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Dave Ward [19]David Ward [17]D. Ward [9]David E. Ward [8]
David V. Ward [6]Duren J. H. Ward [2]Dana Ward [2]David A. Ward [2]

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Dave Ward
University of Edinburgh
  1. Introduction: The Varieties of Enactivism.Dave Ward, David Silverman & Mario Villalobos - 2017 - Topoi 36 (3):365-375.
    This introduction to a special issue of Topoi introduces and summarises the relationship between three main varieties of 'enactivist' theorising about the mind: 'autopoietic', 'sensorimotor', and 'radical' enactivism. It includes a brief discussion of the philosophical and cognitive scientific precursors to enactivist theories, and the relationship of enactivism to other trends in embodied cognitive science and philosophy of mind.
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  2. Es Are Good. Cognition as Enacted, Embodied, Embedded, Affective and Extended.Dave Ward & Mog Stapleton - 2012 - In Fabio Paglieri (ed.), Consciousness in Interaction: The role of the natural and social context in shaping consciousness.
    We present a specific elaboration and partial defense of the claims that cognition is enactive, embodied, embedded, affective and (potentially) extended. According to the view we will defend, the enactivist claim that perception and cognition essentially depend upon the cognizer’s interactions with their environment is fundamental. If a particular instance of this kind of dependence obtains, we will argue, then it follows that cognition is essentially embodied and embedded, that the underpinnings of cognition are inextricable from those of affect, that (...)
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  3.  89
    Enjoying the Spread: Conscious Externalism Reconsidered.D. Ward - 2012 - Mind 121 (483):731-751.
    According to a variety of recent ‘enactivist’ proposals, the material basis of conscious experience might extend beyond the boundaries of the brain and nervous system and into the environment. Clark (2009) surveys several such arguments and finds them wanting. Here I respond on behalf of the enactivist. Clarifying the commitments of enactivism at the personal and subpersonal levels and considering how those levels relate lets us see where Clark’s analysis of enactivism goes wrong. Clark understands the enactivists as attempting to (...)
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  4.  61
    Living Systems: Autonomy, Autopoiesis and Enaction.Mario Villalobos & Dave Ward - 2015 - Philosophy and Technology 28 (2):225-239.
    The autopoietic theory and the enactive approach are two theoretical streams that, in spite of their historical link and conceptual affinities, offer very different views on the nature of living beings. In this paper, we compare these views and evaluate, in an exploratory way, their respective degrees of internal coherence. Focusing the analyses on certain key notions such as autonomy and organizational closure, we argue that while the autopoietic theory manages to elaborate an internally consistent conception of living beings, the (...)
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  5.  42
    Lived Experience and Cognitive Science Reappraising Enactivism’s Jonasian Turn.M. Villalobos & D. Ward - 2016 - Constructivist Foundations 11 (2):204-212.
    Context: The majority of contemporary enactivist work is influenced by the philosophical biology of Hans Jonas. Jonas credits all living organisms with experience that involves particular “existential” structures: nascent forms of concern for self-preservation and desire for objects and outcomes that promote well-being. We argue that Jonas’s attitude towards living systems involves a problematic anthropomorphism that threatens to place enactivism at odds with cognitive science, and undermine its legitimate aims to become a new paradigm for scientific investigation and understanding of (...)
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  6. Knowing What We Can Do: Actions, Intentions, and the Construction of Phenomenal Experience.Dave Ward, Tom Roberts & Andy Clark - 2011 - Synthese 181 (3):375-394.
    How do questions concerning consciousness and phenomenal experience relate to, or interface with, questions concerning plans, knowledge and intentions? At least in the case of visual experience the relation, we shall argue, is tight. Visual perceptual experience, we shall argue, is fixed by an agent’s direct unmediated knowledge concerning her poise (or apparent poise) over a currently enabled action space. An action space, in this specific sense, is to be understood not as a fine-grained matrix of possibilities for bodily movement, (...)
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  7.  49
    Introduction.Alistair M. C. Isaac & Dave Ward - 2019 - Synthese 198 (Suppl 9):2135-2151.
