Results for 'Data trimming'

997 found
Order:
  1.  66
    Data Trimming, Nuclear Emissions, and Climate Change.Kristin Sharon Shrader-Frechette - 2009 - Science and Engineering Ethics 15 (1):19-23.
    Ethics requires good science. Many scientists, government leaders, and industry representatives support tripling of global-nuclear-energy capacity on the grounds that nuclear fission is “carbon free” and “releases no greenhouse gases.” However, such claims are scientifically questionable (and thus likely to lead to ethically questionable energy choices) for at least 3 reasons. (i) They rely on trimming the data on nuclear greenhouse-gas emissions (GHGE), perhaps in part because flawed Kyoto Protocol conventions require no full nuclear-fuel-cycle assessment of carbon content. (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  2.  27
    Trimming Exposure Data, Putting Radiation Workers at Risk.Kristin Shrader-Frechette - manuscript
    American Journal of Public Health Vol. 97.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  3.  86
    Climate Change, Nuclear Economics, and Conflicts of Interest.Kristin Shrader-Frechette - 2011 - Science and Engineering Ethics 17 (1):75-107.
    Merck suppressed data on harmful effects of its drug Vioxx, and Guidant suppressed data on electrical flaws in one of its heart-defibrillator models. Both cases reveal how financial conflicts of interest can skew biomedical research. Such conflicts also occur in electric-utility-related research. Attempting to show that increased atomic energy can help address climate change, some industry advocates claim nuclear power is an inexpensive way to generate low-carbon electricity. Surveying 30 recent nuclear analyses, this paper shows that industry-funded studies (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  4.  7
    Using Metascience to Improve Dose‐Response Curves in Biology: Better Policy Through Better Science.Kristin Shrader‐Frechette - 2004 - Philosophy of Science 71 (5):1026-1037.
    Many people argue that uncertain science—or controversial policies based on science—can be clarified primarily by greater attention to social/political values influencing the science and by greater attention to the vested interests involved. This paper argues that while such clarification is necessary, it is not a sufficient condition for achieving better science and policy; indeed its importance may be overemphasized. Using a case study involving the current, highly politicized controversy over the shape of dose‐response curves for biological effects of ionizing radiation, (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   5 citations  
  5.  54
    Open Data, Open Review and Open Dialogue in Making Social Sciences Plausible.Quan-Hoang Vuong - 2017 - Nature: Scientific Data Updates 2017.
    Nowadays, protecting trust in social sciences also means engaging in open community dialogue, which helps to safeguard robustness and improve efficiency of research methods. The combination of open data, open review and open dialogue may sound simple but implementation in the real world will not be straightforward. However, in view of Begley and Ellis’s (2012) statement that, “the scientific process demands the highest standards of quality, ethics and rigour,” they are worth implementing. More importantly, they are feasible to work (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  6.  86
    The Ethics of Uncertainty for Data Subjects.Philip J. Nickel - 2019 - In J. Krutzinna & L. Floridi (eds.), The Ethics of Medical Data Donation. pp. 55-74.
    Modern health data practices come with many practical uncertainties. In this paper, I argue that data subjects’ trust in the institutions and organizations that control their data, and their ability to know their own moral obligations in relation to their data, are undermined by significant uncertainties regarding the what, how, and who of mass data collection and analysis. I conclude by considering how proposals for managing situations of high uncertainty might be applied to this problem. (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  7. ImmPort, Toward Repurposing of Open Access Immunological Assay Data for Translational and Clinical Research.Sanchita Bhattacharya, Patrick Dunn, Cristel Thomas, Barry Smith, Henry Schaefer, Jieming Chen, Zicheng Hu, Kelly Zalocusky, Ravi Shankar & Shai Shen-Orr - 2018 - Scientific Data 5:180015.
