied not only to the problem of radical skepticism, but also to certain domain specific skepticisms, and in particular, moral skepticism. The paper explains the idea of a domain specific skepticism, and how domain specific skepticisms contrast with radical skepticism. I argue that a domain specific skeptical problem can be resolved in just the same way as radical skepticism, if there are hinge commitments within that domain. I then suggest that there (...)
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  37.  30
    Watsuji’s Topology of the Self.David W. Johnson - 2016 - Asian Philosophy 26 (3):216-240.
    ABSTRACTThis essay critically develops Watsuji’s nondual ontology of the self through the lens of ‘topological’ thought. Through close description of the embeddedness of the self in, and its emergence from, an intersubjective space which, in turn, is rooted in a particular place, Watsuji shows that the self is constituted by its relational contact with others, on the one hand, and by its immersion in a wider geo-cultural environment, on the other. Yet Watsuji himself had difficulty in smoothly bringing together and (...)
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  38.  28
    Nietzsche's Anti-Darwinism.Dirk R. Johnson - 2010 - Cambridge University Press.
    Friedrich Nietzsche's complex connection to Charles Darwin has been much explored, and both scholarly and popular opinions have tended to assume a convergence in their thinking. In this study, Dirk Johnson challenges that assumption and takes seriously Nietzsche's own explicitly stated 'anti-Darwinism'. He argues for the importance of Darwin for the development of Nietzsche's philosophy, but he places emphasis on the antagonistic character of their relationship and suggests that Nietzsche's mature critique against Darwin represents the key to understanding his broader (...)
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  39. Nietzsche's Anti-Darwinism.Dirk R. Johnson - 2010 - Cambridge University Press.
    Friedrich Nietzsche's complex connection to Charles Darwin has been much explored, and both scholarly and popular opinions have tended to assume a convergence in their thinking. In this study, Dirk Johnson challenges that assumption and takes seriously Nietzsche's own explicitly stated 'anti-Darwinism'. He argues for the importance of Darwin for the development of Nietzsche's philosophy, but he places emphasis on the antagonistic character of their relationship and suggests that Nietzsche's mature critique against Darwin represents the key to understanding his broader (...)
     
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  40.  30
    Computers as Surrogate Agents.Deborah G. Johnson & Thomas M. Powers - 2008 - In M. J. van den Joven & J. Weckert (eds.), Information Technology and Moral Philosophy. Cambridge University Press. pp. 251.
  41.  49
    Natural Evil and the Simulation Hypothesis.David Kyle Johnson - 2011 - Philo 14 (2):161-175.
    Some theists maintain that they need not answer the threat posed to theistic belief by natural evil; they have reason enough to believe that God exists and it renders impotent any threat that natural evil poses to theism. Explicating how God and natural evil coexist is not necessary since they already know both exist. I will argue that, even granting theists the knowledge they claim, this does not leave them in an agreeable position. It commits the theist to a very (...)
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  42. The Future of the Cognitive Revolution.David Johnson & Christina Erneling (eds.) - 1997 - Oxford University Press.
    The basic idea of the particular way of understanding mental phenomena that has inspired the "cognitive revolution" is that, as a result of certain relatively recent intellectual and technological innovations, informed theorists now possess a more powerfully insightful comparison or model for mind than was available to any thinkers in the past. The model in question is that of software, or the list of rules for input, output, and internal transformations by which we determine and control the workings of a (...)
     
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  43.  17
    Ethical Ambiguity in Science.David R. Johnson & Elaine Howard Ecklund - 2016 - Science and Engineering Ethics 22 (4):989-1005.
    Drawing on 171 in-depth interviews with physicists at universities in the United States and the UK, this study examines the narratives of 48 physicists to explain the concept of ethical ambiguity: the border where legitimate and illegitimate conduct is blurred. Researchers generally assume that scientists agree on what constitutes both egregious and more routine forms of misconduct in science. The results of this study show that scientists perceive many scenarios as ethically gray, rather than black and white. Three orientations to (...)
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  44.  20
    The Postmodern Sublime.David B. Johnson - 2012 - In Timothy M. Costelloe (ed.), The Sublime: From Antiquity to the Present. Cambridge University Press. pp. 118.
  45.  50
    Forbidden Knowledge and Science as Professional Activity.Deborah G. Johnson - 1996 - The Monist 79 (2):197-217.
    Since the idea of forbidden knowledge is rooted in the biblical story of Adam and Eve eating from the forbidden tree of knowledge, its meaning today, in particular as a metaphor for scientific knowledge, is not so obvious. We can and should ask questions about the autonomy of science.
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  46. Circles of Learning Cooperation in the Classroom.David W. Johnson - 1984
     
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  47.  19
    Social Morality and Social Misfits: Confucius, Hegel, and the Attack of Zhuangzi and Kierkegaard.Daniel M. Johnson - 2012 - Asian Philosophy 22 (4):365-374.
    There is a remarkable and surprising connection to be found between an argument of Søren Kierkegaard’s and one of Zhuangzi’s—what I call the ‘social misfit’ critique. I will argue that this connection highlights a hitherto unacknowledged parallel between the moral thought of their respective targets: Hegel in the case of Kierkegaard and Confucius in the case of Zhuangzi. Specifically, it reveals a significant parallel between Hegel’s movement from Moralitat to Sittlichkeit and Confucius’ position on the central and irreducible role of (...)
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  48. Ethics and Technology: A Program for Future Research.Deborah G. Johnson & Thomas M. Powers - 2009 - In M. Winston and R. Edelbach (ed.), Society, Ethics, and Technology, 4th edition.
    This chapter is reprinted from our lead essay in the Encyclopedia of Science, Technology, and Ethics, ed. C. Mitcham, Gale, 2005.
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  49.  5
    Reflecting on Explanatory Ability: A Mechanism for Detecting Gaps in Causal Knowledge.Dan R. Johnson, Meredith P. Murphy & Riley M. Messer - 2016 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 145 (5):573-588.
  50.  53
    The Failure of the Multiverse Hypothesis as a Solution to the Problem of No Best World.David Kyle Johnson - 2014 - Sophia 53 (4):447-465.
    The multiverse hypothesis is growing in popularity among theistic philosophers because some view it as the preferable way to solve certain difficulties presented by theistic belief. In this paper, I am concerned specifically with its application to Rowe’s problem of no best world, which suggests that God’s existence is impossible given the fact that the world God actualizes must be unsurpassable, yet for any given possible world, there is one greater. I will argue that, as a solution to the problem (...)
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