This paper argues that a number of medical professionals, medical authorities, governments and the World Health Organization, have acted unethically during the COVID-19 epidemic and pandemic by advising members of the public not to wear masks to protect their own health and the health of those around them. Although by April 2020 most authorities have changed their advice to recommend or even compel citizens to wear face coverings and masks when in public, we need to examine the question of failed (...) moral responsibility and the accountability for this erroneous advice. (shrink)
This book discusses a variety of world views that we can find to describe human relationships with the environment, and the underlying values in them. It reviews existing international legal instruments discussing some of the ethical values that have been agreed among member states of the United Nations.
There are positive views towards use of science and technology in all Asian countries, and positive views towards use of enhancement in China, India and Thailand. After considering of the widespread use of cosmetic surgery and other body enhancements in Asian countries, and the generally positive views towards letting individuals make choices about improvement of themselves, the paper concludes that we can expect other enhancements to also be adopted rapidly in Asia. There will be future ethical dilemmas emerging from this (...) with concepts of preservation of nature, flow with nature, and definitions of human-ness, along with concepts of harmony and social justice. Japan is less willing to engage in genetic enhancement compared to China, India and Thailand, despite widespread cosmetic surgery across Asia. (shrink)
Abstract An International Bioethics Education Survey was conducted in Australia (A), Japan (J) and New Zealand (NZ) in mid?1993. National random samples of high schools were selected, and mail response questionnaires were sent to a biology (b) and a social studies (s) teacher at each school through the principals. The number of respondents and response rate were: NZb 206 (55%), NZs 96 (26%), Ab 251 (48%), As 114 (22%), Jb 560 (40%) and Js 383 (27%). This paper compares knowledge and (...) teaching of 15 selected topics related to bioethics and biotechnology, with particular focus on the teaching of social, ethical and environmental issues of in vitro fertilisation, prenatal diagnosis, biotechnology, nuclear power, pesticides and genetic engineering. The survey found that these issues were, generally, covered more in biology classes than in social science classes; and that there were differences in coverage among the three countries, with most coverage in Australia and least in Japan. Open questions looked at images of bioethics, and the reasons why about 90% of teachers thought bioethics was needed in education. Open questions on teaching materials, current and desired are also discussed. The data suggest a need for the development of more and higher quality materials, for the moral education that is conducted, especially in biology and social studies classes. (shrink)
This book examines some possible ethical principles to resolve moral dilemmas involving water. Existing problems in current water management practices are discussed in light of these principles. Transformation of human water ethics has the potential to be far more effective, cheaper and acceptable than some existing means of “regulation”, but transformation of personal and societal ethics need time because the changes to ethical values are slow.
FAO has a unique and essential rolein addressing the ethical problems facinghumanity and in making these problems intoopportunities for practical resolution. A broadrange of ethical issues in agriculture,fisheries, and forestry were identified byanalysis of the literature and by interviewswith FAO staff. Issues include sharing accessto and preserving natural resources,introduction of new technology, conservatismover the use of genetic engineering, ethics inanimal agriculture, access to information, foodsecurity, sustainable rural development,ensuring participation of all people indecision making and in receiving benefits ofagriculture, reducing corruption, (...) andinvolvement of private and public sectors indecision making. Rather than viewing theseissues as problems, they should be viewed asopportunities for debate, learning aboutothers' views, and resolution. The UnitedNations has an important role to play in howdecisions are made in the global ethical debatein food and agriculture. The ethical role ofFAO is to promote global food security,balanced conservation, management andutilization of natural resources, andsustainable rural development. FAO should fullyand publicly assume its ethicalresponsibilities, gathering and sharinginformation on ethics in its areas of mandate,acting as an interactive forum, and providingexpert guidance on policy options and choicesbased on practical ethical analysis. (shrink)
