There is much discourse and focus on the social determinants of health, but undergirding these multiple intersecting and interacting determinants are legal and political determinants that have operated at every level and impact the entire life continuum. The United States has long grappled with advancing health equity via public law and policy. Seventy years after the country was founded, lawmakers finally succeeded in passing the first comprehensive and inclusive law aimed at tackling the social determinants of health, but that effort (...) was short-lived. Today the United States is faced with another fork in the road relative to the advancement of health equity. This article draws on lessons from history and law to argue that researchers, providers, payers, lawmakers and the legal community have a moral, economic and national security imperative to address not only the negative outcomes of health disparities, but also the imbalance of inputs resulting from laws and policies which fail to employ an equity lens. (shrink)
In Freedom vs. Intervention, Daniel E. Lee addresses questions around such controversial issues as abortion, legalization of physician-assisted suicide and recreational use of marijuana, and the right to refuse medical treatment, taking an innovative approach by applying traditional just war criteria to questions of intervention.
Focusing on five increasingly interrelated spheres of professional activity-politics, law, engineering, medicine, and science-the contributors to Professional Ethics and Social Responsibility cast new light on familiar ethical quandaries and direct attention to new areas of concern, particularly the institutional setting of contemporary professional activity.
Perfectionism is the name for a moral theory grounded in an ideal of the good life defined in terms of human nature. The historical significance of perfectionism is obvious. For Thomas Hurka, however, the reason for studying it is moral: the central aim of the book is to provide a "descriptive account of the best perfectionism," because "understood properly and in its most defensible version, perfectionism is an important moral option today". There is an historical dimension to his study, and (...) for good reason, namely, that the theory has often been inadequately formulated and it has been associated with dubious concepts and doctrines--Hurka calls them "accretions"--that need to be identified and discussed, so that, somewhat like diseased tissue, they can be cut away. (shrink)
Irish philosopher George Bishop Berkeley was one of the greatest philosophers of the early modern period. Along with David Hume and John Locke he is considered one of the fathers of British Empiricism. Berkeley is a clear, concise, and sympathetic introduction to George Berkeley’s philosophy, and a thorough review of his most important texts. Daniel E. Flage explores his works on vision, metaphysics, morality, and economics in an attempt to develop a philosophically plausible interpretation of Berkeley’s oeuvre as whole. (...) Many scholars blur the rejection of material substance with the claim that only minds and things dependent upon minds exist. However Flage shows how, by distinguishing idealism from immaterialism and arguing that Berkeley’s account of what there is is dependent upon what is known, a careful and plausible philosophy emerges. The author sets out the implications of this valuable insight for Berkeley’s moral and economic works, showing how they are a natural outgrowth of his metaphysics, casting new light on the appreciation of these and other lesser-known areas of Berkeley’s thought. Daniel E. Flage’s Berkeley presents the student and general reader with a clear and eminently readable introduction to Berkeley’s works which also challenges standard interpretations of Berkeley’s philosophy. (shrink)
Irish philosopher George Bishop Berkeley was one of the greatest philosophers of the early modern period. Along with David Hume and John Locke he is considered one of the fathers of British Empiricism. Berkeley is a clear, concise, and sympathetic introduction to George Berkeley’s philosophy, and a thorough review of his most important texts. Daniel E. Flage explores his works on vision, metaphysics, morality, and economics in an attempt to develop a philosophically plausible interpretation of Berkeley’s oeuvre as whole. (...) Many scholars blur the rejection of material substance with the claim that only minds and things dependent upon minds exist . However Flage shows how, by distinguishing idealism from immaterialism and arguing that Berkeley’s account of what there is is dependent upon what is known , a careful and plausible philosophy emerges. The author sets out the implications of this valuable insight for Berkeley’s moral and economic works, showing how they are a natural outgrowth of his metaphysics, casting new light on the appreciation of these and other lesser-known areas of Berkeley’s thought. Daniel E. Flage’s Berkeley presents the student and general reader with a clear and eminently readable introduction to Berkeley’s works which also challenges standard interpretations of Berkeley’s philosophy. (shrink)
