Coastal ecosystems are increasingly dominated by humans. Consequently, the human dimensions of sustainability science have become an integral part of emerging coastal governance and management practices. But if we are to avoid the harsh lessons of land management, coastal decision makers must recognize that humans are one of the more coastally dependent species in the biosphere. Management responses must therefore confront both the temporal urgency and the very real compromises and sacrifices that will be necessary to achieve a sustainable coastal (...) ecosystem, one that is economically feasible, socially just, and ecologically sound. (shrink)
A tribute volume of essays marking the 70th birthday of Dietrich von Hildebrand. The essays all center on the problems indicated in the title, and exhibit a rather different kind of Christian philosophizing, more in touch with contemporary philosophy. A complete bibliography of von Hildebrand's works is appended.--D. D. O.
Building on certain ideas of Husserl and Merleau-Ponty, the author advances the hypothesis that the knowledge of personal qualities is epistemologically prior to the knowledge of "thing" qualities. We attain the clearness of things through intersubjective communication. Kwant supports his thesis by showing that knowledge of persons is not reducible to anything else and that all other knowledge is dependent on it. The argument is plausible but would have been more persuasive had the author appealed to some empirical tests.--D. D. (...) O. (shrink)
Thirty distinguished American philosophers and scientists have contributed pieces ranging form two to twenty pages, summing up their contributions to the third annual New York University Institute of Philosophy. Topics discussed are grouped under three heads: The Mind-Body Problem; The Brain and the Machine; and Concept-Formation. The discussion is lively and controversial, although not very consecutive. Very up-to-date on American research in cybernetics, but surprisingly unaware of contemporary European work in the areas discussed, e.g., the writings of the Phenomenologists and (...) Piaget.--D. D. O. (shrink)
Papers read at the second International Colloquium of Phenomenology. Contributions include some of the major European representatives of the second generation of phenomenologists: Fink, Landgrebe, de Waehlens, Ingarden, and others. All of the papers deal with problems or assessments of Husserl's philosophy. Opinions differ sharply on many matters of substance in the interpretation of Husserl. Of special interest is the story of van Breda's dramatic rescue of Husserl's papers from Nazi Germany in 1938.--D. D. O.
Historical studies suggest that all ideas, including the philosophical, scientific, and religious, are relative to the culture in which they are formulated. After clarifying the concept of relativism, and exploring the epistemological reasons why knowledge is relative, Kaufman argues that these admissions are not fatal to the achievement of valid knowledge in philosophy and theology.--D. D. O.
This well organized and interesting anthology concerns the image of the self-directed individual as replaced by a deterministic model of his behavior. Since legal, personal-social, and religious institutions still see man as self-controlled and therefore responsible, Mr. Klausner views this replacement as particularly troublesome. The first third of the book is predominantly historical and draws from an extremely tolerant range of sources including yoga, philosophy, psychology, hypnosis and self-help publications. The remainder of the volume is psychological and sociological, with emphasis (...) on the individual acting under stress, and with the traditional philosophical problems completely ignored. While the thematic problem is not obviously tackled there is fruitful examination of significant concepts with detailed and well-researched relationships of these concepts with a manifold of phenomena. There are several extensive bibliographies accompanying the readings. Not including introductory contributions the book includes: "Self-Control in the Perspective of History": Klausner, B. Nelson, Moses Hadas; "Self-Control in a Sociological Perspective": S. M. Dornbusch, M. K. Opler, Guy E. Swanson; "Self-Control in Psychological Perspective": I. L. Janis, S. J. Korchin, H. Liddel; "Self-Control in Psychiatric Perspective": M. T. Orne, O. McK, Rioch, K. Goldstein; and "Scientific Hermeneutics": Klausner.—D. A. G. (shrink)
In contrast with Ford’s essay, David R. Griffin presents a catalogue of the differences between the two philosophers from a "Hartshornian" perspective. Strangely, perhaps the least helpful contribution comes from Hartshorne himself, whose "Ideas and Theses of Process Philosophers" is simply a highly schematic outline. Completing the volume are essays by William O’Meara on Hartshorne’s methodology, and by Frederic Frost on relativity theory and Hartshorne’s dipolar conception of God. In general, the book suffers from repetition; many of the same issues (...) recur in the essays, at times with significantly different interpretations, but frequently with only the slightest modification of accent. While its flaws cannot be ignored, Two Process Philosophers does possess the virtue of focusing upon the genuine diversity within the tradition of process philosophy.-D.F.D. (shrink)