    Immunology researchers are beginning to explore the possibilities of reproducibility, reuse and secondary analyses of immunology data. Open-access datasets are being applied in the validation of the methods used in the original studies, leveraging studies for meta-analysis, or generating new hypotheses. To promote these goals, the ImmPort data repository was created for the broader research community to explore the wide spectrum of clinical and basic research data and associated findings. The ImmPort ecosystem consists of four components–Private (...), Shared Data, Data Analysis, and Resources—for data archiving, dissemination, analyses, and reuse. To date, more than 300 studies have been made freely available through the Shared Data portal (immport.org/immportopen), which allows research data to be repurposed to accelerate the translation of new insights into discoveries. (shrink)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  8. Ontology-Based Knowledge Representation of Experiment Metadata in Biological Data Mining.Scheuermann Richard, Kong Megan, Dahlke Carl, Cai Jennifer, Lee Jamie, Qian Yu, Squires Burke, Dunn Patrick, Wiser Jeff, Hagler Herb, Herb Hagler, Barry Smith & David Karp - 2009 - In Jake Chen & Stefano Lonardi (eds.), Biological Data Mining. Boca Raton: Chapman Hall / Taylor and Francis. pp. 529-559.
    According to the PubMed resource from the U.S. National Library of Medicine, over 750,000 scientific articles have been published in the ~5000 biomedical journals worldwide in the year 2007 alone. The vast majority of these publications include results from hypothesis-driven experimentation in overlapping biomedical research domains. Unfortunately, the sheer volume of information being generated by the biomedical research enterprise has made it virtually impossible for investigators to stay aware of the latest findings in their domain of interest, let alone to (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  9. The Ethics of Big Data: Current and Foreseeable Issues in Biomedical Contexts.Brent Daniel Mittelstadt & Luciano Floridi - 2016 - Science and Engineering Ethics 22 (2):303-341.
    The capacity to collect and analyse data is growing exponentially. Referred to as ‘Big Data’, this scientific, social and technological trend has helped create destabilising amounts of information, which can challenge accepted social and ethical norms. Big Data remains a fuzzy idea, emerging across social, scientific, and business contexts sometimes seemingly related only by the gigantic size of the datasets being considered. As is often the case with the cutting edge of scientific and technological progress, understanding of (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   25 citations  
  10.  81
    LinkSuite™: Software Tools for Formally Robust Ontology-Based Data and Information Integration.Werner Ceusters, Barry Smith & James Matthew Fielding - 2004 - In Proceedings of DILS 2004 (Data Integration in the Life Sciences), (Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics, 2994). Springer. pp. 1-16.
    The integration of information resources in the life sciences is one of the most challenging problems facing bioinformatics today. We describe how Language and Computing nv, originally a developer of ontology-based natural language understanding systems for the healthcare domain, is developing a framework for the integration of structured data with unstructured information contained in natural language texts. L&C’s LinkSuite™ combines the flexibility of a modular software architecture with an ontology based on rigorous philosophical and logical principles that is designed (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  11.  14
    Researchers' Duty to Share Pre-Publication Data: From the Prima Facie Duty to Practice.Christoph Schickhardt, Nelson Hosley & Eva C. Winkler - 2016 - In Brent Mittelstadt & Luciano Floridi (eds.), The Ethics of Biomedical Big Data. Switzerland: Springer. pp. 309-337.