This new annotated translation of Chapter Six of Hegel's _Phenomenology of Spirit_, the joint product of a group of scholars that included H. S. Harris, George di Giovanni, John W. Burbidge, and Kenneth Schmitz, represents an advance in accuracy and fluency on previous translations into English of this core chapter of the Phenomenology. Its notes and commentary offer both novice and scholar more guidance to this text than is available in any other translation, and it is thus well suited for (...) use in survey courses. (shrink)
This volume contains eleven essays dealing with the question of how to face the current challenges of globalization. The essays included in this volume were originally presented at the Renvall Institute for Area and Cultural Studies, University of Helsinki, Finland, on the occasion of the Sixth World Congress of the International Society for Universal Dialogue (ISUD) Presents Keynote addresses or prize-winning papers from the Congress Central theme explores the need to rethink our concepts of nature, culture, and freedom in an (...) age of increased globalization Topics examined range from global justice, international law, and human rights to ecoterrorism, cultural relativism, and the challenges of autonomy. (shrink)
Hegel’s Phenomenology of Spirit (1807) was supposed to be the introduction and first part of the Jena System III, and as such it was to introduce us to the other parts of the project. Most commentators on Hegel’s Phenomenology , however, do not consider how the Phenomenology relates the other parts, and some discount Hegel understanding and commitment to the natural philosophy of his day. This paper attempts to make the connection between the Phenomenology and the Natural Philosophy of 1805-06 (...) explicit; to show where and how the connections are made; to identify how Hegel uses the natural sciences of his day in creating his system. By showing this I hope to prove that his concept of Spirit is born within his natural philosophy. It is part of his cosmology. (shrink)
Most commentators who consider Hegel's treatment of the female principle (Weiblichkeit) in the Phenomenology of Spirit only believe that it refers to "True Spirit" and is limited to a brief discussion of Sophocles's character Antigone. This is not actually true. The paper deals with both with the broader question of who represents the female principle and also goes into detail on the first appearance of Antigone in chapter five and on her final appearance in chapter seven, Reason. The female principle (...) returns in Religion as an aspect of Absolute Being. The female goddesses, especially the mother goddess and the Erinyes, embody this principle. Antigone reappears as offering prophetic wisdom for their mission, which is Divine Law and justice. (shrink)
This book covers Schelling's development from the Early Writings through to his System of Transcendental Idealism, and finally Schelling's Philosophy and Religion and Philosophy of Art. Schneider traces Schelling's "way of thinking" beginning with his attempt at a transcendental philosophy centering on the Ego as the primordial principle for the cognition of being, through his explication of the unity of being and thinking in an intellectual intuition, to finally, Schelling's highest achievement in the conception of thinking as art. Art is (...) here considered as the organon or "vehicle" for a philosophy of religion. Schneider contends that this development is a consistent, continuous one devoid of the contradictions that several of the modern commentators attribute to Schelling. Schneider points out that as early as 1794 Schelling saw the central problem in transcendental philosophy as explicating the "eternal in us" and how it can be brought to light through a philosophical methodology. However, Schneider further contends that it was not until Schelling established his philosophy of identity in the System of Transcendental Idealism that he found the method for uncovering the eternal dimensions within consciousness. This discovery was made possible because intellectual intuition, which for the first time was fully worked out in the System, is seen as the apprehension of the invariable unity within the plurality and variability of temporal consciousness. The form of the invariable is the absolute "I" or the primordial self, while that which presents itself in time is the empirical "I" with its content of thought, namely, sensuous intuition. Cognition is accomplished at the point of unity wherein the world in its finitude is "framed" by the transcendental unity of the "I" in pure act. (shrink)
According to various reports, human rights violations in China include the detention of activists, forced abortions and sterilizations, and the repression of religious and spiritual groups, among others. Yet foreign direct investment in China is growing rapidly, as is outsourcing to Chinese producers. By adapting the Sullivan Principles to China, this essay maps out ethical guidelines for U.S. companies operating in China.
The metaphysical center of Plato’s work has traditionally been taken to be his Doctrine of Forms; the epistemological center, the Doctrine of Recollection. The Symposium has been viewed as one of the clearest explanations of the first and Meno as one of the clearest explanations of the other. The Masks of Dionysos challenges these traditional interpretations.
