Results for 'David A. Weisbach'

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  1.  2
    Debating Climate Ethics.Stephen M. Gardiner & David A. Weisbach - 2016 - Oxford University Press USA.
    In this volume, Stephen M. Gardiner and David A. Weisbach present arguments for and against the relevance of ethics to global climate policy. Gardiner argues that climate change is fundamentally an ethical issue, since it is an early instance of a distinctive challenge to ethical action, and ethical concerns are at the heart of many of the decisions that need to be made. Consequently, climate policy that ignores ethics is at risk of.
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  2.  8
    Stephen M. Gardiner and David A. Weisbach, Debating Climate Ethics.Martin Schönfeld - 2018 - Environmental Values 27 (1):106-108.
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    Stephen M. Gardiner and David A. Weisbach: Debating Climate Ethics: New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2016. Paperback £16.99, 272 Pp.Katla Heðinsdóttir - 2017 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 20 (4):923-925.
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  4.  26
    Debating Climate Ethics by Stephen M. Gardiner and David A. Weisbach.Joshua D. McBee - 2018 - Ethics and the Environment 23 (1):71-77.
    Stephen Gardiner and David Weisbach's recent Debating Climate Ethics takes up an urgent and important question: is ethics relevant to climate policy? Or rather, the book takes up several, closely related versions of that question we do well to distinguish clearly: 1 Are ethical considerations relevant to climate policy? 2 Do ethical theories philosophers defend have implications regarding climate policy? 3 Does climate ethics provide policy analysts any useful guidance? Or, in other words, should climate policy analysts pay (...)
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  5. Climate Change Justice.Eric A. Posner & David Weisbach - 2010 - Princeton University Press.
    Climate change and justice are so closely associated that many people take it for granted that a global climate treaty should--indeed, must--directly address both issues together. But, in fact, this would be a serious mistake, one that, by dooming effective international limits on greenhouse gases, would actually make the world's poor and developing nations far worse off. This is the provocative and original argument of Climate Change Justice. Eric Posner and David Weisbach strongly favor both a climate change (...)
     
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  6. Book Review: Eric A. Posner and David Weisbach, Climate Change Justice. [REVIEW]Jacaranda Turvey - 2010 - Studies in Christian Ethics 23 (4):464-468.
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  7.  10
    Unilateral Carbon Taxes, Border Tax Adjustments and Carbon Leakage.David Weisbach, Todd Munson, Gita Khun Jush, Sam Kortum, Ian Foster & Joshua Elliott - 2013 - Theoretical Inquiries in Law 14 (1):207-244.
    We examine the impact of a unilateral carbon tax in developed countries, focusing on the expected size of carbon leakage and the effects on leakage of border tax adjustments. We start by analyzing the problem using a simple two-country, three-good general equilibrium model to develop intuitions. We then simulate the expected size of the effects using a new, open-source, computable general equilibrium model. We analyze the extent of emissions reductions from a carbon tax in countries that made commitments under the (...)
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  8.  44
    Climate Change Justice – By Eric A. Posner & David Weisbach[REVIEW]Helena de Bres - 2011 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 28 (3):323-326.
  9. No Justice in Climate Policy? Broome Versus Posner, Weisbach, and Gardiner.Alyssa R. Bernstein - 2016 - Midwest Studies in Philosophy 40 (1):172-188.
    The urgent importance of dealing with the climate crisis has led some influential theorists to argue that at least some demands for justice must give way to pragmatic and strategic considerations. These theorists (Cass Sunstein, Eric Posner, and David Weisbach, all academic lawyers, and John Broome, an academic philosopher) contend that the failures of international negotiations and other efforts to change economic policies and practices have shown that moral exhortations are worse than ineffective. Although Broome's position is similar (...)
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  10.  26
    Law, Liberty and Indecency: David A. Conway.David A. Conway - 1974 - Philosophy 49 (188):135-147.
    The distinction between private immorality and public indecency plays a significant and perhaps a crucial role in H. L. A. Hart's argument in Law, Liberty, and Morality . This distinction, and the uses to which he puts it, have, however, been largely overshadowed in the ‘debate’ between Professor Hart and Lord Devlin which has centred around such ‘great’ questions as whether a shared morality is necessary for a society. I shall argue that Hart's position, in so far as it is (...)
