This paper argues that a number of medical professionals, medical authorities, governments and the World Health Organization, have acted unethically during the COVID-19 epidemic and pandemic by advising members of the public not to wear masks to protect their own health and the health of those around them. Although by April 2020 most authorities have changed their advice to recommend or even compel citizens to wear face coverings and masks when in public, we need to examine the question of failed (...) moral responsibility and the accountability for this erroneous advice. (shrink)
This book discusses a variety of world views that we can find to describe human relationships with the environment, and the underlying values in them. It reviews existing international legal instruments discussing some of the ethical values that have been agreed among member states of the United Nations.
There are positive views towards use of science and technology in all Asian countries, and positive views towards use of enhancement in China, India and Thailand. After considering of the widespread use of cosmetic surgery and other body enhancements in Asian countries, and the generally positive views towards letting individuals make choices about improvement of themselves, the paper concludes that we can expect other enhancements to also be adopted rapidly in Asia. There will be future ethical dilemmas emerging from this (...) with concepts of preservation of nature, flow with nature, and definitions of human-ness, along with concepts of harmony and social justice. Japan is less willing to engage in genetic enhancement compared to China, India and Thailand, despite widespread cosmetic surgery across Asia. (shrink)
Many have claimed that education of the ethical issues raised by biotechnology is essential in universities, but there is little knowledge of its effectiveness. The focus of this paper is to investigate how university students assess the information given in class to make their own value judgments and decisions relating to issues of agricultural biotechnology, especially over genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Analysis of homework reports related with agricultural biotechnology after identification of key concepts and ideas in each student report is (...) presented. The ideas were sorted into different categories. The ideas were compared with those in the reading materials using the same categories. These categories included: concern about affects on humans, affects on the environment, developing countries and starvation, trust in industry, responsibility of scientists, risk perception, media influence, need for (international) organizations or third parties, and information dissemination. What was consistent through the different years was that more than half of the students took a “neutral” position. A report was scored as “neutral” when the report included both the positive and negative side of an issue, or when the student could not make a definite decision about the use of GMOs and GM food. While it may be more difficult to defend a strong “for” or “against” position, some students used logical arguments successfully in doing so. Sample comments are presented to depict how Japanese students see agricultural technology, and how they value its application, with comparisons to the general social attitudes towards biotechnology. (shrink)
This book examines some possible ethical principles to resolve moral dilemmas involving water. Existing problems in current water management practices are discussed in light of these principles. Transformation of human water ethics has the potential to be far more effective, cheaper and acceptable than some existing means of “regulation”, but transformation of personal and societal ethics need time because the changes to ethical values are slow.
Objective: To estimate the level of complementary feeding pattern among children aged between 6 to 23 months and to identify the determinants in individual, household and community level in Bangladesh. Methods: From secondary data of Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey 2011 was used in this study. A total of 2,373 children aged between 6 to 23 months were selected. To estimate the level of CFP “dimension index” was used and the score of the index was used as dependent variables. Statistical analyses (...) and tests were guided by the nature of the variables. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to identify the significant determinants of CFP. Results: The overall level of CFP among children aged between 6 to 23 months was low. More than 95% of the children experienced either no or inadequate CFP. The mean levels of CFP as well as percentages of no or inadequate CFP were significantly lower among children of the youngest age group, uneducated parents, unemployed/laborer fathers, socio-economically poor families, food insecure families and rural areas. No weekly exposure to mass media also revealed significant associations with CFP. However, only few variables remained significant for adequate CFP in the multivariable logistic regression analysis. Adequate CFP was significantly lower among the children aged between 6 to 23 months, children of illiterate fathers and socio-economically middle-class families as compared to their reference categories. Conclusion: Inappropriate and inadequate CFP may cause serious health hazards among children of 6 to 23 months in Bangladesh. It is ethical to take effective interventions and strategies by the government and other concerned stakeholders to improve the overall situation of CFP in Bangladesh. (shrink)
This paper compares the opinions that people in Thailand have on the impact of bioethics and biotechnology in the year 2000 with 1993. During the year 2000 sampling was conducted upon a relatively well educated public group, and on university students, and the open comments that explore the reasoning people have were translated into English and analyzed. A total of 214 public and 84 university respondent questionnaires were gathered to compare with the 689 public and 232 student respondents in 1993.In (...) the year 2000 there was less optimism in science and technology than 1993. In questions on the specific application of technology more persons expressed greater worry for pesticides, genetic engineering and computers. The results of questions on specific applications on genetics reveal that there has been a halving of the support for gene transfer from plant to plant, and even greater drop in support for animal to plants. There has been a drop in approval of environmental release of GMOs, as also found in other countries of the world. There was a doubling of the persons who said that television was the source of their feelings about science and technology in 2000 compared to 1993. There was also increased mention of learning about these issues in their education. (shrink)