Under the careful editorship of R. A. Markus, this book appears to be one of the very finest anthologies of critical essays dedicated to the elucidation of the thought of St. Augustine. Those familiar with Markus’ contribution to The Cambridge History of Later Greek and Early Medieval Philosophy will readily attest to the depth as well as to the breadth of understanding which Markus brings to Augustine scholarship. Three of the essays appear for the first time: "Action and Contemplation," by (...) Robert J. O’Connell; "Si Fallor, Sum," by Gareth B. Matthews; "On Augustine’s Concept of a Person," by A. C. Boyd. The remaining articles have appeared either as separate pieces or as journal articles: "St. Augustine and Christian Platonism," by A. H. Armstrong; "St. Augustine on Signs," by R. A. Markus; "The Theory of Signs of St. Augustine’s De Doctrina Christiana," by B. Darrell Jackson; "Augustine on Speaking from Memory" and "The Inner Man," by Gareth B. Matthews; "Augustine on Foreknowledge and Free Will," by William L. Rowe; "Augustine on Free Will and Predestination," by John M. Rist; "Time and Contingency in St. Augustine," by Robert Jordan; "Empiricism and Augustine’s Problems about Time," by Hugh M. Lacey; "Political Society," by P. R. L. Brown; "The Development of Augustine’s Ideas on Society before the Donatist Controversy" and "De Civitate Dei, XV, 2, and Augustine’s Idea of the Christian Society," The essays display scholarly depth as well as concern for contemporary philosophical problems. It is an excellent addition to Augustine scholarship and to contemporary philosophizing. This book is part of the Doubleday Anchor Modern Studies in Philosophy Series, under the general editorship of Amelie O. Rorty.—D. A. C. (shrink)
This paper provides empirical interpretation of the d o do operator when applied to non-manipulable variables such as race, obesity, or cholesterol level. We view d o do as an ideal intervention that provides valuable information on the effects of manipulable variables and is thus empirically testable. We draw parallels between this interpretation and ways of enabling machines to learn effects of untried actions from those tried. We end with the conclusion that researchers need not distinguish manipulable from non-manipulable variables; (...) both types are equally eligible to receive the d o do operator and to produce useful information for decision makers. (shrink)
Em sua concepção da dinâmica como ciência das mudanças dos movimentos dos corpos, D'Alambert propõe-se a exprimir estas mudanças somente em função das grandezas do movimento. Ele estabelece assim a possibilidade de concebê-las fisicamente, em relação às suas causas efetivas, sem recorrer a conceitos externos como o de força, afirmado a co-naturalidade da causa física e de seus efeitos, traduzida pelaç noção de aceleração instantânea, cuja significação física vincula-se à forma diferencial da grandeza tempo e ao conceito de movimento virtual.
We give here alternative definitions for the notions that S. Shelah has introduced in recent papers: the dimensional order property and the depth of a theory. We will also give a proof that the depth of a countable theory, when defined, is an ordinal recursive in T.
Grande parte das análises sobre O nascimento da tragédia rodeiam os impulsos apolíneos e dionisíacos que, em comunhão, teriam originado a tragédia grega. Quando se referem ao apolíneo, a explicação tradicional se concentra em algumas características como a beleza, a aparência, a ética e o sonho. No entanto, o primeiro livro de Nietzsche apresenta uma série de períodos relacionados a Apolo que destoa de sua posterior tradição interpretativa. Um dos mais evidentes é o período dórico que utilizo aqui a fim (...) de demonstrar um Apolo desmesurado em O nascimento da tragédia contra sua habitual caracterização como um deus belo e ético. (shrink)
Hans-Georg GADAMER, Hermeneutische Entwürfe. Vorträge und Aufsätze ; Pascal MICHON, Poétique d’une anti-anthropologie: l’herméneutique deGadamer ; Robert J. DOSTAL, The Cambridge Companion to Gadamer ; Denis SERON, Le problème de la métaphysique. Recherches sur l’interprétation heideggerienne de Platon et d’Aristote ; Henry MALDINEY, Ouvrir le rien. L’art nu ; Dominique JANICAUD, Heidegger en France, I. Récit; II. Entretiens ; Maurice MERLEAU-PONTY, Fenomenologia percepţiei ; Trish GLAZEBROOK, Heidegger’s Philosophy of Science ; Richard WOLIN, Heidegger’s Children. Hannah Arendt, Karl Löwith, Hans Jonas (...) and Herbert Marcuse ; Ivo DEGENNARO, Logos – Heidegger liest Heraklit ; O. K. WIEGAND, R. J. DOSTAL, L. EMBREE, J. KOCKELMANS and J. N. MOHANTY, Phenomenology on Kant, German Idealism, Hermeneutics and Logic ; James FAULCONER and Mark WRATHALL, Appropriating Heidegger. (shrink)