Youth constitute one third of total population in Nepal. This paper looks at the work and motivation of youth volunteers in disaster management in Nepal in order to evaluate how these ideas and values among the youth played roles in the re-construction of the Nation from the 2015 Earthquake. The study used primary data through group interviews with volunteers of Youth’s UNESCO Club in Kathmandu city who were actively involved in disaster-relief programs at Sindhupalchowk, Kathmandu, Bhaktapur and Ramechhap districts, together (...) with key informant interviews and case studies. Findings from the study shows most youth joined in the volunteer program on their own initiative. They are concerned about issues including personal safety, quality and appropriate training, coordination, wrong attitudes, gender inequality and media coverage. People engaging in similar acts may have different underlying motivations for doing so. Findings from the study shows that mostly, the volunteers are motivated based on their values which are welfare of others or unselfishness. Other underlying motives include opportunity to learn, career prospects, social pressure, to reduce feelings of guilt and enhance one‘s self-esteem. Activities for taking forward their work includes ensuring quality and appropriate training and appropriate gears and tools for search and rescue work, awareness raising, recognition and visibility of their work. Psychosocial counseling is important after rescue operations, as it is important to heal the psychological wounds after an emergency or a critical event. The study suggests involving volunteers in all stages of disaster management planning process. It is a matter of combined responsibility that volunteers are recognized for the contributions and their needs are ensured for them to accomplish their efforts successfully. (shrink)
Caffeine, a known CNS stimulant is given as an adjunct component in most abused drugs which could be fatal with repeated administration in many circumstances. This paper presents a study to investigate the effect of repeated administration of caffeine at high dose on rat liver, and discusses ethical and policy issues of caffeine use. Long Evans rats were treated with pure caffeine solution in distilled water through intragastric route once daily for consecutive 56 days. Three groups of rats recognized as (...) low dose, high dose and control group received 6mg caffeine / kg BW, 12mg caffeine / kg BW and distilled water, respectively. Rat plasma was examined for liver transaminases and alkaline phosphatases concentrations which were significantly increased in plasma as compared to the control. Both rat plasma and liver homogenate were subjected to estimate malondialdehyde, advanced oxidation protein product, nitric oxide, antioxidant enzyme catalase, glutathione and superoxide dismutase activity. MDA, AOPP, NO levels increased and SOD activity decreased significantly in both plasma and liver as compared to those of control where as CAT and GSH activity remain unchanged. Rat liver tissues were studied histochemically with Hematoxylin and Eosin, and Picro Sirius Red staining. Significantly increased infiltration of inflammatory cells and progressive deposition of collagen fibre were visible in liver tissue of caffeine treated both dose groups as compared to the control. Long term administration of caffeine at higher dose, significantly contributes to liver inflammation and consequent fibrogenesis. This raises significant ethical and policy issues. (shrink)
Construction of rural roads started to expand in Nepal since the 1980s and is still an ongoing process, however environmental considerations have been considered since the mid 1990s. Adoption of environmental safeguards in development projects have been an important aspect of project cycle although there is lot more to do at the field level. In this study, three different ongoing projects in different regions of Nepal have been accessed at the field level and mitigation measures were examined in order to (...) study the effectiveness of those measures. This study reviews a lot of mitigation measures that have been proposed and each of them were implemented at the field level. A successful implementation of mitigation measures was found but it still recommends that there is still a lot more room for improvement. (shrink)
This paper discusses whether the roots of our ecological crisis and materialistic world views are derived from the Biblical view of the role of human beings in nature or whether these are derived from English language translations of Genesis 1:28 and Western philosophy. We suggest that the Hebrew word RADAH no longer be translated as dominion over nature, rather take over is a better interpretation. Eastern and Western views of nature are discussed.
