Results for 'Danièle Dubois'

882 found
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  1.  14
    Promoting Advance Planning for Health Care and Research Among Older Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial.Gina Bravo, Marcel Arcand, Danièle Blanchette, Anne-Marie Boire-Lavigne, Marie-France Dubois, Maryse Guay, Paule Hottin, Julie Lane, Judith Lauzon & Suzanne Bellemare - 2012 - BMC Medical Ethics 13 (1):1.
    Background: Family members are often required to act as substitute decision-makers when health care or research participation decisions must be made for an incapacitated relative. Yet most families are unable to accurately predict older adult preferences regarding future health care and willingness to engage in research studies. Discussion and documentation of preferences could improve proxies' abilities to decide for their loved ones. This trial assesses the efficacy of an advance planning intervention in improving the accuracy of substitute decision-making and increasing (...)
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  2.  16
    Does Promoting Research Advance Planning in a General Elderly Population Enhance Completion of a Research Directive and Proxies' Predictive Ability? A Randomized Controlled Trial.Gina Bravo, Lise Trottier, Marie-France Dubois, Marcel Arcand, Danièle Blanchette, Anne-Marie Boire-Lavigne, Maryse Guay, Paule Hottin, Julie Lane, Suzanne Bellemare & Karen Painter - 2016 - Ajob Empirical Bioethics 7 (3):183-192.
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  3.  32
    Identity and Autonomy of Psychology in Cognitive Sciences: Some Remarks From Language Processing and Knowledge Representation.Daniele Dubois - 1994 - World Futures 42 (1):71-78.
    (1994). Identity and autonomy of psychology in cognitive sciences: Some remarks from language processing and knowledge representation. World Futures: Vol. 42, No. 1-2, pp. 71-78.
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  4.  8
    Cultural Beliefs as Nontrivial Constraints on Categorization: Evidence From Colors and Odors.Danièle Dubois - 1997 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20 (2):188-188.
    The following provides further arguments for the nonuniversality of color as an autonomous dimension. Research on odors suggests that there are cultural constraints on the abstraction of dimensions for objects. Color vision analysis leads to an overemphasis on the role of perceptual processes in categorization. The study of odors points to human activities as a more important principle of categorization that drives the perceptual processing and suggests a reconsideration of vision itself.
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  5. Essays on Berkeley: A Tercentennial Celebration.Pierre Dubois - 1989 - History of European Ideas 10 (5):603-605.
    This book-review was written by Professor Pierre Dubois just before his untimely death. The Editors are grateful to his wife, Dr Elfrieda Dubois, for preparing the text for publication in History of European Ideas.
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  6.  9
    The Souls of Black Folk.W. E. B. DuBois - unknown
  7. Judgments About Moral Responsibility and Determinism in Patients with Behavioural Variant of Frontotemporal Dementia: Still Compatibilists.Florian Cova, Maxime Bertoux, Sacha Bourgeois-Gironde & Bruno Dubois - 2012 - Consciousness and Cognition 21 (2):851-864.
    Do laypeople think that moral responsibility is compatible with determinism? Recently, philosophers and psychologists trying to answer this question have found contradictory results: while some experiments reveal people to have compatibilist intuitions, others suggest that people could in fact be incompatibilist. To account for this contradictory answers, Nichols and Knobe (2007) have advanced a ‘performance error model’ according to which people are genuine incompatibilist that are sometimes biased to give compatibilist answers by emotional reactions. To test for this hypothesis, we (...)
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  8. A Direct Comparison of Unconscious Face Processing Under Masking and Interocular Suppression.Gregory Izatt, Julien Dubois, Nathan Faivre & Christof Koch - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
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  9.  14
    From Blanché's Hexagonal Organization of Concepts to Formal Concept Analysis and Possibility Theory.Didier Dubois & Henri Prade - 2012 - Logica Universalis 6 (1-2):149-169.
    The paper first introduces a cube of opposition that associates the traditional square of opposition with the dual square obtained by Piaget’s reciprocation. It is then pointed out that Blanché’s extension of the square-of-opposition structure into an conceptual hexagonal structure always relies on an abstract tripartition. Considering quadripartitions leads to organize the 16 binary connectives into a regular tetrahedron. Lastly, the cube of opposition, once interpreted in modal terms, is shown to account for a recent generalization of formal concept analysis, (...)
