Kasm does not offer any concept of proof which is regulative for all metaphysics, for he is convinced that each metaphysical approach requires its own proper logic and methodology. Within this pluralistic framework he seeks to discern the structure of formal truth as expressed in the concept of proof inherent in various metaphysical approaches.--L. S. F.
This is the third edition of a book originally published in the 1970s; it provides a systematic and nicely organized presentation of the elegant method of using Boolean-valued models to prove independence results. Four things are new in the third edition: background material on Heyting algebras, a chapter on ‘Boolean-valued analysis’, one on using Heyting algebras to understand intuitionistic set theory, and an appendix explaining how Boolean and Heyting algebras look from the perspective of category theory. The book presents results (...) from a number of set theorists and includes an insightful and informative foreword by Dana Scott. Bell's presentation is lively and pleasant to read, and the material is given in a nicely cohesive way.One obvious reason to be interested in independence proofs is that they concern the important question, what is the set-theoretic hierarchy like? The proofs in Bell's book cover some of the most basic and fundamental independence results, such as those concerning the size of the continuum, the independence of the Axiom of Choice from ZF, cardinal collapsing, Souslin's hypothesis, and Martin's Axiom.Since Gödel's incompleteness theorem, it has been known that for any serious candidate list of set-theoretic axioms, there will be statements neither provable nor disprovable from those axioms. What is really interesting, however, and what the independence proofs discussed here show, is how many of the most natural questions about sets are not decided by the standard axioms of ZFC, and how …. (shrink)
Perspective taking is a critical yet tangled construct that is used to describe a range of psychological processes and that is applied interchangeably with related constructs. The resulting ambiguity is particularly vexing in science education, where although perspective taking is recognized as critical to informed citizens’ ability to negotiate scientifically related societal issues, or socioscientific issues via socioscientific reasoning, the precise nature of perspective taking remains elusive. To operationalize perspective taking, a theoretical conceptual analysis was employed and used to position (...) perspective taking within the context of SSR. The resulting, more precise construct identified as socioscientific perspective taking requires engagement with others or their circumstances, an etic/emic shift in one’s viewpoint, and a moral context guided by conscience. (shrink)
This paper argues that the impasse in Catholic moral theology around the role of the object in determining the moral species of the act was rooted in shared misunderstandings of Thomas Aquinas's analysis of human action. The paper describes Thomas's account of moral action centering upon his claim in ST I-II.18.6 that the object is twofold. This distinction was often missed on both sides of the proportionalist debates. The paper argues that understanding the moral object as twofold upholds the essential (...) elements of both sides of the proportionalist debates, holding them in their rightful balance. Moreover such an understanding offers an essential framework for Catholic theologians attending to the essential connection between acts and agents in accounts of morality. (shrink)