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  11.  12
    The Humanity of the Theologian and the Personal Nature of God: DAVID A. PAILIN.David A. Pailin - 1976 - Religious Studies 12 (2):141-158.
    In his autobiographical-biographical study, Father and Son, Edmund Gosse describes how one evening, during his childhood, while his father was praying at - or, rather, over - his bed, a rather large insect dark and flat, with more legs than a self-respecting insect ought to need, appeared at the bottom of the counterpane, and slowly advanced… I bore it in silent fascination till it almost tickled my chin, and then I screamed ‘Papa! Papa!’. My Father rose in great dudgeon, removed (...)
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  12. Ethics of Global Development: Agency, Capability, and Deliberative Democracy.David A. Crocker - 2008 - Cambridge University Press.
    Poverty, inequality, violence, environmental degradation, and tyranny continue to afflict the world. Ethics of Global Development offers a moral reflection on the ends and means of local, national, and global efforts to overcome these five scourges. After emphasizing the role of ethics in development studies, policy-making, and practice, David A. Crocker analyzes and evaluates Amartya Sen's philosophy of development in relation to alternative ethical outlooks. He argues that Sen's turn to robust ideals of human agency and democracy improves on (...)
     
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  13. Climate Change and Justice: A Non-Welfarist Treaty Negotiation Framework.Alyssa R. Bernstein - 2015 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 18 (2):123-145.
    Obstacles to achieving a global climate treaty include disagreements about questions of justice raised by the UNFCCC's principle that countries should respond to climate change by taking cooperative action "in accordance with their common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities and their social and economic conditions". Aiming to circumvent such disagreements, Climate Change Justice authors Eric Posner and David Weisbach argue against shaping treaty proposals according to requirements of either distributive or corrective justice. The USA's climate envoy, Todd (...)
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  14. A Behavioral Analysis of Degree of Reinforcement and Ease of Shifting to New Responses in a Weigl-Type Card-Sorting Problem.David A. Grant & Esta Berg - 1948 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 38 (4):404.
  15.  37
    A Theory of Reasons for Action.David A. J. Richards - 1971 - Oxford, Clarendon Press.
  16.  36
    The Intelligence of the Moral Intuitions: A Comment on Haidt.David A. Pizarro & Paul Bloom - 2003 - Psychological Review 110 (1):193-196.
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  17.  34
    A Social Actor Conception of Organizational Identity and its Implications for the Study of Organizational Reputation.David A. Whetten & Alison Mackey - 2002 - Business and Society 41 (4):393-414.
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  18. Of the Self-Concept David A. DeSteno and Peter Salovey.David A. DeSteno - 1997 - Cognition and Emotion 2 (4).
  19. Societal-Level Versus Individual-Level Predictions of Ethical Behavior: A 48-Society Study of Collectivism and Individualism.David A. Ralston, Carolyn P. Egri, Olivier Furrer, Min-Hsun Kuo, Yongjuan Li, Florian Wangenheim, Marina Dabic, Irina Naoumova, Katsuhiko Shimizu, María Teresa Garza Carranza, Ping Ping Fu, Vojko V. Potocan, Andre Pekerti, Tomasz Lenartowicz, Narasimhan Srinivasan, Tania Casado, Ana Maria Rossi, Erna Szabo, Arif Butt, Ian Palmer, Prem Ramburuth, David M. Brock, Jane Terpstra-Tong, Ilya Grison, Emmanuelle Reynaud, Malika Richards, Philip Hallinger, Francisco B. Castro, Jaime Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Laurie Milton, Mahfooz Ansari, Arunas Starkus, Audra Mockaitis, Tevfik Dalgic, Fidel León-Darder, Hung Vu Thanh, Yong-lin Moon, Mario Molteni, Yongqing Fang, Jose Pla-Barber, Ruth Alas, Isabelle Maignan, Jorge C. Jesuino, Chay-Hoon Lee, Joel D. Nicholson, Ho-Beng Chia, Wade Danis, Ajantha S. Dharmasiri & Mark Weber - 2014 - Journal of Business Ethics 122 (2):283–306.