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  10.  8
    An Empirical Comparison of Rhythm in Language and Music.Aniruddh D. Patel & Joseph R. Daniele - 2003 - Cognition 87 (1):B35-B45.
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  11.  1
    Physician Decision Making and the Web of Influence.James M. DuBois - 2017 - American Journal of Bioethics 17 (6):24-26.
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  12.  20
    Professional Decision-Making in Research : The Validity of a New Measure.James M. DuBois, John T. Chibnall, Raymond C. Tait, Jillon S. Vander Wal, Kari A. Baldwin, Alison L. Antes & Michael D. Mumford - 2016 - Science and Engineering Ethics 22 (2):391-416.
    In this paper, we report on the development and validity of the Professional Decision-Making in Research measure, a vignette-based test that examines decision-making strategies used by investigators when confronted with challenging situations in the context of empirical research. The PDR was administered online with a battery of validity measures to a group of NIH-funded researchers and research trainees who were diverse in terms of age, years of experience, types of research, and race. The PDR demonstrated adequate reliability and parallel form (...)
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  13.  13
    The Ethics of Creating and Responding to Doubts About Death Criteria.J. M. Dubois - 2010 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 35 (3):365-380.
    Expressing doubts about death criteria can serve healthy purposes, but can also cause a number of harms, including decreased organ donation rates and distress for donor families and health care staff. This paper explores the various causes of doubts about death criteria—including religious beliefs, misinformation, mistrust, and intellectual questions—and recommends responses to each of these. Some recommended responses are relatively simple and noncontroversial, such as providing accurate information. However, other responses would require significant changes to the way we currently do (...)
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  14.  18
    Environmental Factors Contributing to Wrongdoing in Medicine: A Criterion-Based Review of Studies and Cases.James M. DuBois, Emily E. Anderson, Kelly Carroll, Tyler Gibb, Elena Kraus, Timothy Rubbelke & Meghan Vasher - 2012 - Ethics and Behavior 22 (3):163 - 188.
    In this article we describe our approach to understanding wrongdoing in medical research and practice, which involves the statistical analysis of coded data from a large set of published cases. We focus on understanding the environmental factors that predict the kind and the severity of wrongdoing in medicine. Through review of empirical and theoretical literature, consultation with experts, the application of criminological theory, and ongoing analysis of our first 60 cases, we hypothesize that 10 contextual features of the medical environment (...)
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  15.  4
    Darkwater; Voices From Within the Veil.W. E. B. DuBois - unknown
  16.  51
    An Analysis of the Determinants of the Feeling of Knowing.Ayanna K. Thomas, John B. Bulevich & Stacey J. Dubois - 2012 - Consciousness and Cognition 21 (4):1681-1694.
    Research has demonstrated that feeling-of-knowing judgments are affected by the amount of accessible information related to an inaccessible target. Further, studies have demonstrated that, in some situations, FOK judgment magnitude is not only related to the amount of accessed features, but also the correctness of those features . The present study examined the conditions under which the correctness of features would influence FOK judgment magnitude. We hypothesized that accuracy of retrieved features would influence FOK judgments, but only in situations where (...)
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  17.  14
    Fuzzy Sets and Systems: Theory and Applications.Didier DuBois - 1997 - Academic Press.
    / Part INTRODUCTION Fuzziness is not a priori an obvious concept and demands some explanation. "Fuzziness" is what Black (NF) calls "vagueness" when ...
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  18.  25
    Some Syntactic Approaches to the Handling of Inconsistent Knowledge Bases: A Comparative Study Part 1: The Flat Case.Salem Benferhat, Didier Dubois & Henri Prade - 1997 - Studia Logica 58 (1):17-45.