    Several strands of contemporary cognitive science and its philosophy have emerged in recent decades that emphasize the role of action in cognition, resting their explanations on the embodiment of cognitive agents, and their embedding in richly structured environments. Despite their growing influence, many foundational questions remain unresolved or underexplored for this cluster of proposals, especially questions of how they can be extended beyond straightforwardly visuomotor cognitive capacities, and what constraints the commitment of embodiment places on the ontology of explanations. This (...)
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  8.  39
    An Enactive Account of Placebo Effects.Giulio Ongaro & Dave Ward - 2017 - Biology and Philosophy 32 (4):507-533.
    Placebos are commonly defined as ineffective treatments. They are treatments that lack a known mechanism linking their properties to the properties of the condition on which treatment aims to intervene. Given this, the fact that placebos can have substantial therapeutic effects looks puzzling. The puzzle, we argue, arises from the relationship placebos present between culturally meaningful entities, our intentional relationship to the environment and bodily effects. How can a mere attitude toward a treatment result in appropriate bodily changes? We argue (...)
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  9.  32
    What's Lacking in Online Learning? Dreyfus, Merleau‐Ponty and Bodily Affective Understanding.Dave Ward - forthcoming - Journal of Philosophy of Education.
    Skepticism about the limits of online learning is as old as online learning itself. As with other technologically-driven innovations in pedagogy, there are deep-seated worries that important educational goods might be effaced or obscured by the ways of teaching and learning that online methods allow. One family of such worries is inspired by reflections on the bodily basis of an important kind of understanding, and skepticism over whether this bodily basis can be inculcated in the absence of actual, flesh-and-blood, classroom (...)
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  10.  81
    Achieving Transparency: An Argument For Enactivism.Dave Ward - 2016 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 93 (3):650-680.
    The transparency of perceptual experience has been invoked in support of many views about perception. I argue that it supports a form of enactivism—the view that capacities for perceptual experience and for intentional agency are essentially interdependent. I clarify the perceptual phenomenon at issue, and argue that enactivists should expect to find a parallel instance of transparency in our agentive experience, and that the two forms of transparency are constitutively interdependent. I then argue that i) we do indeed find such (...)
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  11. Hurley's Transcendental Enactivism.Dave Ward - 2016 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 23 (5-6):12-38.
    Susan Hurley (1998a, 2003a, 2008) argues that our capacities for perception, agency and thought are essentially interdependent and co-emerge from a tangle of sensorimotor processes that are both cause and effect of the web of interactive and communicative practices they weave us into. In this paper, I reconstruct this view and its main motivations, with a particular focus on three important aspects. First, Hurley argues that an essential aspect of conscious perception – its perspectival unity – constitutively depends on agency. (...)
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  12.  21
    Authors’ Response: Enactivism, Cognitive Science, and the Jonasian Inference.D. Ward & M. Villalobos - 2016 - Constructivist Foundations 11 (2):228-233.
    Upshot: In our target article we claimed that, at least since Weber and Varela, enactivism has incorporated a theoretical commitment to one important aspect of Jonas’s philosophical biology, namely its anthropomorphism, which is at odds with the methodological commitments of modern science. In this general reply we want to clarify what we mean by anthropomorphism, and explain why we think it is incompatible with science. We do this by spelling out what we call the “Jonasian inference,” i.e., the idea that (...)
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  13.  77
    Why Don’T Synaesthetic Colours Adapt Away?Dave Ward - 2012 - Philosophical Studies 159 (1):123-138.
    Synaesthetes persistently perceive certain stimuli as systematically accompanied by illusory colours, even though they know those colours to be illusory. This appears to contrast with cases where a subject’s colour vision adapts to systematic distortions caused by wearing coloured goggles. Given that each case involves longstanding systematic distortion of colour perception that the subjects recognize as such, how can a theory of colour perception explain the fact that perceptual adaptation occurs in one case but not the other? I argue that (...)
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  14.  78
    Personal Identity, Agency and the Multiplicity Thesis.Dave Ward - 2011 - Minds and Machines 21 (4):497-515.