Abstract An International Bioethics Education Survey was conducted in Australia (A), Japan (J) and New Zealand (NZ) in mid?1993. National random samples of high schools were selected, and mail response questionnaires were sent to a biology (b) and a social studies (s) teacher at each school through the principals. The number of respondents and response rate were: NZb 206 (55%), NZs 96 (26%), Ab 251 (48%), As 114 (22%), Jb 560 (40%) and Js 383 (27%). This paper compares knowledge and (...) teaching of 15 selected topics related to bioethics and biotechnology, with particular focus on the teaching of social, ethical and environmental issues of in vitro fertilisation, prenatal diagnosis, biotechnology, nuclear power, pesticides and genetic engineering. The survey found that these issues were, generally, covered more in biology classes than in social science classes; and that there were differences in coverage among the three countries, with most coverage in Australia and least in Japan. Open questions looked at images of bioethics, and the reasons why about 90% of teachers thought bioethics was needed in education. Open questions on teaching materials, current and desired are also discussed. The data suggest a need for the development of more and higher quality materials, for the moral education that is conducted, especially in biology and social studies classes. (shrink)
Margaret Sleeboom-Faulkner, ed. 2008. Human genetic biobanks in Asia: Politics of trust and scientific advancement Content Type Journal Article DOI 10.1007/s11673-010-9234-6 Authors Darryl Macer, UNESCO Bangkok Regional Adviser in Social and Human Sciences for Asia and the Pacific, Regional Unit for Social and Human Sciences in Asia and the Pacific (RUSHSAP) 920 Sukhumvit Road, Prakanong Bangkok 10110 Thailand Journal Journal of Bioethical Inquiry Online ISSN 1872-4353 Print ISSN 1176-7529 Journal Volume Volume 7 Journal Issue Volume 7, Number 2.
FAO has a unique and essential rolein addressing the ethical problems facinghumanity and in making these problems intoopportunities for practical resolution. A broadrange of ethical issues in agriculture,fisheries, and forestry were identified byanalysis of the literature and by interviewswith FAO staff. Issues include sharing accessto and preserving natural resources,introduction of new technology, conservatismover the use of genetic engineering, ethics inanimal agriculture, access to information, foodsecurity, sustainable rural development,ensuring participation of all people indecision making and in receiving benefits ofagriculture, reducing corruption, (...) andinvolvement of private and public sectors indecision making. Rather than viewing theseissues as problems, they should be viewed asopportunities for debate, learning aboutothers' views, and resolution. The UnitedNations has an important role to play in howdecisions are made in the global ethical debatein food and agriculture. The ethical role ofFAO is to promote global food security,balanced conservation, management andutilization of natural resources, andsustainable rural development. FAO should fullyand publicly assume its ethicalresponsibilities, gathering and sharinginformation on ethics in its areas of mandate,acting as an interactive forum, and providingexpert guidance on policy options and choicesbased on practical ethical analysis. (shrink)
Non-communicable diseases disproportionately affect low and middle-income countries where nearly three quarters of NCD deaths occur. Bangladesh is also in NCD burden. This cross-sectional study was done on 50 health facilities centres at Gazipur district in Bangladesh from July 2015 to December 2015 to introduce SARA for better monitoring and evaluation of non-communicable diseases health service delivery. The General Service readiness index score was 61.52% refers to the fact that about 62% of all the facilities were ready to provide general (...) services like basic amenities, basic equipment, standard precautions for infection prevention, and diagnostic capacity and essential medicines to the patients. But in case of non-communicable diseases, among all the health facilities 40% had chronic respiratory disease and cardiovascular diseases diagnosis/ management and only 32% had availability of diabetes diagnosis/management. Overall readiness score was 52% in chronic respiratory disease, 73% in cardiovascular disease and 70% in diabetes. Therefore, service availability and readiness of the health facilities to provide NCD related health services were not up to the mark for facing future targets. A full-scale census survey of all the facilities of the study area would give a better understanding of the availability and service readiness. (shrink)
Introduction: Pharmaceutical companies offer various gifts to physicians to encourage them to prescribe their products. This collaboration has some negative and positive aspects. Different countries have established guidelines to limit the collaboration and reform such relationships. This study aims to determine the attitude of Bangladeshi medical students towards pharmaceutical gifts, physician-pharmacist collaboration, and associated factors. Methods: An online cross-sectional and correlational study was conducted through email and Google-Forms among Bangladeshi medical students. A total of 435 students from different medical colleges (...) completed the questionnaires in May and June, 2016. Results: Monthly parental income was moderate among the majority of medical students. Less than 16% had a physician or pharmacist parent. Most of the students were taught about medical ethics, but 73% were not taught about the ethics of physician-pharmacist collaboration. About 85% did not have any experience of interaction with marketing representatives. Drug samples and pennotepads were the most appreciated pharmaceutical gifts. Jewelry and gifts costing more than 100 thousand were said to be the least appreciated pharmaceutical gifts. Attitudes towards drug companies and representatives were assessed by fifteen statements. Medical students had a variety of attitudes regarding its ethical justification. Attitudes were correlated with gender, parental income, physician parents, academic years, and having been taught about pharmaceutical collaboration with physicians. Conclusion and Recommendations: medical students should elaborate on ethical reasoning before accepting pharmaceutical gifts. Medical colleges and curriculums should teach them about the interaction. A national guideline may be needed. (shrink)