    This paper presents and discusses several methods for reasoning from inconsistent knowledge bases. A so-called argued consequence relation, taking into account the existence of consistent arguments in favour of a conclusion and the absence of consistent arguments in favour of its contrary, is particularly investigated. Flat knowledge bases, i.e., without any priority between their elements, are studied under different inconsistency-tolerant consequence relations, namely the so-called argumentative, free, universal, existential, cardinality-based, and paraconsistent consequence relations. The syntax-sensitivity of these consequence relations is (...)
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  19. The Development of a People.W. E. Burghardt DuBois - 1904 - International Journal of Ethics 14 (3):292-311.
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  20.  14
    Building a Science of Individual Differences From fMRI.Julien Dubois & Ralph Adolphs - 2016 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 20 (6):425-443.
  21. Three-Valued Logics for Incomplete Information and Epistemic Logic.Davide Ciucci & Didier Dubois - 2012 - In Luis Farinas del Cerro, Andreas Herzig & Jerome Mengin (eds.), Logics in Artificial Intelligence. Springer. pp. 147--159.
  22.  33
    Inverse Retinotopy: Inferring the Visual Content of Images From Brain Activation Patterns.Bertrand Thirion, Edouard Duchesnay, Edward M. Hubbard, Jessica Dubois, Jean-Baptiste Poline, Denis Lebihan & Stanislas Dehaene - 2006 - NeuroImage 33 (4):1104-1116.
  23.  1
    On Ignorance and Contradiction Considered as Truth-Values.Didier Dubois - 2008 - Logic Journal of the IGPL 16 (1):195--216.
    A critical view of the alleged significance of Belnap four-valued logic for reasoning under inconsistent and incomplete information is provided. The difficulty lies in the confusion between truth-values and information states, when reasoning about Boolean propositions. So our critique is along the lines of previous debates on the relevance of many-valued logics and especially of the extension of the Boolean truth-tables to more than two values as a tool for reasoning about uncertainty. The critique also questions the significance of partial (...)
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  24.  12
    Dead Tired of Repetitious Debates About Death Criteria.James M. DuBois - 2011 - American Journal of Bioethics 11 (8):45-47.
  25. Torture and Truth.Page DuBois - 1991 - Routledge.
     
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  26.  8
    Compliance Disengagement in Research: Development and Validation of a New Measure.James M. DuBois, John T. Chibnall & John Gibbs - 2016 - Science and Engineering Ethics 22 (4):965-988.
    In the world of research, compliance with research regulations is not the same as ethics, but it is closely related. One could say that compliance is how most societies with advanced research programs operationalize many ethical obligations. This paper reports on the development of the How I Think about Research questionnaire, which is an adaptation of the How I Think questionnaire that examines the use of cognitive distortions to justify antisocial behaviors. Such an adaptation was justified based on a review (...)
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  27.  18
    IRB Decision-Making with Imperfect Knowledge: A Framework for Evidence-Based Research Ethics Review.Emily E. Anderson & James M. DuBois - 2012 - Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 40 (4):951-969.
    Here we describe the five steps of evidence-based practice as applied to research ethics review and apply these steps to three exemplar dilemmas: incentive payments in substance abuse research; informed consent for biobanking; and placebo-controlled trials involving pregnant women in order to demonstrate the potential of empirical data to inform and improve IRB decision-making.
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  28.  2
    Non-Therapeutic Intensive Care for Organ Donation.Stéphanie Camut, Antoine Baumann, Véronique Dubois, Xavier Ducrocq & Gérard Audibert - 2016 - Nursing Ethics 23 (2):191-202.
  29.  29
    Reasoning in Moral Conflicts.Monica Bucciarelli & Margherita Daniele - 2015 - Thinking and Reasoning 21 (3):265-294.
    Following the assumptions of the mental model theory and its account of moral judgements, we argue for a main role of reasoning in moral judgements, especially in dealing with moral conflicts. In four experiments, we invited adult participants to evaluate scenarios describing moral or immoral actions. Our results confirm the predictions deriving from our assumptions: Given a moral or immoral scenario, the manipulation of the propositions which refer to norms and values results in a scenario eliciting a moral conflict ; (...)
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  30.  2
    IRB Decision-Making with Imperfect Knowledge: A Framework for Evidence-Based Research Ethics Review.Emily E. Anderson & James M. DuBois - 2012 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 40 (4):951-969.
