Results for 'Dag Westerst��hl'

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  1. Compositionality Inductively, Co-Inductively and Contextually.Tim Fernando - manuscript
    with the meaning function [[·]] appearing on both sides. (1) is commonly construed as a prescription for computing the meaning of a based on the parts of a and their mode of combination. As equality is symmetric, however, we can also read (1) from right to left, as a constraint on the meaning [[b]] of a term b that brings in the wider context where b may occur, in accordance with what Dag Westerst˚ahl has recently described as “one version of (...)
     
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  2. Natural Deduction: A Proof-Theoretical Study.Dag Prawitz - 1965 - Dover Publications.
    This volume examines the notion of an analytic proof as a natural deduction, suggesting that the proof's value may be understood as its normal form--a concept with significant implications to proof-theoretic semantics.
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  3.  36
    The Fundamental Problem of General Proof Theory.Dag Prawitz - 2019 - Studia Logica 107 (1):11-29.
    I see the question what it is that makes an inference valid and thereby gives a proof its epistemic power as the most fundamental problem of general proof theory. It has been surprisingly neglected in logic and philosophy of mathematics with two exceptions: Gentzen’s remarks about what justifies the rules of his system of natural deduction and proposals in the intuitionistic tradition about what a proof is. They are reviewed in the paper and I discuss to what extent they succeed (...)
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  4.  12
    The Exteriority of Ethics in Management and its Transition Into Justice: A Levinasian Approach to Ethics in Business.Dag G. Aasland - 2007 - Business Ethics, the Environment and Responsibility 16 (3):220-226.
    Levinas did not present any new ethical theories; he did not even give any normative recommendations. But his phenomenological investigations help us to understand how the idea of ethics emerges and how we try to cope with it. The purpose of this paper is to suggest some implications from a reading of Levinas on how ethical challenges are handled within a management perspective. The paper claims that management, both in theory and in practice, is necessarily egocentric and thus ethically biased. (...)
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  5.  79
    Generalized Quantifiers.Dag Westerståhl - 2008 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  6.  94
    Logical Constants in Quantifier Languages.Dag Westerståhl - 1985 - Linguistics and Philosophy 8 (4):387 - 413.
  7. Truth as an Epistemic Notion.Dag Prawitz - 2012 - Topoi 31 (1):9-16.
    What is the appropriate notion of truth for sentences whose meanings are understood in epistemic terms such as proof or ground for an assertion? It seems that the truth of such sentences has to be identified with the existence of proofs or grounds, and the main issue is whether this existence is to be understood in a temporal sense as meaning that we have actually found a proof or a ground, or if it could be taken in an abstract, tenseless (...)
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  8. Meaning Approached Via Proofs.Dag Prawitz - 2006 - Synthese 148 (3):507-524.
    According to a main idea of Gentzen the meanings of the logical constants are reflected by the introduction rules in his system of natural deduction. This idea is here understood as saying roughly that a closed argument ending with an introduction is valid provided that its immediate subarguments are valid and that other closed arguments are justified to the extent that they can be brought to introduction form. One main part of the paper is devoted to the exact development of (...)
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  9. Determiners and Context Sets.Dag Westerståhl - 1985 - In Generalized Quantifiers in Natural Language. Foris Publications. pp. 45--71.
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  10.  49
    Ideas and Results in Proof Theory.Dag Prawitz & J. E. Fenstad - 1975 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 40 (2):232-234.
  11. Remarks on Some Approaches to the Concept of Logical Consequence.Dag Prawitz - 1985 - Synthese 62 (2):153 - 171.
  12.  50
    The Exteriority of Ethics in Management and its Transition Into Justice: A Levinasian Approach to Ethics in Business.Dag G. Aasland - 2007 - Business Ethics, the Environment and Responsibility 16 (3):220–226.
    Levinas did not present any new ethical theories; he did not even give any normative recommendations. But his phenomenological investigations help us to understand how the idea of ethics emerges and how we try to cope with it. The purpose of this paper is to suggest some implications from a reading of Levinas on how ethical challenges are handled within a management perspective. The paper claims that management, both in theory and in practice, is necessarily egocentric and thus ethically biased. (...)
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  13. The Modal Logic of Agency.Dag Elgesem - 1997 - Nordic Journal of Philosophical Logic 2:1-46.
  14.  24
    The Seeming Interdependence Between the Concepts of Valid Inference and Proof.Dag Prawitz - 2019 - Topoi 38 (3):493-503.