Public engagement in science and technology has grown in importance as developments in science and technology make increasingly significant impacts on people’s lives. Now, efforts to engage publics in social decision-making or consensus-building regarding science and technology involve participation, learning or deliberation opportunities, as well as interactive or coproductive efforts among various sectors in society based on the recognition of scientific activities as a part of social operations - even those performed by scientific communities. We have conducted a community engagement (...) program in the HapMap project, the international human genome program, in Japan since 2002. Consequent upon our various approaches to engage Japanese publics, a range of observations were made, such as that: public engagement is not yet recognized or institutionalized in Japan; there is a wide gap between science and society; and the implications of public engagement in a Japanese context have not been examined enthusiastically, especially from the perspectives of political decision making, social consensus-building or self-determination. In this paper, we provide an overview of public engagement in Japan, and discuss issues and challenges raised by the HapMap community engagement project. We also discuss the implications of public engagement for social decision-making and self-determination, and explore the prospects for public engagement in science and technology in Japan. (shrink)
The issue of large-scale, population based DNA collections has become a world-wide discussion, which is hoped to bring substantial improvements in medicine. Continuous access to clinical data linked to the genetic samples is very important for some research that aims to find significant association between genes and diseases. This raises ethical issues related to privacy and confidentiality of medical records and the genetic information of the individuals who may be involved in the research. Genetic databases can also raise challenges for (...) the protection of the rights of the social groups, in avoiding potential stigmatization or discrimination. Informed consent of voluntary participants is another important issue in genetic research.We consider whether a person has ethical duties to donate a sample to a database if it will be used for the improvement of the health services to which they have benefited from. The balance between individual's privacy and public health is needed in genetic research. A good database will contribute to the good of both donors and society. (shrink)
A survey of high school student expectations on biotechnology was made, including the information, where it came from, how information resources influence their scientific thoughts. GM crops were used as the theme of biotechnology, because the technology is concerned with food which all people have a relationship with. From the 977 responses obtained from 8 high schools it was found most high schools' students expected benefits and risks from biotechnology. A wide variety of fruits and vegetables improvements were given when (...) students were asked to think about how they would improve their favourite fruit and vegetable. The information given by mass media tended to increase the feeling that science was risky. (shrink)
This paper examines a number of questions about the degree to which the clinical practice of medicine is affected, if at all, by the legal systems in four countries: Chile, Germany, Japan and the United States. The focus on these four countries in four different regions of the world offers a unique perspective within which to examine medical treatment decisions made by patients and their proxies or surrogates, the potential role for universal written instruments such as advance directives, the cross-professional (...) tensions between clinical and legal concerns in very distinct cultures, and the degree to which legal activities can change or affect clinical realities in the context of these different political and health care systems. We have incorporated, whenever relevant, the insights of many disciplines, including the social sciences, in analyzing the existing interrelations between law and behavior in this specific context. Der Beitrag untersucht, inwieweit die klinische Praxis in vier Ländern mit unterschiedlichen Rechtssystemen und Berufskulturen durch Rechtsnormen oder das Verständnis von Recht beeinflußt wird. Es wird gefragt, welche Funktion rechtliche Interventionen bei der Veränderung von Verhaltensnormen in unterschiedlichen Gesundheitssystemen haben können. Folgende Themenbereiche werden diskutiert: Entscheidungen über die medizinische Behandlung, die von Patienten und ihren Angehörigen oder Stellvertretern getroffen werden; die mögliche Rolle umfassender schriftlicher Verfügungen wie z.B. der Patiententestamente ; die berufsübergreifenden Spannungen zwischen medizinischen und rechtlichen Belangen in sehr unterschiedlichen Kulturen; der Einfluß, den gesetzgeberische Aktivitäten im Kontext der verschiedenen politischen und Gesundheitssysteme auf die medizinische Wirklichkeit haben. Bei ihrer Analyse der in diesem Zusammenhang bestehenden Beziehungen im Verhältnis von Recht und Verhalten haben die Autoren die Erkenntnisse vieler Disziplinen unter Einschluß der Sozialwissenschaften, soweit sie als relevant erscheinen, in ihren Beitrag eingearbeitet. (shrink)
The case study examines an issue of public health ethics and obesity. How should healthy diets be developed? Can schools associate themselves with commercial fastfood companies? What are the ethical issues related to diet campaigns in an Asia context. The case study elicits several responses from different perspectives. The case study invites readers to think of different cultural contexts and broad issues.