    The purpose of this chapter is to offer an ethical investigation into whether researchers have a duty to share pre-published bio-medical data with the scientific community. The central questions of the chapter are the following: do researchers have a prima facie duty to share pre-published data? And if so, what stakes and aspects of a concrete situation need to be taken into consideration in order to assess whether and to what extent researchers’ prima facie duty to share (...) applies? We will argue that based upon their basic duties to benefit society and to promote scientific knowledge, researchers have a prima facie duty to share data. We will also argue that in order to determine whether the prima facie duty applies in practice it is indispensable to take into account the stakes of the persons concerned as well as context dependent aspects. The chapter’s overall goal is to build an analytical and ethical framework that helps to assess with regard to concrete situations whether researchers’ duty to share data applies. To this end we analyse the concept of data sharing and clarify what data sharing might imply in practice. To offer an overview of the different stakeholders’ concerns we will analyse the normative-informational environment in which data producing researchers (to whom the prima facie duty to share data applies) are usually situated. In the last step we focus on the ethically relevant context dependent aspects and illustrate how they affect researchers’ prima facie duty to share data and stakeholders’ potentially conflicting stakes. (shrink)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  12. Privacy, Autonomy, and Personalised Targeting: Rethinking How Personal Data is Used.Karina Vold & Jessica Whittlestone - forthcoming - In Carissa Véliz (ed.), Report on Data, Privacy, and the Individual in the Digital Age.
    Technological advances are bringing new light to privacy issues and changing the reasons for why privacy is important. These advances have changed not only the kind of personal data that is available to be collected, but also how that personal data can be used by those who have access to it. We are particularly concerned with how information about personal attributes inferred from collected data (such as online behaviour), can be used to tailor messages and services to (...)
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  13.  62
    Data’ in the Royal Society's Philosophical Transactions, 1665–1886.Chris Meyns - 2019 - Notes and Records: The Royal Society Journal of the History of Science.
    Was there a concept of data before the so-called ‘data revolution’? This paper contributes to the history of the concept of data by investigating uses of the term ‘data’ in texts of the Royal Society's Philosophical Transactions for the period 1665–1886. It surveys how the notion enters the journal as a technical term in mathematics, and charts how over time it expands into various other scientific fields, including Earth sciences, physics and chemistry. The paper argues that (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  14.  74
    Towards a Taxonomy of the Model-Ladenness of Data.Alisa Bokulich - forthcoming - PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association.
    Model-data symbiosis is the view that there is an interdependent and mutually beneficial relationship between data and models, whereby models are not only data-laden, but data are also model-laden or model filtered. In this paper I elaborate and defend the second, more controversial, component of the symbiosis view. In particular, I construct a preliminary taxonomy of the different ways in which theoretical and simulation models are used in the production of data sets. These include (...) conversion, data correction, data interpolation, data scaling, data fusion, data assimilation, and synthetic data. Each is defined and briefly illustrated with an example from the geosciences. I argue that model-filtered data are typically more accurate and reliable than the so-called raw data, and hence beneficially serve the epistemic aims of science. By illuminating the methods by which raw data are turned into scientifically useful data sets, this taxonomy provides a foundation for developing a more adequate philosophy of data. (shrink)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  15. Political Communication in Social Networks Election Campaigns and Digital Data Analysis: A Bibliographic Review.Luca Corchia - 2019 - Rivista Trimestrale di Scienza Dell’Amministrazione (2):1-50.
    The outcomes of a bibliographic review on political communication, in particular electoral communication in social networks, are presented here. The electoral campaigning are a crucial test to verify the transformations of the media system and of the forms and uses of the linguistic acts by dominant actors in public sphere – candidates, parties, journalists and Gatekeepers. The aim is to reconstruct the first elements of an analytical model on the transformations of the political public sphere, with which to systematize the (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  16. Ontology-Based Fusion of Sensor Data and Natural Language.Erik Thomsen & Barry Smith - 2018 - Applied Ontology 13 (4):295-333.
    We describe a prototype ontology-driven information system (ODIS) that exploits what we call Portion of Reality (POR) representations. The system takes both sensor data and natural language text as inputs and composes on this basis logically structured POR assertions. The goal of our prototype is to represent both natural language and sensor data within a single framework that is able to support both axiomatic reasoning and computation. In addition, the framework should be capable of discovering and representing new (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  17. Is Semantic Information Meaningful Data?Luciano Floridi - 2005 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 70 (2):351-370.