    I consider whether there is a plausible conception of personal identity that can accommodate the ‘Multiplicity Thesis’ (MT), the thesis that some ways of creating and deploying multiple distinct online personae can bring about the existence of multiple persons where before there was only one. I argue that an influential Kantian line of thought, according to which a person is a unified locus of rational agency, is well placed to accommodate the thesis. I set out such a line of thought (...)
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  15.  25
    Certified Public Accountants: Ethical Perception Skills and Attitudes on Ethics Education. [REVIEW]Suzanne Pinac Ward, Dan R. Ward & Alan B. Deck - 1993 - Journal of Business Ethics 12 (8):601 - 610.
    This study investigated the proficiency of CPAs in recognizing and evaluating ethical and unethical situations. In addition, CPAs provided attitudes on ethics education. Respondents were asked to evaluate the ethical acceptability of CPA behavior as presented in six vignettes involving a variety of ethical dilemmas from questions of conflict of interest to questions of personal honor. The results tend to signify that CPAs can, to a degree, distinguish ethical and unethical behaviors. It appears that ethical behaviors and very specific unethical (...)
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  16. Philosophy for Everyone.Matthew Chrisman, Duncan Pritchard, Jane Suilin Lavelle, Michela Massimi, Alasdair Richmond & Dave Ward - 2013 - Routledge.
    Philosophy for Everyone begins by explaining what philosophy is before exploring the questions and issues at the foundation of this important subject. Key topics and their areas of focus include: Epistemology - what our knowledge of the world and ourselves consists in, and how we come to have it; Philosophy of Science - foundational conceptual issues in scientific research and practice; Philosophy of Mind - what it means for something to have a mind, and how minds should be understood and (...)
     
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  17.  34
    Imaginary Scenarios, Black Boxes and Philosophical Method.David E. Ward - 1995 - Erkenntnis 43 (2):181 - 198.
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  18.  60
    Power in Mixed-Sex Stranger Interactions.Gian C. Gonzaga, Dacher Keltner & Daniel Ward - 2008 - Cognition and Emotion 22 (8):1555-1568.
  19.  57
    The Agent in Magenta.Dave Ward - 2009 - PSYCHE: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Research On Consciousness 15 (1).
    How should we understand the relationship between conscious perception and action? Does an appeal to action have any place in an account of colour experience? This essay aims to shed light on the first question by giving a positive response to the second. I consider two types of enactive approach to perceptual consciousness, and two types of account of colour perception. Each approach to colour perception faces serious objections. However, the two views can be combined in a way that resists (...)
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  20.  63
    The Aesthetic Adequacy of Copies.Graham Oddie & David Ward - 1989 - British Journal of Aesthetics 29 (3):258-260.
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  21.  8
    The Perils and Promise of Variable Fees: Institutional and Public Policy Responses in the UK and the US.David Ward & John Aubrey Douglass - 2005 - Perspectives: Policy and Practice in Higher Education 9 (1):29-35.
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  22. A New Approach to the Philosophical Problem of Akrasia.David Ward - 2000 - Diálogos. Revista de Filosofía de la Universidad de Puerto Rico 35 (76):97-110.
     
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  23. New Perspectives on Anarchism.Samantha E. Bankston, Harold Barclay, Lewis Call, Alexandre J. M. E. Christoyannopoulos, Vernon Cisney, Jesse Cohn, Abraham DeLeon, Francis Dupuis-Déri, Benjamin Franks, Clive Gabay, Karen Goaman, Rodrigo Gomes Guimarães, Uri Gordon, James Horrox, Anthony Ince, Sandra Jeppesen, Stavros Karageorgakis, Elizabeth Kolovou, Thomas Martin, Todd May, Nicolae Morar, Irène Pereira, Stevphen Shukaitis, Mick Smith, Scott Turner, Salvo Vaccaro, Mitchell Verter, Dana Ward & Dana M. Williams - 2009 - Lexington Books.
    The study of anarchism as a philosophical, political, and social movement has burgeoned both in the academy and in the global activist community in recent years. Taking advantage of this boom in anarchist scholarship, Nathan J. Jun and Shane Wahl have compiled twenty-six cutting-edge essays on this timely topic in New Perspectives on Anarchism.