In the present state of philosophy in the English-speaking world, to choose to talk about sense data may seem perverse. What could be more boring for one's audience than to attempt variations on so threadbare a theme? And worse, what could be more unfashionable in the aftermath of Wittgenstein and Austin? My reasons for selecting this unpromising topic are twofold. First, the general theme of this series of lectures is empiricism. And whatever meanings we put upon that ambiguous word, it (...) is clear that as a matter of history the problems of perception have been important problems for nearly all those philosophers who would consider themselves to be empiricists. And however unsatisfactory sense datum theories of perception may now be held to be, such theories have been central to the empiricist tradition. Secondly, it is important not to be too much impressed by the fact that a particular philosophical opinion is fashionable or unfashionable. The former certainly does not guarantee its truth nor the latter its falsity. It has often been remarked that philosophical opinions are very rarely refuted. Instead they fall out of vogue only to return some years later in another guise. It is perhaps time to take another look at the notion of sense data. The most ingenious and persistent attacks on analyses of perception in terms of sense data have been at best indecisive, as Professor Ayer showed in his reply to Austin's Sense and Sensibilia. (shrink)
Die Sculpturen des Vaticanischen Museums, im Auftrage und unter Mitwirkung des kaiserlick deutschen archaeologischen Instituts beschrieben von Walter Amerlung. Berlin: In Kommission bei Georg Reimer. Vol. I., 1903; Vol. II., 1908. Text, 8vo, pp. x + 935, 768. Plates, 4to, 121 + 83. M. 50 per vol.Guida illustrata del Museo Nazionale di Napoli; approvata dal Ministero della Pubblica Istruzione. Compilata da D. Bassi, E. Gábrici, L. Mariani, O. Maruchhi, G. Patroni, G. de Petra, A. Sogliano; per cura di A. Ruesch. (...) Naples: Richter & Co.; Munich: Buchholz, 1908. 8vo. Pp. 500. 129 illustrations in the text. Lire 25. (shrink)
resumo: Há uma solidariedade entre o estilo do L'Individuation à la Lumière des Notions de Forme et d'Information e os princípios teóricos que a obra toma como ponto de partida para sua investigação dos diversos processos de individuação. Essa solidariedade torna o estilo da obra um programa filosófico que responde a demandas precisas quanto ao papel das ciências da natureza, das ciências humanas e da técnica, sua classificação, sua história e sua consistência teórica, demandas que pretendemos especificar no artigo. Ao (...) mesmo tempo esse programa de Simondon requer que o autor recolha os princípios teóricos de sua análise em um corpo teórico cujas linhas gerais desenham a fisonomia de toda uma filosofia, de caráter peculiar. É isso o que justifica, e até mesmo exige, que Simondon tome por objeto o problema da individuação nos termos em que o faz, e que possa apresentar essa aproximação do problema como uma crítica cujo valor é ele mesmo filosófico: uma resposta peculiar ao positivismo, ao pragmatismo, ao estruturalismo e, sobretudo, às formas de compreensão das ciências e das técnicas que era hegemônica no final dos anos 50, no ambiente intelectual francês. abstract: There is a strict allegiance between the style present in L'Individuation à la Lumière des Notions de Forme et d'Information and the theoretical principles by which this work inquires the diverse individuation processes. That allegiance makes this style a whole investigation program on the role of natural sciences, humanities and technology in general, their classification, history and theoretical nature. The clauses of that investigation will be shown in its general lines by the paper itself. But the point is that, at the same time, this investigation program requires the specific theoretical principles adopted by Simondon in this work as a theory and in its development as a complete philosophy. Indeed this is the reason why Simondon takes the problem about individuation processes as the focus of his discussions. Such discussions offer a critique whose value is itself philosophical. That strategy results in a peculiar response to positivism, pragmatism, structuralism and the hegemonic way of thinking about sciences and techniques in the French fifties. (shrink)
El presente trabajo, estudia de forma sintética, la metodología y criterios utilizados en los países capitalistas (en este caso el Análisis Beneficio Costo) y socialistas en la cuantificación del excedente generado por las actividades de I+D, en el sector agropecuario como parte del desarrollo sostenible, o sea, la cuestión que se propone analizar es ¿será posible cuantificar el capital ambiental que tiende a ser escaso? ¿Cómo o con que precios evaluar las externalidades? ¿Será que la ciencia económica (en este caso (...) a través de la evaluación de proyectos agropecuarios) tiene alguna respuesta convincente de cómo asignar recursos no renovables? (shrink)
In this paper a conceptually based distinction between two classes of semantic predicates is proposed D–prediates, which encode object definig properties, and O–predicates, which encode optional properties. While the distinction between the properties is conceptually motivated, the two corresponding predicate classes are defined with reference to a logically based notion of ‘(predicate)field’. It is argued that on the basis of this distinction the differences in the grammatical behaviour of unaccusaive and unergative verbs in German can be derived and do not (...) require any form of syntactic representation because the properties that are usually taken to be an indication of the class membership of intransive verbs follow from the status of the properties encoded by the two types of semantic predicates. (shrink)