    There is no consensus yet on the definition of semantic information. This paper contributes to the current debate by criticising and revising the Standard Definition of semantic Information (SDI) as meaningful data, in favour of the Dretske-Grice approach: meaningful and well-formed data constitute semantic information only if they also qualify as contingently truthful. After a brief introduction, SDI is criticised for providing necessary but insufficient conditions for the definition of semantic information. SDI is incorrect because truth-values do not (...)
    Direct download (13 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   68 citations  
  18. Machine Learning and Irresponsible Inference: Morally Assessing the Training Data for Image Recognition Systems.Owen C. King - 2019 - In Matteo Vincenzo D'Alfonso & Don Berkich (eds.), On the Cognitive, Ethical, and Scientific Dimensions of Artificial Intelligence. Springer Verlag. pp. 265-282.
    Just as humans can draw conclusions responsibly or irresponsibly, so too can computers. Machine learning systems that have been trained on data sets that include irresponsible judgments are likely to yield irresponsible predictions as outputs. In this paper I focus on a particular kind of inference a computer system might make: identification of the intentions with which a person acted on the basis of photographic evidence. Such inferences are liable to be morally objectionable, because of a way in which (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  19. Computer Simulation and the Features of Novel Empirical Data.Greg Lusk - 2016 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 56:145-152.
    In an attempt to determine the epistemic status of computer simulation results, philosophers of science have recently explored the similarities and differences between computer simulations and experiments. One question that arises is whether and, if so, when, simulation results constitute novel empirical data. It is often supposed that computer simulation results could never be empirical or novel because simulations never interact with their targets, and cannot go beyond their programming. This paper argues against this position by examining whether, and (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  20.  30
    Meta Consent – A Flexible Solution to the Problem of Secondary Use of Health Data.Thomas Ploug & Søren Holm - 2016 - Bioethics 30 (9):721-732.
    In this article we provide an in-depth description of a new model of informed consent called ‘meta consent’ and consider its practical implementation. We explore justifications for preferring meta consent over alternative models of consent as a solution to the problem of secondary use of health data for research. We finally argue that meta consent strikes an appropriate balance between enabling valuable research and protecting the individual.
    Direct download (10 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   10 citations  
  21. Consent and the Ethical Duty to Participate in Health Data Research.Angela Ballantyne & G. Owen Schaefer - 2018 - Journal of Medical Ethics 44 (6):392-396.
    The predominant view is that a study using health data is observational research and should require individual consent unless it can be shown that gaining consent is impractical. But recent arguments have been made that citizens have an ethical obligation to share their health information for research purposes. In our view, this obligation is sufficient ground to expand the circumstances where secondary use research with identifiable health information is permitted without explicit subject consent. As such, for some studies the (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  22. Scientific Contribution. Empirical Data and Moral Theory. A Plea for Integrated Empirical Ethics.Bert Molewijk, Anne M. Stiggelbout, Wilma Otten, Heleen M. Dupuis & Job Kievit - 2004 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 7 (1):55-69.
    Ethicists differ considerably in their reasons for using empirical data. This paper presents a brief overview of four traditional approaches to the use of empirical data: “the prescriptive applied ethicists,” “the theorists,” “the critical applied ethicists,” and “the particularists.” The main aim of this paper is to introduce a fifth approach of more recent date (i.e. “integrated empirical ethics”) and to offer some methodological directives for research in integrated empirical ethics. All five approaches are presented in a table (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   45 citations  
  23.  26
    Discovering Psychological Principles by Mining Naturally Occurring Data Sets.Robert L. Goldstone & Gary Lupyan - 2016 - Topics in Cognitive Science 8 (3):548-568.