     
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  24. Zur mündlichen Überlieferung des Nibelungenliedes.Franz H. Bäuml & Donald J. Ward - 1967 - Deutsche Vierteljahrsschrift für Literaturwissenschaft Und Geistesgeschichte 41 (3):351-390.
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  25.  39
    Philosophy for Everyone: Second Edition.Matthew Chrisman, Duncan Pritchard, Guy Fletcher, Elinor Mason, Jane Suilin Lavelle, Michela Massimi, Alasdair Richmond & Dave Ward - 2016 - Routledge.
    Philosophy for Everyone begins by explaining what philosophy is before exploring the questions and issues at the foundation of this important subject. Key topics in this new edition and their areas of focus include: Moral philosophy – the nature of our moral judgments and reactions, whether they aim at some objective moral truth, or are mere personal or cultural preferences; and the possibility of moral responsibility given the sorts of things that cause behavior; Political philosophy – fundamental questions about the (...)
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  26.  1
    Visualizing Tree Structures in Genetic Programming.Jason M. Daida, Adam M. Hilss, David J. Ward & Stephen L. Long - 2005 - Genetic Programming and Evolvable Machines 6.
    This paper presents methods to visualize the structure of trees that occur in genetic programming. These methods allow for the inspection of structure of entire trees even though several thousands of nodes may be involved. The methods also scale to allow for the inspection of structure for entire populations and for complete trials even though millions of nodes may be involved. Examples are given that demonstrate how this new way of “seeing” can afford a potentially rich way of understanding dynamics (...)
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  27.  36
    Explaining Evil Behavior: Using Kant and M. Scott Peck to Solve the Puzzle of Understanding the Moral Psychology of Evil People.David E. Ward - 2002 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 9 (1):1-12.
    I assume that we find it hard to understand, for example, how a person could harm another person in cold blood. I then set out Kant's reason's for thinking that, strictly speaking, evil behavior is impossible: people may act on wicked desires but deliberate wrong-doing is not a genuine phenomenon. However, Kant's view is at odds with our common sense intuitions about morally evil behavior, namely, that such behavior is possible, albeit difficult to understand. I then suggest how Kant's analysis (...)
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  28. The Complexity of Evil Behavior.David E. Ward - 2002 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 9 (1):23-26.
  29. Transforming Learning for the 21st Century: An Economic Imperative.Chris Dede, S. Korte, R. Nelson, G. Valdez & D. J. Ward - unknown
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  30. Finding the Way Towards a Feminist Business Ethic.Karin Fester & David Ward - 2004 - Philosophy for Business 13.
     
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  31.  53
    Multiculturalism, Liberalism, and Science.M. Fox & D. Ward - 1992 - Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines 10 (4):3-6.
  32. Morality and Agency.Robyn McPhail & David E. Ward - 1988 - Upa.
    The authors argue that an understanding of human agency based on Spinoza's views can resolve the apparent conflict between the demands of happiness and the dictates of morality without damaging the unique values associated with the moral form of life espoused by Kant.
     
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  33. Political Reasoning and Cognition: A Piagetian View.Shawn Rosenberg, Dana Ward & Stephen Chilton - 1988 - Duke University Press.
    This work presents a new, alternative approach to studying the formation of political ideologies and attitudes, addressing a concern in political science that research in this area is at a crossroads. The authors provide an epistemologically grounded critique on the literature of belief systems, explaining why traditional approaches have reached the limits of usefulness. Following the lead of such continental theorists such as Jurgen Habermas and Anthony Giddens, who stress the importance of Jean Piaget to the development of a strong (...)
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  34. Endnotes for Fox/Ward, From Page 6.M. Fox & D. Ward - 1992 - Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines 10 (4):11-11.
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  35.  44
    Transaction or Transformation: Why Do Philosophy in Prisons?Mog Stapleton & Dave Ward - 2021 - Journal of Prison Education and Reentry 7 (2):214-226.