This survey has been designed as a multinationalcollaboration to collect data from several countries focusing ondeveloping countries. The main purpose was to elaborate thefunctions of ethics committees regarding externally-sponsoredresearch . In March 2004 a total of 89 open-endedquestionnaires were sent to ethics review committees inmedical schools, medical research institutes and hospitalsaffiliated to the public and private medical universities inJapan.Twenty two ECs replied , and among them five ECshad reviewed eleven ESR proposals in 2002-3. Five of thoseESR proposals have been approved (...) and four proposals havebeen approved after some revisions. Two proposals weredeferred but not resumed. In their review, respondents weremore concerned about “individual consent” than “communityconsent”. Post-trial access to effective interventions was not areal concern. As for “Standard of care”, seven ECs replied thatthey review the ESR proposal based on the internationalstandards and four based on the local standards. WhetherESR proposal is matched with the national health prioritieswas not a great concern. Respondents expressed theirconcern about socio-cultural issues.Ethics in research especially dealing with externallysponsoredresearch is a relatively new subject and underdevelopment in Japan. Although Japan is not a developingcountry, in order to protect individual human subjects and localcommunity, capacity building in ethics review especially inresearch collaboration with other developed and developingcountries is crucial and it has to be included in ethics inresearch programs through out the country. (shrink)
Introduction: Pharmaceutical companies offer various gifts to physicians to encourage them to prescribe their products. This collaboration has some negative and positive aspects. Different countries have established guidelines to limit the collaboration and reform such relationships. This study aims to determine the attitude of Bangladeshi medical students towards pharmaceutical gifts, physician-pharmacist collaboration, and associated factors. Methods: An online cross-sectional and correlational study was conducted through email and Google-Forms among Bangladeshi medical students. A total of 435 students from different medical colleges (...) completed the questionnaires in May and June, 2016. Results: Monthly parental income was moderate among the majority of medical students. Less than 16% had a physician or pharmacist parent. Most of the students were taught about medical ethics, but 73% were not taught about the ethics of physician-pharmacist collaboration. About 85% did not have any experience of interaction with marketing representatives. Drug samples and pennotepads were the most appreciated pharmaceutical gifts. Jewelry and gifts costing more than 100 thousand were said to be the least appreciated pharmaceutical gifts. Attitudes towards drug companies and representatives were assessed by fifteen statements. Medical students had a variety of attitudes regarding its ethical justification. Attitudes were correlated with gender, parental income, physician parents, academic years, and having been taught about pharmaceutical collaboration with physicians. Conclusion and Recommendations: medical students should elaborate on ethical reasoning before accepting pharmaceutical gifts. Medical colleges and curriculums should teach them about the interaction. A national guideline may be needed. (shrink)
The concept of dignity is the foundation of fundamental rights expressed in international declarations on human rights and bioethics. Sometimes there are collisions of rights, which must be weighed. However, more often dignity is invoked in order to argue for or against the same issue. Is it possible that a concept can be so broad that it becomes meaningless? What do we mean when we argue for moral decisions based on dignity? This paper aims at understanding dignity as a construct, (...) in an analytical and evolutionary cross-cultural approach, from a Western and Eastern view, and then considers its impact on the teaching of human rights and biolaw. (shrink)
The present study was aimed at gaining a broad opinion regarding bioethical reasoning amongst student fraternity. These students had been admitted to medical schools after completion of their high school . Ethnically all the students were of Indian origin though they belonged to a diverse socio-economic-cultural background. The mean age of students was 18 years and a total of 125 first year medical students were questioned in 1998 , using the questionnaire designed by Macer with some modifications. The observations revealed (...) the fact that even though fair amount of awareness regarding the wide perspectives of bioethics did prevail amongst many, yet some sense of ignorance was reflected as well. However, the respondents were divided on various sensitive issues like cloning, in vitro fertilisation etc. The results suggest enforcement of both individual and collective efforts to arouse the consciousness of students regarding bioethics and application of bioethical decision making to dilemmas posed by science and technology. (shrink)
The intensification of debate over environmental ethics in recent years have clarified some ethical arguments such as autonomy, justice, beneficence, non-maleficence, trans-generational ethics and the rights of nature. However, we can ask if these ethical principles could become an incentive for people to act considering the environment. A questionnaire sheet for use in face-to-face interviews was developed to explore the ideas of the general public in order to describe the attitudes and behaviour towards transportation using private cars. People were interviewed (...) to ask how they think of the use of private cars in the future, and whether they have restricted their use of private cars considering the environment, using open-ended questions. According to this survey, it is suggested that while more than 90% of the general public in Japan think the environment faces serious problems, most lack concrete knowledge about why environmental problems are dangerous. Among those who object to restrictions on private car use, there are also many respondents who expect a solution from the development of science and technology, as well as the general state of mind and society that considers a convenient life to be most important. (shrink)