    The very expertise with which psychologists wield their tools for achieving laboratory control may have had the unwelcome effect of blinding psychologists to the possibilities of discovering principles of behavior without conducting experiments. When creatively interrogated, a diverse range of large, real-world data sets provides powerful diagnostic tools for revealing principles of human judgment, perception, categorization, decision-making, language use, inference, problem solving, and representation. Examples of these data sets include patterns of website links, dictionaries, logs of group interactions, (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   9 citations  
  24. Using Models to Correct Data: Paleodiversity and the Fossil Record.Alisa Bokulich - forthcoming - Synthese.
    Despite an enormous philosophical literature on models in science, surprisingly little has been written about data models and how they are constructed. In this paper, I examine the case of how paleodiversity data models are constructed from the fossil data. In particular, I show how paleontologists are using various model-based techniques to correct the data. Drawing on this research, I argue for the following related theses: First, the 'purity' of a data model is not a (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  25. The Causal Nature of Modeling with Big Data.Wolfgang Pietsch - 2016 - Philosophy and Technology 29 (2):137-171.
    I argue for the causal character of modeling in data-intensive science, contrary to widespread claims that big data is only concerned with the search for correlations. After discussing the concept of data-intensive science and introducing two examples as illustration, several algorithms are examined. It is shown how they are able to identify causal relevance on the basis of eliminative induction and a related difference-making account of causation. I then situate data-intensive modeling within a broader framework of (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   7 citations  
  26. The Moral Limits of the Market: The Case of Consumer Scoring Data.Clinton Castro & Adam Pham - 2019 - Ethics and Information Technology 21 (2):117-126.
    We offer an ethical assessment of the market for data used to generate what are sometimes called “consumer scores” (i.e., numerical expressions that are used to describe or predict people’s dispositions and behavior), and we argue that the assessment has ethical implications on how the market for consumer scoring data should be regulated. To conduct the assessment, we employ two heuristics for evaluating markets. One is the “harm” criterion, which relates to whether the market produces serious harms, either (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  27. Scientific Perspectivism: A Philosopher of Science's Response to the Challenge of Big Data Biology.Werner Callebaut - 2012 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 43 (1):69-80.
    Big data biology—bioinformatics, computational biology, systems biology (including ‘omics’), and synthetic biology—raises a number of issues for the philosophy of science. This article deals with several such: Is data-intensive biology a new kind of science, presumably post-reductionistic? To what extent is big data biology data-driven? Can data ‘speak for themselves?’ I discuss these issues by way of a reflection on Carl Woese’s worry that “a society that permits biology to become an engineering discipline, that allows (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   16 citations  
  28.  18
    Medical Privacy and Big Data: A Further Reason in Favour of Public Universal Healthcare Coverage.Carissa Véliz - 2019 - In T. C. de Campos, J. Herring & A. M. Phillips (eds.), Philosophical Foundations of Medical Law. Oxford, U.K.: Oxford University Press. pp. 306-318.
    Most people are completely oblivious to the danger that their medical data undergoes as soon as it goes out into the burgeoning world of big data. Medical data is financially valuable, and your sensitive data may be shared or sold by doctors, hospitals, clinical laboratories, and pharmacies—without your knowledge or consent. Medical data can also be found in your browsing history, the smartphone applications you use, data from wearables, your shopping list, and more. At (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  29.  63
    No Wisdom in the Crowd: Genome Annotation at the Time of Big Data - Current Status and Future Prospects.Antoine Danchin - 2018 - Microbial Biotechnology 11 (4):588-605.
    Science and engineering rely on the accumulation and dissemination of knowledge to make discoveries and create new designs. Discovery-driven genome research rests on knowledge passed on via gene annotations. In response to the deluge of sequencing big data, standard annotation practice employs automated procedures that rely on majority rules. We argue this hinders progress through the generation and propagation of errors, leading investigators into blind alleys. More subtly, this inductive process discourages the discovery of novelty, which remains essential in (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  30.  28
    On Subjective Back-Referral and How Long It Takes to Become Conscious of a Stimulus: A Reinterpretation of Libet's Data.Susan Pockett - 2002 - Consciousness and Cognition 11 (2):141-61.