Human Rights and the Ethics of Globalization provides a balanced, thoughtful discussion of the globalization of the economy and the ethical considerations inherent in the many changes it has prompted. The book's introduction maps out the philosophical foundations for constructing an ethic of globalization, taking into account both traditional and contemporary sources. These ideals are applied to four specific test cases: the ethics of investing in China, the case study of the Firestone company's presence in Liberia, free-trade and fair-trade issues (...) pertaining to the coffee trade with Ethiopia and the use of low-wage factories in Mexico to serve the US market. The book concludes with a comprehensive discussion of how to enforce global compliance with basic human rights standards, with particular attention to stopping abuses by multinational corporations through litigation under the Alien Tort Claims Act. (shrink)
A crisis of values underlies the economic uncertainty and anxiety about the future of the United States. The author of this book observes the shift of emphasis from productivity to consumption, from contribution to entitlement, and from long-term investment to short-term gain.
Introduction: All is trash that reason cannot reach : unenlightened writers and the postmodern world -- Learning to read, learning to listen in Robinson Crusoe -- The hymns of Isaac Watts and postmodern worship : aesthetic knowledge as a response to the Enlightenment critique of religion -- Jonathan Swift's information machine and the critique of technology -- Christopher Smart's poetry and the dialogue between science and theology -- Festival and discipline in revolutionary France and postmodern times -- Remembering things past (...) : tradition as a way of knowing in Edmund Burke and Hans-Georg Gadamer -- Reconciling the heart with the head : the poetry of William Cowper and the thought of Michael Polanyi. (shrink)
In Section 38 of the Theory of Vision Vindicated, George Berkeley claims that he had used the method of analysis throughout the Theory of Vision. What does that mean? I first show that "analysis" denoted a fairly well-defined method in the early modern period: it was regularly described as a method of discovery. Then I show that the discussion of distance perception in the Theory of Vision exemplifies the method of analysis and may be seen as a modification of a (...) non-geometrical account of distance vision in Rene Descartes' Optics. (shrink)
In both the Principles of Human Knowledge and the Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous, George Berkeley provides a description of God’s attributes immediately after his arguments for God’s existence. Neither description deems God omnipotent, yet shortly after each he freely uses “omnipotent” and its synonyms to describe God. Why is this? The author argues that his reluctance to ascribe omnipotence is God is the reluctance of a careful philosopher, his willingness is that of a religionist, and his account of (...) language explains why he can speak in two voices. Focusing on Principles §146, the author shows that the argument does not support the claim that God is omnipotent. The notion of omnipotence is ambiguous, so a careful philosopher should avoid it. Nonetheless, his discussion of noncognitive uses of language allows the religionist to use “omnipotent” to express divine veneration. Berkeley’s use of the word “omnipotence” is religious. (shrink)
Many epistemologists classify themselves as either foundationalists or coherentists and assume that the distinction between those epistemic positions is exclusive and exhaustive. Haack explodes that assumption by developing and defending a position which, like foundationalism, grounds knowledge in experience but which incrementally justifies claims by means of coherence. She calls the position foundherentism and takes the crossword puzzle as her model of justification. Just as the clues provide evidence for the correctness of response with respect to individual rows and columns (...) of a crossword puzzle, so empirical experience provides evidence for epistemic claims. Just as the probability of the correctness of one's individual answers increases as the answers fit together in the grid, so the degrees of certainty of one's knowledge increases as bits of empirical evidence fit together in explanatory and logical relations. Her principal explication of foundherentism is developed in chapter 4. (shrink)
In the Third Meditation, Descartes suggests that God, and only God, is self-caused. This claim results in objections, first from Caterus and then from Arnauld, that an efficient cause must be distinct from its effect, and therefore the notion of self-causation is unintelligible. In the course of his reply to Arnauld, Descartes distinguishes between a formal cause and an efficient cause, contends that God's essence is properly the formal cause of God's existence, and attempts to find a cause midway between (...) a formal cause and an efficient cause. (shrink)