Non-communicable diseases disproportionately affect low and middle-income countries where nearly three quarters of NCD deaths occur. Bangladesh is also in NCD burden. This cross-sectional study was done on 50 health facilities centres at Gazipur district in Bangladesh from July 2015 to December 2015 to introduce SARA for better monitoring and evaluation of non-communicable diseases health service delivery. The General Service readiness index score was 61.52% refers to the fact that about 62% of all the facilities were ready to provide general (...) services like basic amenities, basic equipment, standard precautions for infection prevention, and diagnostic capacity and essential medicines to the patients. But in case of non-communicable diseases, among all the health facilities 40% had chronic respiratory disease and cardiovascular diseases diagnosis/ management and only 32% had availability of diabetes diagnosis/management. Overall readiness score was 52% in chronic respiratory disease, 73% in cardiovascular disease and 70% in diabetes. Therefore, service availability and readiness of the health facilities to provide NCD related health services were not up to the mark for facing future targets. A full-scale census survey of all the facilities of the study area would give a better understanding of the availability and service readiness. (shrink)
This paper compares the opinions that people in Thailand have on the impact of bioethics and biotechnology in the year 2000 with 1993. During the year 2000 sampling was conducted upon a relatively well educated public group, and on university students, and the open comments that explore the reasoning people have were translated into English and analyzed. A total of 214 public and 84 university respondent questionnaires were gathered to compare with the 689 public and 232 student respondents in 1993.In (...) the year 2000 there was less optimism in science and technology than 1993. In questions on the specific application of technology more persons expressed greater worry for pesticides, genetic engineering and computers. The results of questions on specific applications on genetics reveal that there has been a halving of the support for gene transfer from plant to plant, and even greater drop in support for animal to plants. There has been a drop in approval of environmental release of GMOs, as also found in other countries of the world. There was a doubling of the persons who said that television was the source of their feelings about science and technology in 2000 compared to 1993. There was also increased mention of learning about these issues in their education. (shrink)
A survey of high school student expectations on biotechnology was made, including the information, where it came from, how information resources influence their scientific thoughts. GM crops were used as the theme of biotechnology, because the technology is concerned with food which all people have a relationship with. From the 977 responses obtained from 8 high schools it was found most high schools' students expected benefits and risks from biotechnology. A wide variety of fruits and vegetables improvements were given when (...) students were asked to think about how they would improve their favourite fruit and vegetable. The information given by mass media tended to increase the feeling that science was risky. (shrink)
The Philippines has a young population with an estimated median age of 22.9 years in 2010. About 19.8 million or are 15–24 years old. About 48 % of these young people are adolescents aged 15–19. Studies in local settings provide varied information on the prevalence of adolescent pregnancy in the Philippines, depending on source and time of survey as well as age of respondents. The Cordillera Administrative Region has the highest teen pregnancy rate based on the 2013 Young Adult Fertility (...) and Sexuality Study. In the YAFS survey, the region registered 18.4% for teen fertility, making the Cordillera top all other regions. Likewise, a dramatic increase of teenage pregnancy is also evident in Barangay Irisan, Baguio City. Barangay Irisan is the biggest and most populated barangay in Baguio City. It had a population of 28,357 as of the 2010 Census, which accounts for about seven percent of the city's total populace. The barangay is located at the northwestern tip of the city, and is primarily accessible via the Naguilian Road. It is widely known for the dumpsite in the area. The Philippines is a signatory to numerous international agreements related to women in general, with implications for teenage pregnancy. These include the International Conference on Population and Development Programme of Action signed in Cairo, Egypt, in 1994; the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action, developed during the Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing, China, in September 1995; the Fourth World Summit on Social Development, the World Conference on Human Rights Programme of Action; and the Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination Against Women. The country is not lacking in laws nor policies and programs that could protect and empower women of all ages. Political bickering, religious interference, and the population’s ambivalent attitudes toward sex and reproductive health have, however, negatively affected the effective implementation of adolescent reproductive health programs in the Philippines. Adolescents having unprotected heterosexual intercourse are at risk of both HIV infection and unwanted pregnancy. (shrink)
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