    Is the societal-level of analysis sufficient today to understand the values of those in the global workforce? Or are individual-level analyses more appropriate for assessing the influence of values on ethical behaviors across country workforces? Using multi-level analyses for a 48-society sample, we test the utility of both the societal-level and individual-level dimensions of collectivism and individualism values for predicting ethical behaviors of business professionals. Our values-based behavioral analysis indicates that values at the individual-level make a more significant contribution to (...)
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  20.  3
    A General Model of Consensus and Accuracy in Interpersonal Perception.David A. Kenny - 1991 - Psychological Review 98 (2):155-163.
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  21.  80
    A Just Global Economy: In Defense of Rawls.David A. Reidy - 2007 - The Journal of Ethics 11 (2):193-236.
    In The Law of Peoples, John Rawls does not discuss justice and the global economy at great length or in great detail. What he does say has not been well-received. The prevailing view seems to be that what Rawls says in The Law of Peoples regarding global economic justice is both inconsistent with and a betrayal of his own liberal egalitarian commitments, an unexpected and unacceptable defense of the status quo. This view is, I think, mistaken. Rawls’s position on global (...)
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  22.  23
    Legal Idioms: A Framework for Evidential Reasoning.David A. Lagnado, Norman Fenton & Martin Neil - 2013 - Argument and Computation 4 (1):46 - 63.
    (2013). Legal idioms: a framework for evidential reasoning. Argument & Computation: Vol. 4, Formal Models of Reasoning in Cognitive Psychology, pp. 46-63. doi: 10.1080/19462166.2012.682656.
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  23. A Twenty-First Century Assessment of Values Across the Global Workforce.David A. Ralston, Carolyn P. Egri, Emmanuelle Reynaud, Narasimhan Srinivasan, Olivier Furrer, David Brock, Ruth Alas, Florian Wangenheim, Fidel León Darder, Christine Kuo, Vojko Potocan, Audra I. Mockaitis, Erna Szabo, Jaime Ruiz Gutiérrez, Andre Pekerti, Arif Butt, Ian Palmer, Irina Naoumova, Tomasz Lenartowicz, Arunas Starkus, Vu Thanh Hung, Tevfik Dalgic, Mario Molteni, María Teresa de la Garza Carranza, Isabelle Maignan, Francisco B. Castro, Yong-lin Moon, Jane Terpstra-Tong, Marina Dabic, Yongjuan Li, Wade Danis, Maria Kangasniemi, Mahfooz Ansari, Liesl Riddle, Laurie Milton, Philip Hallinger, Detelin Elenkov, Ilya Girson, Modesta Gelbuda, Prem Ramburuth, Tania Casado, Ana Maria Rossi, Malika Richards, Cheryl Van Deusen, Ping-Ping Fu, Paulina Man Kei Wan, Moureen Tang, Chay-Hoon Lee, Ho-Beng Chia, Yongquin Fan & Alan Wallace - 2011 - Journal of Business Ethics 104 (1):1-31.
    This article provides current Schwartz Values Survey (SVS) data from samples of business managers and professionals across 50 societies that are culturally and socioeconomically diverse. We report the society scores for SVS values dimensions for both individual- and societal-level analyses. At the individual-level, we report on the ten circumplex values sub-dimensions and two sets of values dimensions (collectivism and individualism; openness to change, conservation, self-enhancement, and self-transcendence). At the societal-level, we report on the values dimensions of embeddedness, hierarchy, mastery, affective (...)
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  24.  44
    Brain and Mind.David A. Oakley (ed.) - 1985 - Methuen.
  25.  9
    Choosing Between Movement Sequences: A Hierarchical Editor Model.David A. Rosenbaum, Albrecht W. Inhoff & Andrew M. Gordon - 1984 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 113 (3):372-393.