    We may try to explain proofs as chains of valid inference, but the concept of validity needed in such an explanation cannot be the traditional one. For an inference to be legitimate in a proof it must have sufficient epistemic power, so that the proof really justifies its final conclusion. However, the epistemic concepts used to account for this power are in their turn usually explained in terms of the concept of proof. To get out of this circle we may (...)
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  15. Meaning and Proofs: On the Conflict Between Classical and Intuitionistic Logic.Dag Prawitz - 1977 - Theoria 43 (1):2--40.
  16.  32
    Quantifiers in Formal and Natural Languages.Dag Westerståhl - 1989 - In Dov Gabbay & Franz Guenthner (eds.), Handbook of Philosophical Logic. Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 1--131.
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  17. On the Idea of a General Proof Theory.Dag Prawitz - 1974 - Synthese 27 (1-2):63 - 77.
  18. Quantifiers in Language and Logic.Stanley Peters & Dag Westerståhl - 2006 - Clarendon Press.
    Quantification is a topic which brings together linguistics, logic, and philosophy. Quantifiers are the essential tools with which, in language or logic, we refer to quantity of things or amount of stuff. In English they include such expressions as no, some, all, both, many. Peters and Westerstahl present the definitive interdisciplinary exploration of how they work - their syntax, semantics, and inferential role.
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  19.  26
    On the Mathematical and Foundational Significance of the Uncountable.Dag Normann & Sam Sanders - 2019 - Journal of Mathematical Logic 19 (1):1950001.
    We study the logical and computational properties of basic theorems of uncountable mathematics, including the Cousin and Lindelöf lemma published in 1895 and 1903. Historically, these lemmas were among the first formulations of open-cover compactness and the Lindelöf property, respectively. These notions are of great conceptual importance: the former is commonly viewed as a way of treating uncountable sets like e.g. [Formula: see text] as “almost finite”, while the latter allows one to treat uncountable sets like e.g. [Formula: see text] (...)
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  20.  18
    [Omnibus Review].Dag Prawitz - 1991 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 56 (3):1094-1096.
    Reviewed Works:Gaisi Takeuti, Proof Theory.Georg Kreisel, Proof Theory: Some Personal Recollections.Wolfram Pohlers, Contributions of the Schutte School in Munich to Proof Theory.Stephen G. Simpson, Subsystems of $\mathbf{Z}_2$ and Reverse Mathematics.Solomon Feferman, Proof Theory: A Personal Report.
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  21. On the Ethics Behind “Business Ethics”.Dag G. Aasland - 2004 - Journal of Business Ethics 53 (1-2):3-8.
    Ethics in business and economics is often attacked for being too superficial. By elaborating the conclusions of two such critics of business ethics and welfare economics respectively, this article will draw the attention to the ethics behind these apparently well-intended, but not always convincing constructions, by help of the fundamental ethics of Emmanuel Levinas. To Levinas, responsibility is more basic than language, and thus also more basic than all social constructions. Co-operation relations in organizations, markets and value networks are generated (...)
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  22.  8
    Computability Theory, Nonstandard Analysis, and Their Connections.Dag Normann & Sam Sanders - 2019 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 84 (4):1422-1465.
    We investigate the connections between computability theory and Nonstandard Analysis. In particular, we investigate the two following topics and show that they are intimately related. A basic property of Cantor space$2^ $ is Heine–Borel compactness: for any open covering of $2^ $, there is a finite subcovering. A natural question is: How hard is it to compute such a finite subcovering? We make this precise by analysing the complexity of so-called fan functionals that given any $G:2^ \to $, output a (...)
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  23.  94
    The Epistemic Significance of Valid Inference.Dag Prawitz - 2012 - Synthese 187 (3):887-898.
    The traditional picture of logic takes it for granted that "valid arguments have a fundamental epistemic significance", but neither model theory nor traditional proof theory dealing with formal system has been able to give an account of this significance. Since valid arguments as usually understood do not in general have any epistemic significance, the problem is to explain how and why we can nevertheless use them sometimes to acquire knowledge. It is suggested that we should distinguish between arguments and acts (...)
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  24.  44
    Partial Dynamic Semantics for Anaphora: Compositionality Without Syntactic Coindexation.Dag Trygve Truslew Haug - 2014 - Journal of Semantics 31 (4):fft008.
    This article points out problems in current dynamic treatments of anaphora and provides a new account that solves these by grafting Muskens' Compositional Discourse Representation Theory onto a partial theory of types. Partiality is exploited to keep track of which discourse referents have been introduced in the text (thus avoiding the overwrite problem) and to account for cases of anaphoric failure. Another key assumption is that the set of discourse referents is well-ordered, so that we can keep track of the (...)