    The original data reported by Benjamin Libet and colleagues are reinterpreted, taking into account the facilitation which is experimentally demonstrated in the first of their series of articles. It is shown that the original data equally well or better support a quite different set of conclusions from those drawn by Libet. The new conclusions are that it takes only 80 ms for stimuli to come to consciousness and that “subjective back-referral of sensations in time” to the time of (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   28 citations  
  31.  91
    Reflective Equilibrium and Empirical Data: Third Person Moral Experiences in Empirical Medical Ethics.Martine de Vries & Evert van Leeuwen - 2010 - Bioethics 24 (9):490 - 498.
    In ethics, the use of empirical data has become more and more popular, leading to a distinct form of applied ethics, namely empirical ethics. This ‘empirical turn’ is especially visible in bioethics. There are various ways of combining empirical research and ethical reflection. In this paper we discuss the use of empirical data in a special form of Reflective Equilibrium (RE), namely the Network Model with Third Person Moral Experiences. In this model, the empirical data consist of (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   13 citations  
  32. Taxonomy for Humans or Computers? Cognitive Pragmatics for Big Data.Beckett Sterner & Nico M. Franz - 2017 - Biological Theory 12 (2):99-111.
    Criticism of big data has focused on showing that more is not necessarily better, in the sense that data may lose their value when taken out of context and aggregated together. The next step is to incorporate an awareness of pitfalls for aggregation into the design of data infrastructure and institutions. A common strategy minimizes aggregation errors by increasing the precision of our conventions for identifying and classifying data. As a counterpoint, we argue that there are (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  33.  90
    Husserl’s Hyletic Data and Phenomenal Consciousness.Kenneth Williford - 2013 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 12 (3):501-519.
    In the Logical Investigations, Ideas I and many other texts, Husserl maintains that perceptual consciousness involves the intentional “animation” or interpretation of sensory data or hyle, e.g., “color-data,” “tone-data,” and algedonic data. These data are not intrinsically representational nor are they normally themselves objects of representation, though we can attend to them in reflection. These data are “immanent” in consciousness; they survive the phenomenological reduction. They partly ground the intuitive or “in-the-flesh” aspect of perception, (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   8 citations  
  34. Data and Phenomena: A Restatement and Defense.James F. Woodward - 2011 - Synthese 182 (1):165-179.
    This paper provides a restatement and defense of the data/ phenomena distinction introduced by Jim Bogen and me several decades ago (e.g., Bogen and Woodward, The Philosophical Review, 303–352, 1988). Additional motivation for the distinction is introduced, ideas surrounding the distinction are clarified, and an attempt is made to respond to several criticisms.
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   10 citations  
  35.  14
    Using Video Game Telemetry Data to Research Motor Chunking, Action Latencies, and Complex Cognitive‐Motor Skill Learning.Joseph J. Thompson, C. M. McColeman, Ekaterina R. Stepanova & Mark R. Blair - 2017 - Topics in Cognitive Science 9 (2):467-484.
    Many theories of complex cognitive-motor skill learning are built on the notion that basic cognitive processes group actions into easy-to-perform sequences. The present work examines predictions derived from laboratory-based studies of motor chunking and motor preparation using data collected from the real-time strategy video game StarCraft 2. We examined 996,163 action sequences in the telemetry data of 3,317 players across seven levels of skill. As predicted, the latency to the first action is delayed relative to the other actions (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  36.  17
    Big Data and Prediction: Four Case Studies.Robert Northcott - forthcoming - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A.
    Has the rise of data-intensive science, or ‘big data’, revolutionized our ability to predict? Does it imply a new priority for prediction over causal understanding, and a diminished role for theory and human experts? I examine four important cases where prediction is desirable: political elections, the weather, GDP, and the results of interventions suggested by economic experiments. These cases suggest caution. Although big data methods are indeed very useful sometimes, in this paper’s cases they improve predictions either (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  37. The Deluge of Spurious Correlations in Big Data.Cristian S. Calude & Giuseppe Longo - 2017 - Foundations of Science 22 (3):595-612.