  26.  20
    The Effects of Person–Organization Ethical Fit on Employee Attraction and Retention: Towards a Testable Explanatory Model.David A. Coldwell, Jon Billsberry, Nathalie van Meurs & Philip J. G. Marsh - 2008 - Journal of Business Ethics 78 (4):611-622.
    An exploratory model is presented as a heuristic to indicate how individual perceptions of corporate reputation and corporate ethical values generate specific individual organizational senses of fit. The paper suggests that an ethical dimension of person-organization fit may go some way in explaining superior acquisition and retention of staff by those who are attracted to specific organizations by levels of corporate social performance consonant with their ethical expectations, or who remain with them by virtue of better personal ethical fits with (...)
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  27. Societal-Level Versus Individual-Level Predictions of Ethical Behavior: A 48-Society Study of Collectivism and Individualism.David A. Ralston, Carolyn P. Egri, Olivier Furrer, Min-Hsun Kuo, Yongjuan Li, Florian Wangenheim, Marina Dabic, Irina Naoumova, Katsuhiko Shimizu & María Teresa de la Garza Carranza - 2014 - Journal of Business Ethics 122 (2):283–306.
    Is the societal-level of analysis sufficient today to understand the values of those in the global workforce? Or are individual-level analyses more appropriate for assessing the influence of values on ethical behaviors across country workforces? Using multi-level analyses for a 48-society sample, we test the utility of both the societal-level and individual-level dimensions of collectivism and individualism values for predicting ethical behaviors of business professionals. Our values-based behavioral analysis indicates that values at the individual-level make a more significant contribution to (...)
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  28.  30
    The Relations Among Religion, Motivation, and College Cheating: A Natural Experiment.David A. Rettinger & Augustus E. Jordan - 2005 - Ethics and Behavior 15 (2):107-129.
    A natural experiment was conducted studying the relations among student cheating, motivation, religiosity, and attitudes toward cheating. Students enrolled in a dual religious/college curriculum were surveyed regarding their cheating behavior, attitudes toward cheating, religiosity, and learning/grade motivations toward classes. Business and liberal arts college students were represented. Results strongly support the following conclusions. First, grade orientation is associated with increases in self-reported cheating. Second, among these religious students, more religiosity correlates with reduced reports of cheating in all courses. This result (...)
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  29.  58
    Articles: The Relations Among Religion, Motivation, and College Cheating: A Natural Experiment.David A. Rettinger & Augustus E. Jordan - 2005 - Ethics and Behavior 15 (2):107 – 129.
    A natural experiment was conducted studying the relations among student cheating, motivation, religiosity, and attitudes toward cheating. Students enrolled in a dual religious/college curriculum were surveyed regarding their cheating behavior, attitudes toward cheating, religiosity, and learning/grade motivations toward classes. Business and liberal arts college students were represented. Results strongly support the following conclusions. First, grade orientation is associated with increases in self-reported cheating. Second, among these religious students, more religiosity correlates with reduced reports of cheating in all courses. This result (...)
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  30.  12
    Moving Beyond ERP Components: A Selective Review of Approaches to Integrate EEG and Behavior.David A. Bridwell, James F. Cavanagh, Anne G. E. Collins, Michael D. Nunez, Ramesh Srinivasan, Sebastian Stober & Vince D. Calhoun - 2018 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 12.
  31.  32
    Is Kripke Really at The Helm?: David A. White.David A. White - 1994 - Religious Studies 30 (1):45-54.
    There is a very interesting phenomenon which takes place in philosophy. Theories which appeared ten or fifteen years ago in the literature of, say, the philosophy of language or the philosophy of mind, often make a reappearance in current discussions of problems in the philosophy of religion. As Yogi Berra once remarked, ‘It's déjà vu all over again’. However, there is always a possibility that the transition from the earlier context to the later one will be less than smooth. For (...)
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  32.  12
    History, Humanity and the Activity of God: DAVID A. PAILIN.David A. Pailin - 1987 - Religious Studies 23 (4):435-456.
    Towards the end of Way to Wisdom , after noting how specialization has fragmented modern thought, Karl Jaspers writes that One might wish for a philosophy that would encompass and assimilate the whole tradition, that would be equal to the intellectual situation of our time, that would express the contents common to all of us, and this both in sublime intellectual constructions and in simple propositions capable of finding resonance in every man.