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  25. Towards a Foundation of General Proof Theory.Dag Prawitz - 1973 - In ¸ Itetsuppes1973. North Holland, Amsterdam.
     
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  26.  14
    Algebraic Recursion Theory.Dag Normann - 1988 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 53 (3):986-987.
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  27.  3
    Avicenna's De Anima in the Latin West: The Formation of a Peripatetic Philosophy of the Soul 1160-1300.Dag Nikolaus Hasse - 2000 - The Warburg Institute.
    In the 12th century the "Book of the Soul" by the philosopher Avicenna was translated from Arabic into Latin. It had an immense success among scholastic writers and deeply influenced the structure and content of many psychological works of the Middle Ages. The reception of Avicenna's book is the story of cultural contact at an imipressively high intellectural level. The present volume investigates this successful reception using two approaches. The first is chronological, tracing the stages by which Avicenna's work was (...)
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  28.  36
    Is the Use of Cholesterol in Mortality Risk Algorithms in Clinical Guidelines Valid? Ten Years Prospective Data From the Norwegian HUNT 2 Study.Dag S. Thelle, Aage Tverdal & Randi Selmer - 2012 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 18 (1):169-169.
  29.  53
    On Mathematical Proofs of the Vacuity of Compositionality.dag westerståhl - 1998 - Linguistics and Philosophy 21 (6):635-643.
  30.  32
    Some Results on Quantifiers.Dag Westerståhl - 1984 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 25 (2):152--169.
  31.  14
    The Strength of Compactness in Computability Theory and Nonstandard Analysis.Dag Normann & Sam Sanders - 2019 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 170 (11):102710.
  32.  6
    Recursion on the Countable Functionals.Dag Normann - 1980 - Springer Verlag.
  33. Pure Quotation and General Compositionality.Peter Pagin & Dag Westerståhl - 2010 - Linguistics and Philosophy 33 (5):381-415.
    Starting from the familiar observation that no straightforward treatment of pure quotation can be compositional in the standard (homomorphism) sense, we introduce general compositionality, which can be described as compositionality that takes linguistic context into account. A formal notion of linguistic context type is developed, allowing the context type of a complex expression to be distinct from those of its constituents. We formulate natural conditions under which an ordinary meaning assignment can be non-trivially extended to one that is sensitive to (...)
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  34.  36
    The Structure of Rights in Directive 95/46/EC on the Protection of Individuals with Regard to the Processing of Personal Data and the Free Movement of Such Data. [REVIEW]Dag Elgesem - 1999 - Ethics and Information Technology 1 (4):283-293.
    The paper has three parts. First, a survey and analysis is given ofthe structure of individual rights in the recent EU Directive ondata protection. It is argued that at the core of this structure isan unexplicated notion of what the data subject can `reasonablyexpect' concerning the further processing of information about himor herself. In the second part of the paper it is argued thattheories of privacy popular among philosophers are not able to shed much light on the issues treated in (...)
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  35. Meaning and Proofs: On the Conflict Between Classical and Intuitionistic Logic.Dag Prawitz - 1977 - Theroia 43:1--40..
     
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  36. Compositionality I: Definitions and Variants.Peter Pagin & Dag Westerståhl - 2010 - Philosophy Compass 5 (3):250-264.
    This is the first part of a two-part article on semantic compositionality, that is, the principle that the meaning of a complex expression is determined by the meanings of its parts and the way they are put together. Here we provide a brief historical background, a formal framework for syntax and semantics, precise definitions, and a survey of variants of compositionality. Stronger and weaker forms are distinguished, as well as generalized forms that cover extra-linguistic context dependence as well as linguistic (...)
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  37.  91
    The Early Albertus Magnus and His Arabic Sources on the Theory of the Soul.Dag Nikolaus Hasse - 2008 - Vivarium 46 (3):232-252.
    Albertus Magnus favours the Aristotelian definition of the soul as the first actuality or perfection of a natural body having life potentially. But he interprets Aristotle's vocabulary in a way that it becomes compatible with the separability of the soul from the body. The term “perfectio” is understood as referring to the soul's activity only, not to its essence. The term “forma” is avoided as inadequate for defining the soul's essence. The soul is understood as a substance which exists independently (...)
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  38.  79
    Consequence Mining: Constans Versus Consequence Relations.Denis Bonnay & Dag Westerståhl - 2012 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 41 (4):671-709.
    The standard semantic definition of consequence with respect to a selected set X of symbols, in terms of truth preservation under replacement (Bolzano) or reinterpretation (Tarski) of symbols outside X, yields a function mapping X to a consequence relation ⇒x. We investigate a function going in the other direction, thus extracting the constants of a given consequence relation, and we show that this function (a) retrieves the usual logical constants from the usual logical consequence relations, and (b) is an inverse (...)
