Three types of problems are raised in this commentary: On the linguistic side, we emphasize the importance of an appropriate definition of the different domains of linguistics. This is needed to define the domains (lexicon-syntax-semantics) to which transformational relations apply. We then question the concept of Broca's aphasia as a “functional” syndrome, associated with a specific lesion. Finally, we discuss evidence from functional brain imaging. The breadth and potential impact of such evidence has grown considerably in the last few years, (...) expanding our knowledge of the multiple contributions of the “Broca's region” to phonological, lexical-semantic, and syntactic processing. “Lumping” under diagnostic labels, such as Broca's aphasia, should be replaced by more detailed linguistic and neurological descriptions of the clinical cases. (shrink)
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is optimistically portrayed in contemporary media. This already happened with psychosurgery during the first half of the twentieth century. The tendency of popular media to hype the benefits of DBS therapies, without equally highlighting risks, fosters public expectations also due to the lack of ethical analysis in the scientific literature. Media are not expected (and often not prepared) to raise the ethical issues which remain unaddressed by the scientific community. To obtain a more objective portrayal of (...) DBS in the media, a deeper collaboration between the science community and journalists, and particularly specialized ones, must be promoted. Access to databases and articles, directly or through science media centers, has also been proven effective in increasing the quality of reporting. This article has three main objectives. Firstly, to explore the past media coverage of leukotomy, and to examine its widespread acceptance and the neglect of ethical issues in its depiction. Secondly, to describe how current enthusiastic coverage of DBS causes excessive optimism and neglect of ethical issues in patients. Thirdly, to discuss communication models and strategies to enhance media and science responsibility. (shrink)
Transmodern ethics establishes moral norms on liberal, pluralist and pragmatic principles. We see a comeback of the negation morals, however not of ontology-anchored morals, as is the case of the God who picks favourites or of the jealous God paradigm, and not even of morals anchored in a contractualist perspective, as is the case in the modern period. The preferred focus is on the value of positivism, of cooperation as a source of efficiency, of personal enrichment, be it cultural, spiritual, (...) or moral, derived from the access to alterity. Tolerance as an ethical value is legitimised by a new, utilitarian humanism. The ethical construction of identity revolves around the value of loyalty to a tradition, a dogma, a mentality, and by extension to any coherent system liable to generate a sense of belonging. Postindustrial ethics uses for instance the value of loyalty as a strategy in marketing, organisational development, political propaganda etc. The policies used in order to increase the loyalty of a shop's customers, the employee's loyalty for the company she works for, the supporter's loyalty to his team, are the translation in layman terms of the loyalty ethics that in spiritual terms was one of the foundations of orthodoxy as loyalty to the tradition of the holy fathers. The values of equality, liberty and fraternity have been more than that, as they have laid the foundations of the modern society. (shrink)
En este pequeño libro, Daniela Calabrò realiza una reconstrucción minuciosa del recorrido que sigue el pensamiento de Roberto Esposito desde sus primeros escritos hasta la actualidad. Con una capacidad de síntesis admirable, la profesora de la Universidad de Salerno identifica y comenta cada uno de las problemáticas y conceptos fundamentales de la obra de Esposito, desde lo impolítico a lo impersonal.
Artykuł jest próbą ukazania etyki troski jako szczególnego i ciekawego przypadku ekologii społecznej i doktryny zrównoważonego rozwoju. Stawia sobie za cel również unaocznienie politycznego i ekologicznego wymiaru etyki troski. Rozpoczyna się prezentacją krótkiej historii stosunku do troski w zachodniej filozofii społecznej i źródeł kryzysu opieki. W części głównej, z perspektywy teorii Daniela Engstera, stara się odpowiedzieć na pytania: czym jest troska, dlaczego powinniśmy opiekować się innymi, jak powinniśmy dystrybuować obowiązki troski, jakie relacje zachodzą między troska a sprawiedliwością, co łączy (...) etykę troski z liberalizmem, libertarianizmem, socjalizmem, komunitaryzmem i teorią praw naturalnych.The article is an attempt to show care ethics as a particular and interesting case of social ecology and a sustainable development doctrine. It also tries to point the political and ecological aspects of care ethics. The article starts with a short history presentation of the attitude toward care in western social philosophy as the source of care crisis. The main part of the essay tries, from the perspective of Daniel Engster’s theory, to answer the following questions: What is care? Why should we take care of the others? How should care duties be distributed?, What are the relations between care and justice?, What do care ethics and liberalism, libertarianism, socialism, communitarianism and natural law theory have in common? (shrink)
Der Berg, a poem written between 1906 and 1907, is perhaps one of the most emblematic places to approach the relationship between Rainer Maria Rilke and the East. The mountain we are speaking of is Fujiyama, to which the celebrated Japanese painter Katsushika Hokusai dedicated two woodcut cycles. Presumably, Rilke came into contact with Japanese art through Edmond Goncourt, who had devoted precisely to Hokusai a major critical study in 1908. Another version of the story sees Rilke as having read (...) the monograph on Hokusai by Friedrich Perzynski, published in 1904 in the same series where Rilke’s Worpswede was issued. But let us read the text first:On several occasions, the artist tried to capture the.. (shrink)