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  31.  4
    What Counts as Empirical Research in Bioethics and Where Do We Find the Stuff?James DuBois - 2009 - American Journal of Bioethics 9 (6-7):70-72.
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  32.  23
    Qualitative Heuristics For Balancing the Pros and Cons.Jean-François Bonnefon, Didier Dubois, Hélène Fargier & Sylvie Leblois - 2008 - Theory and Decision 65 (1):71-95.
    Balancing the pros and cons of two options is undoubtedly a very appealing decision procedure, but one that has received scarce scientific attention so far, either formally or empirically. We describe a formal framework for pros and cons decisions, where the arguments under consideration can be of varying importance, but whose importance cannot be precisely quantified. We then define eight heuristics for balancing these pros and cons, and compare the predictions of these to the choices made by 62 human participants (...)
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  33. ""Lambda Theory: Introduction of a Constant for" Nothing" Into Set Theory, a Model of Consistency and Most Noticeable Conclusions.Laurent Dubois - 2013 - Logique Et Analyse 56 (222):165-181.
    The purpose of this article is to present several immediate consequences of the introduction of a new constant called Lambda in order to represent the object ``nothing" or ``void" into a standard set theory. The use of Lambda will appear natural thanks to its role of condition of possibility of sets. On a conceptual level, the use of Lambda leads to a legitimation of the empty set and to a redefinition of the notion of set. It lets also clearly appear (...)
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  34.  21
    Is Compliance a Professional Virtue of Researchers? Reflections on Promoting the Responsible Conduct of Research.James M. DuBois - 2004 - Ethics and Behavior 14 (4):383 – 395.
    Evidence exists that behavioral and social science researchers have been frustrated with regulations and institutional review boards (IRBs) from the 1970s through today. Making matters worse, many human participants protection instruction programs - now mandated by IRBs - offer inadequate reasons why researchers should comply with regulations and IRBs. Promoting compliance either for its own sake or to avoid penalties is contrary to the developmental aims of moral education and may be ineffective in fostering the responsible conduct of research. This (...)
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  35. Experimental Evidence of the Formation of D-Like States Near the Fermi Energy in Complex Metallic Alloys.E. Belin-Ferré & J. -M. Dubois - 2008 - Philosophical Magazine 88 (13-15):2163-2170.
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  36.  8
    Self-Regulation of Science: What Can We Still Learn From Asilomar?Carole R. Baskin, Robert A. Gatter, Mark J. Campbell, James M. Dubois & Allison C. Waits - 2016 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 59 (3):364-381.
    Ethical decision-making in public health rarely involves simply avoiding a bad choice in favor of a good choice. Instead, it requires policymakers to strike a balance among conflicting goals that are all good—goals such as the health of populations and individuals, knowledge gained through scientific research, autonomy, social justice, and the efficient use of limited resources. This balance can be elusive, and perfect examples are the legal instruments governing dual-use research, a term describing scientific endeavors meant to produce beneficial knowledge (...)
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  37. When Language Affects Cognition and When It Does Not: An Analysis of Grammatical Gender and Classification.Maria D. Sera, Chryle Elieff, James Forbes, Melissa Clark Burch, Wanda Rodríguez & Diane Poulin Dubois - 2002 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 131 (3):377-397.
  38.  2
    Accepted Beliefs, Revision and Bipolarity in the Possibilistic Framework.Didier Dubois & Henri Prade - 2009 - In Franz Huber & Christoph Schmidt-Petri (eds.), Degrees of Belief. Springer. pp. 161--184.
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  39. Possibility Theory, Probability Theory, and Muliple-Valued Logics: A Clarification.Henri Prade & D. Dubois - 2001 - Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence 32:35--66.
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  40.  1
    On Ignorance and Contradiction Considered as Truth-Values.D. Dubois - 2007 - Logic Journal of the IGPL 16 (2):195-216.