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  33.  9
    Some Comments on Hartshorne's Presentation of the Ontological Argument: DAVID A. PAILIN.David A. Pailin - 1968 - Religious Studies 4 (1):103-122.
    Although the basic ideas of the ontological argument can be found in Aristotle and Philo Judaeus, the argument received its classical formulation in Anselm's Proslogion and his Reply to the objections raised by Gaunilo. During the succeeding nine centuries the argument has had a chequered career. It was supported by some scholastic theologians but rejected by Aquinas. Descartes and Leibniz offered their own versions of the proof but Kant's refutation of the argument has generally been accepted as conclusive during the (...)
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  34.  25
    Deductive Program Verification (a Practitioner's Commentary).David A. Nelson - 1992 - Minds and Machines 2 (3):283-307.
    A proof of ‘correctness’ for a mathematical algorithm cannot be relevant to executions of a program based on that algorithm because both the algorithm and the proof are based on assumptions that do not hold for computations carried out by real-world computers. Thus, proving the ‘correctness’ of an algorithm cannot establish the trustworthiness of programs based on that algorithm. Despite the (deceptive) sameness of the notations used to represent them, the transformation of an algorithm into an executable program is a (...)
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  35.  15
    Hume's System: An Examination of the First Book of His Treatise, by David Pears. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990. Reviewed by David A. Reidy, Jr., University of Kansas. [REVIEW]David A. Reidy - unknown
  36.  45
    Amos & Postmodernity: A Contemporary Critical & Reflective Perspective on the Interdependency of Ethics & Spirituality in the Latino-Hispanic American Reality. [REVIEW]David A. Escobar - 2011 - Journal of Business Ethics 103 (1):59-72.
    This article argues that ethics and spirituality are therefore interdependent. One cannot be practiced without paying attention to the other. One needs to be shaped and informed by the other. This article intends to support this claim by briefly using the book and story of the Old Testament prophet Amos. Here, a brief but fair description and definition of postmodernity is provided in order to prepare the ground for an examination, discussion, and reflection of the interdependency of ethics and spirituality (...)
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  37.  54
    Reckoning with Past Wrongs: A Normative Framework.David A. Crocker - 1999 - Ethics and International Affairs 13:43–64.
    This essay formulates eight goals that have emerged from worldwide moral deliberation on "transitional justice" and that may serve as a useful framework when particular societies consider how they should reckon with violations of internationally recognized human rights.
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  38.  30
    The Moral Status of Nuclear Deterrent Threats*: DAVID A. HOEKEMA.David A. Hoekema - 1985 - Social Philosophy and Policy 3 (1):93-117.
    Ethical reflection on the practice of war stands in a long tradition in Western philosophy and theology, a tradition which begins with the writings of Plato and Augustine and encompasses accounts of justified warfare offered by writers from the Medieval period to the present. Ethical reflection on nuclear war is of necessity a more recent theme. The past few years have seen an enormous increase in popular as well as scholarly concern with nuclear issues, and philosophers have joined theologians in (...)
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  39.  26
    A Right to Health Care? Participatory Politics, Progressive Policy, and the Price of Loose Language.David A. Reidy - 2016 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 37 (4):323-342.
    This article begins by clarifying and noting various limitations on the universal reach of the human right to health care under positive international law. It then argues that irrespective of the human right to health care established by positive international law, any system of positive international law capable of generating legal duties with prima facie moral force necessarily presupposes a universal moral human right to health care. But the language used in contemporary human rights documents or human rights advocacy is (...)
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  40.  2
    The Incarnation as a Continuing, Reality: DAVID A. PAILIN.David A. Pailin - 1970 - Religious Studies 6 (4):303-327.
    Professor MacKinnon, in an essay on Philosophy and Christology , remarks that Christology confronts theology with difficult but ‘inescapable problems’ because logically ‘it is unique; and yet it overlaps here, there and everywhere’. The complexity of the task, however, does not excuse the theologian from the need to determine the logical nature of the concept of ‘incarnation’ if he wishes to use it in his work—and, as I hope to show, any theology which attempts to describe the actual nature of (...)