    Very large databases are a major opportunity for science and data analytics is a remarkable new field of investigation in computer science. The effectiveness of these tools is used to support a “philosophy” against the scientific method as developed throughout history. According to this view, computer-discovered correlations should replace understanding and guide prediction and action. Consequently, there will be no need to give scientific meaning to phenomena, by proposing, say, causal relations, since regularities in very large databases are enough: (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  38.  23
    Ethical Sharing of Health Data in Online Platforms- Which Values Should Be Considered?Brígida Riso, Aaro Tupasela, Danya F. Vears, Heike Felzmann, Julian Cockbain, Michele Loi, Nana C. H. Kongsholm, Silvia Zullo & Vojin Rakic - 2017 - Life Sciences, Society and Policy 13 (1):1-27.
    Intensified and extensive data production and data storage are characteristics of contemporary western societies. Health data sharing is increasing with the growth of Information and Communication Technology platforms devoted to the collection of personal health and genomic data. However, the sensitive and personal nature of health data poses ethical challenges when data is disclosed and shared even if for scientific research purposes. With this in mind, the Science and Values Working Group of the COST (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (12 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  39.  10
    Sense Data and Logical Relations: Karin Costelloe-Stephen and Russell’s Critique of Bergson.Andreas Vrahimis - 2019 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy:1-26.
    Though scholarship has explored Karin Costelloe-Stephen’s contributions to the history of psychoanalysis, as well as her relations to the Bloomsbury Group, her philosophical work has been almost completely ignored. This paper will examine her debate with Bertrand Russell over his criticism of Bergson. Costelloe-Stephen had employed the terminology of early analytic philosophy in presenting a number of arguments in defence of Bergson’s views. Costelloe-Stephen would object, among other things, to Russell’s use of an experiment which, as she points out, was (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  40.  89
    What is a Philosophical Effect? Models of Data in Experimental Philosophy.Bryce Huebner - 2015 - Philosophical Studies 172 (12):3273-3292.
    Papers in experimental philosophy rarely offer an account of what it would take to reveal a philosophically significant effect. In part, this is because experimental philosophers tend to pay insufficient attention to the hierarchy of models that would be required to justify interpretations of their data; as a result, some of their most exciting claims fail as explanations. But this does not impugn experimental philosophy. My aim is to show that experimental philosophy could be made more successful by developing, (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  41.  33
    Building an ACT‐R Reader for Eye‐Tracking Corpus Data.Jakub Dotlačil - 2018 - Topics in Cognitive Science 10 (1):144-160.
    Cognitive architectures have often been applied to data from individual experiments. In this paper, I develop an ACT-R reader that can model a much larger set of data, eye-tracking corpus data. It is shown that the resulting model has a good fit to the data for the considered low-level processes. Unlike previous related works, the model achieves the fit by estimating free parameters of ACT-R using Bayesian estimation and Markov-Chain Monte Carlo techniques, rather than by relying (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  42.  70
    Perception and Sense Data.Gary Hatfield - 2013 - In Michael Beaney (ed.), Oxford Handbook of the History of Analytical Philosophy. Oxford University Press. pp. 948-974.
    Analytic philosophy arose in the early decades of the twentieth century, with Bertrand Russell and G. E. Moore leading the way. Although some accounts emphasize the role of logic and language in the origin of analytic philosophy, of equal importance is the theme of perception, sense data, and knowledge, which dominated systematic philosophical discussion in the first two decades of the twentieth century in both Britain and America. This chapter examines work on perception and sense data as well (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   6 citations  
  43. First-Person Data, Publicity and Self-Measurement.Gualtiero Piccinini - 2009 - Philosophers' Imprint 9:1-16.
    First-person data have been both condemned and hailed because of their alleged privacy. Critics argue that science must be based on public evidence: since first-person data are private, they should be banned from science. Apologists reply that first-person data are necessary for understanding the mind: since first-person data are private, scientists must be allowed to use private evidence. I argue that both views rest on a false premise. In psychology and neuroscience, the subjects issuing first-person reports (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   10 citations  
  44.  64
    The Role of 'Complex' Empiricism in the Debates About Satellite Data and Climate Models.Elisabeth A. Lloyd - 2012 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 43 (2):390-401.