    A critical view of the alleged significance of Belnap four-valued logic for reasoning under inconsistent and incomplete information is provided. The difficulty lies in the confusion between truth-values and information states, when reasoning about Boolean propositions. So our critique is along the lines of previous debates on the relevance of many-valued logics and especially of the extension of the Boolean truth-tables to more than two values as a tool for reasoning about uncertainty. The critique also questions the significance of partial (...)
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  41.  40
    Sainte-Beuve, Tocqueville e la religione della libertà.Lorenzini Daniele - 2010 - In Olivia Catanorchi & David Ragazzoni (eds.), Il Destino Della Democrazia: Attualità di Tocqueville. Edizioni di Storia E Letteratura. pp. 43--61.
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  42.  32
    A Practical Approach to Revising Prioritized Knowledge Bases.Salem Benferhat, Didier Dubois, Henri Prade & Mary-Anne Williams - 2002 - Studia Logica 70 (1):105-130.
    This paper investigates simple syntactic methods for revising prioritized belief bases, that are semantically meaningful in the frameworks of possibility theory and of Spohn''s ordinal conditional functions. Here, revising prioritized belief bases amounts to conditioning a distribution function on interpretations. The input information leading to the revision of a knowledge base can be sure or uncertain. Different types of scales for priorities are allowed: finite vs. infinite, numerical vs. ordinal. Syntactic revision is envisaged here as a process which transforms a (...)
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  43.  48
    Knowledge-Driven Versus Data-Driven Logics.Didier Dubois, Petr Hájek & Henri Prade - 2000 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 9 (1):65--89.
    The starting point of this work is the gap between two distinct traditions in information engineering: knowledge representation and data - driven modelling. The first tradition emphasizes logic as a tool for representing beliefs held by an agent. The second tradition claims that the main source of knowledge is made of observed data, and generally does not use logic as a modelling tool. However, the emergence of fuzzy logic has blurred the boundaries between these two traditions by putting forward fuzzy (...)
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  44.  6
    Introduction: Conflicting Interest in Medicine: Stories by Physicians on How Financing Affects Their Work.James M. DuBois - 2011 - Narrative Inquiry in Bioethics 1 (2):65-66.
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  45. Cold Welding and Fretting Tests on Quasicrystals and Related Compounds.M. Sales, A. Merstallinger, P. Brunet, M. C. de Weerd, V. Khare, G. Traxler & J. M. Dubois - 2006 - Philosophical Magazine 86 (6-8):965-970.
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  46.  32
    Is Anesthesia Intrinsically Wrong? On Moral Absolutes and Natural Law Methodology.J. M. Dubois - 2008 - Christian Bioethics 14 (2):206-216.
    This article engages two fundamentally different kinds of so-called natural law arguments in favor of specific moral absolutes: Elizabeth Anscombe's claim that certain actions are known to be intrinsically wrong through intuition (or mystical perceptions), and John Finnis's claim that such actions are known to be wrong because they involve acting directly against a basic human good. Both authors maintain, for example, that murder and contraceptive sexual acts are known to be wrong, always and everywhere, through their respective epistemological lens. (...)
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  47. First-Principles Study of Low-Index Surfaces of the Al5Co2complex Metallic Alloy.S. Alarcón Villaseca, J. -M. Dubois & É Gaudry - 2011 - Philosophical Magazine 91 (19-21):2894-2903.
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  48. Slip Line Analysis Around Nanoindentation Imprints in Ti3SnC2: A New Insight Into Plasticity of MAX-Phase Materials.C. Tromas, P. Villechaise, V. Gauthier-Brunet & S. Dubois - 2011 - Philosophical Magazine 91 (7-9):1265-1275.
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  49.  2
    Author’s Response to Wansing and Belnap’s Generalized Truth-Values.Didier Dubois - 2010 - Logic Journal of the IGPL 18 (6):936-940.
  50.  16
    The Conservation of Races.W. E. B. DuBois - unknown
    This chapter presents an essay by W. E. B. Du Bois that deals with the issue of race. He raises questions such as: What is the real meaning of race. What has, in the past, been the law of race development? What lessons has the past history of race development to teach the rising Negro people? He describes the American Negro Academy, which aims at once to be the epitome and expression of the intellect of the black-blooded people of America, (...)
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