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  39.  46
    Influence of Arabic and Islamic Philosophy on the Latin West.Dag Nikolaus Hasse - 2009 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  40.  52
    What is Special About the Ethical Issues in Online Research?Dag Elgesem - 2002 - Ethics and Information Technology 4 (3):195-203.
    In the analysis of the ethicalproblems of online research, there is much tobe learned from the work that has already beendone on research ethics in the socialsciences and the humanities. I discuss thestructure of norms in the Norwegian ethicalguidelines for research in the social scienceswith respect to their relevance for the ethicalissues of Internet research. A four-stepprocedure for the ethical evaluation ofresearch is suggested. I argue that eventhough, at one level, the problems of onlineresearch are very similar to those we (...)
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  41.  92
    Compositionality Solves Carnap’s Problem.Denis Bonnay & Dag Westerståhl - 2016 - Erkenntnis 81 (4):721-739.
    The standard relation of logical consequence allows for non-standard interpretations of logical constants, as was shown early on by Carnap. But then how can we learn the interpretations of logical constants, if not from the rules which govern their use? Answers in the literature have mostly consisted in devising clever rule formats going beyond the familiar what follows from what. A more conservative answer is possible. We may be able to learn the correct interpretations from the standard rules, because the (...)
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  42.  32
    On the Compositional Extension Problem.Dag Westerståhl - 2004 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 33 (6):549-582.
    A semantics may be compositional and yet partial, in the sense that not all well-formed expressions are assigned meanings by it. Examples come from both natural and formal languages. When can such a semantics be extended to a total one, preserving compositionality? This sort of extension problem was formulated by Hodges, and solved there in a particular case, in which the total extension respects a precise version of the fregean dictum that the meaning of an expression is the contribution it (...)
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  43. Hauptsatz for Higher Order Logic.Dag Prawitz - 1968 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 33 (3):452-457.
  44.  24
    Towards a Re-Interpretation of Business: A Levinasian Approach to Ethics in Business.Dag Aasland - forthcoming - Levinas, Business Ethics.
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  45.  13
    Branching Generalized Quantifiers and Natural Language.Dag Westerståhl - 1987 - In Peter Gärdenfors (ed.), Generalized Quantifiers. Reidel Publishing Company. pp. 269--298.
  46.  73
    Comments on the Papers.Dag Prawitz - 1998 - Theoria 64 (2-3):283-337.
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  47.  76
    Aristotelian Syllogisms and Generalized Quantifiers.Dag Westerståhl - 1989 - Studia Logica 48 (4):577-585.
    The paper elaborates two points: i) There is no principal opposition between predicate logic and adherence to subject-predicate form, ii) Aristotle's treatment of quantifiers fits well into a modern study of generalized quantifiers.
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  48.  11
    Pincherle's Theorem in Reverse Mathematics and Computability Theory.Dag Normann & Sam Sanders - 2020 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 171 (5):102788.
    We study the logical and computational properties of basic theorems of uncountable mathematics, in particular Pincherle's theorem, published in 1882. This theorem states that a locally bounded function is bounded on certain domains, i.e. one of the first ‘local-to-global’ principles. It is well-known that such principles in analysis are intimately connected to (open-cover) compactness, but we nonetheless exhibit fundamental differences between compactness and Pincherle's theorem. For instance, the main question of Reverse Mathematics, namely which set existence axioms are necessary to (...)
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  49.  60
    Explaining Quantifier Restriction: Reply to Ben-Yami.Dag Westerståhl - 2012 - Logique Et Analyse 55 (217):109-120.
    This is a reply to H. Ben-Yami, 'Generalized quantifiers, and beyond' (this journal, 2009), where he argues that standard GQ theory does not explain why natural language quantifiers have a restricted domain of quantification. I argue, on the other hand, that although GQ theory gives no deep explanation of this fact, it does give a sort of explanation, whereas Ben-Yami's suggested alternative is no improvement.
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  50. Compositionality II: Arguments and Problems.Peter Pagin & Dag Westerståhl - 2010 - Philosophy Compass 5 (3):265-282.
    This is the second part of a two-part article on compositionality, i.e. the principle that the meaning of a complex expression is determined by the meanings of its parts and the way they are put together. In the first, Pagin and Westerståhl (2010), we provide a general historical background, a formal framework, definitions, and a survey of variants of compositionality. It will be referred to as Part I. Here we discuss arguments for and against the claim that natural languages have (...)
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