    climate scientists have been engaged in a decades-long debate over the standing of satellite measurements of the temperature trends of the atmosphere above the surface of the earth. This is especially significant because skeptics of global warming and the greenhouse effect have utilized this debate to spread doubt about global climate models used to predict future states of climate. I use this case from an under-studied science to illustrate two distinct philosophical approaches to the relation among data, scientists, measurement, (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   7 citations  
  45. Why Data Privacy is Key To a Smart Energy Future.Carissa Véliz & Philipp Grunewald - 2018 - Nature Energy 3:702-704.
    The ability to collect fine-grained energy data from smart meters has benefits for utilities and consumers. However, a proactive approach to data privacy is necessary to maximize the potential of these data to support low-carbon energy systems, and innovative business models.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  46. What Do Patterns in Empirical Data Tell Us About the Structure of the World?James W. McAllister - 2011 - Synthese 182 (1):73-87.
    This article discusses the relation between features of empirical data and structures in the world. I defend the following claims. Any empirical data set exhibits all possible patterns, each with a certain noise term. The magnitude and other properties of this noise term are irrelevant to the evidential status of a pattern: all patterns exhibited in empirical data constitute evidence of structures in the world. Furthermore, distinct patterns constitute evidence of distinct structures in the world. It follows (...)
    Direct download (9 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   7 citations  
  47. From Data to Phenomena: A Kantian Stance.Michela Massimi - 2011 - Synthese 182 (1):101-116.
    This paper investigates some metaphysical and epistemological assumptions behind Bogen and Woodward’s data-to-phenomena inferences. I raise a series of points and suggest an alternative possible Kantian stance about data-to-phenomena inferences. I clarify the nature of the suggested Kantian stance by contrasting it with McAllister’s view about phenomena as patterns in data sets.
    Direct download (10 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   7 citations  
  48.  25
    Data Science and Molecular Biology: Prediction and Mechanistic Explanation.Ezequiel López-Rubio & Emanuele Ratti - 2019 - Synthese:1-26.
    In the last few years, biologists and computer scientists have claimed that the introduction of data science techniques in molecular biology has changed the characteristics and the aims of typical outputs (i.e. models) of such a discipline. In this paper we will critically examine this claim. First, we identify the received view on models and their aims in molecular biology. Models in molecular biology are mechanistic and explanatory. Next, we identify the scope and aims of data science (machine (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  49.  45
    All That Glitters is Not Gold: Digging Beneath the Surface of Data Mining. [REVIEW]Anthony Danna & Oscar H. Gandy - 2002 - Journal of Business Ethics 40 (4):373 - 386.
    This article develops a more comprehensive understanding of data mining by examining the application of this technology in the marketplace. In addition to exploring the technological issues that arise from the use of these applications, we address some of the social concerns that are too often ignored.As more firms shift more of their business activities to the Web, increasingly more information about consumers and potential customers is being captured in Web server logs. Sophisticated analytic and data mining software (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   14 citations  
  50. Justification Logic, Inference Tracking, and Data Privacy.Thomas Studer - 2011 - Logic and Logical Philosophy 20 (4):297-306.
    Internalization is a key property of justification logics. It states that justification logics internalize their own notion of proof which is essential for the proof of the realization theorem. The aim of this note is to show how to make use of internalization to track where an agent’s knowledge comes from and how to apply this to the problem of data privacy.
    Direct download (10 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
1 — 50 / 997