    Why do public philosophy in prisons? When we think about the value and aims of public philosophy there is a well-entrenched tendency to think in transactional terms. The academy has something of value that it aims to pass on or transmit to its clients. Usually, this transaction takes place within the confines of the university, in the form of transmission of valuable skills or knowledge passed from faculty to students. Public philosophy, construed within this transactional mindset, then consists in passing (...)
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  36.  25
    Antefascism/Antifascism: Benedetto Croce, Carlo Levi, and Cultural Politics in Italy, 1943–1945.David Ward - 1996 - The European Legacy 1 (1):59-64.
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  37. A Basic Schema for Understanding Aesthetic Transactions.David E. Ward - unknown
    My intention in this paper is to present a schema for understanding �sthetic transactions. (By '�sthetic transactions' I mean to refer to the artist's creation of a work of art and the audience's appreciation of it). For Kant a schema was a rule or principle that enables the under- standing to apply its categories. I am using this term in a narrower sense but in the same spirit : The schema to be considered is to serve as a principle which (...)
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  38. Against Race: Imagining Political Culture Beyond the Color Line. By Paul Gilroy.D. Ward - 2003 - The European Legacy 8 (6):848-848.
  39.  6
    Action-Space Theory of Conscious Vision.David Ward - 2010 - Dissertation, University of Edinburgh
    I argue that conscious visual experience consists in a direct and noninferential grasp of the way one’s current perceptual contact with the environment poises one to pursue various intentional plans, goals and projects. I show that such a view of visual consciousness is supported by current work in cognitive neuroscience, affords a compelling account of colour perception, and suggests a way to bridge the ‘explanatory gap’ between consciousness and the language of the natural sciences. In chapter 1, I examine the (...)
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  40.  8
    Bushfire, Logic & Ambrose Bierce.David Ward - 2015 - Philosophy Now 109:24-25.
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  41.  98
    Between Perception and Action By Bence Nanay.Dave Ward - 2015 - Analysis 75 (4):684-686.
    A short review of Bence Nanay's 'Between Action and Perception'.
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  42.  18
    Correction to: Introduction: The Varieties of Enactivism.Dave Ward, David Silverman & Mario Villalobos - 2020 - Topoi 39 (2):499-499.
    The original article was published with incomplete acknowledgement. The complete acknowledgement section is given in this correction.
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  43.  15
    Did I Dream That or Did It Really Happen? A Phenomenological Criterion for Distinguishing Remembered Dream Experiences From Remembered Waking Experiences.David Ward - 2001 - Manuscrito 24 (1):85-101.
    Is there a way to tell whether what you remember was something you dreamt or something that really happened without making reference to coherence criteria? I suggest contra Descartes that there is a certain sign ‘by means of which one can distinguish clearly between being awake and being asleep’. This certain sign is the intensive magnitude associated with every sensation.
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  44.  19
    Does Medical Experimentation on Children and Incompetents Violate the Fourth Amendment?David V. Ward - 1993 - Social Philosophy Today 8:205-217.
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  45.  7
    Does Medical Experimentation on Children and Incompetents Violate the Fourth Amendment?David V. Ward - 1993 - Social Philosophy Today 8:205-217.
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  46.  7
    Explaining Agency Via Kant and Spinoza.David E. Ward - 1991 - Studia Spinozana: An International and Interdisciplinary Series 7:57-68.
  47. Fun and Games.David Ward - unknown
    When Kant is explaining how aesthetic judgments are made, he contrasts them with cognitive judgments in which the imagination is, as he puts it, "in the service" of the understanding. In effect, he thinks of cognitive judgments as tasks in which the imagination is attempting to see whether some given item falls under a concept or rule provided by the understanding. If the rule is reasonably specific-separate the cubes from the spheres-there is not much room for the imagination to determine (...)
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  48. Fascist Spectacle: The Aesthetics of Power in Mussolini's Italy. By Simonetta Falasca-Zamponi.D. Ward - 2000 - The European Legacy 5 (3):486-486.
     
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  49.  13
    Human Rights and National Self-Detennination.David Ward - 1989 - Social Philosophy Today 2:51-59.
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  50. Human Rights and National Self-Detennination.David Ward - 1989 - Social Philosophy Today 2:51-59.
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