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  41. Multistable Phenomena: Changing Views in Perception.David A. Leopold & Nikos K. Logothetis - 1999 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 3 (7):254-264.
    Traditional explanations of multistable visual phenomena (e.g. ambiguous figures, perceptual rivalry) suggest that the basis for spontaneous reversals in perception lies in antagonistic connectivity within the visual system. In this review, we suggest an alternative, albeit speculative, explanation for visual multistability – that spontaneous alternations reflect responses to active, programmed events initiated by brain areas that integrate sensory and non-sensory information to coordinate a diversity of behaviors. Much evidence suggests that perceptual reversals are themselves more closely related to the expression (...)
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  42.  36
    Ethical Perceptions of Organizational Politics: A Comparative Evaluation of American and Hong Kong Managers. [REVIEW]David A. Ralston, Robert A. Giacalone & Robert H. Terpstra - 1994 - Journal of Business Ethics 13 (12):989 - 999.
    This paper presents a cross-cultural analysis of ethics with U.S. and Hong Kong Chinese managers as subjects. These managers were given the Strategies of Upward Influence instrument and asked to evaluate the ethics of using various political strategies to attain influence within their organizations. Differences were found between Hong Kong and U.S. managers on a variety of dimensions, indicating important differences between these two groups on their perceptions of ethical behavior. In the paper, we identify potential reasons for the findings, (...)
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  43.  26
    Ann Alpers, JD, is an Assistant Professor of Medicine and Member of the Program In Medical Ethics, University of California, San Francisco. David A. Bennahum Is Professor of Medicine and Family and Community Medi-Cine, Center for Ethics, Law and the Humanities, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque. [REVIEW]David A. Buehler - 1996 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 5:4-5.
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  44.  79
    Causal Responsibility and Counterfactuals.David A. Lagnado, Tobias Gerstenberg & Ro'I. Zultan - 2013 - Cognitive Science 37 (6):1036-1073.
    How do people attribute responsibility in situations where the contributions of multiple agents combine to produce a joint outcome? The prevalence of over-determination in such cases makes this a difficult problem for counterfactual theories of causal responsibility. In this article, we explore a general framework for assigning responsibility in multiple agent contexts. We draw on the structural model account of actual causation (e.g., Halpern & Pearl, 2005) and its extension to responsibility judgments (Chockler & Halpern, 2004). We review the main (...)
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  45.  21
    Conceptualizing Communities as Natural Entities: A Philosophical Argument with Basic and Applied Implications.David A. Steen, Kyle Barrett, Ellen Clarke & Craig Guyer - 2017 - Biology and Philosophy 32 (6):1019-1034.
    Recent work has suggested that conservation efforts such as restoration ecology and invasive species eradication are largely value-driven pursuits. Concurrently, changes to global climate are forcing ecologists to consider if and how collections of species will migrate, and whether or not we should be assisting such movements. Herein, we propose a philosophical framework which addresses these issues by utilizing ecological and evolutionary interrelationships to delineate individual ecological communities. Specifically, our Evolutionary Community Concept recognizes unique collections of species that interact and (...)
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  46.  90
    Activity Changes in Early Visual Cortex Reflect Monkeys' Percepts During Binocular Rivalry.David A. Leopold & Nikos K. Logothetis - 1996 - Nature 379 (6565):549-553.
  47.  38
    Judgments of Cause and Blame: The Effects of Intentionality and Foreseeability.David A. Lagnado & Shelley Channon - 2008 - Cognition 108 (3):754-770.
  48.  28
    A Theory of Anaphoric Information.David A. H. Elworthy - 1995 - Linguistics and Philosophy 18 (3):297 - 332.
  49. Stable Perception of Visually Ambiguous Patterns.David A. Leopold, Melanie Wilke, Alexander Maier & Nikos K. Logothetis - 2002 - Nature Neuroscience 5 (6):605-609.
    Correspondence should be addressed to David A. Leopold david[email protected] the viewing of certain patterns, widely known as ambiguous or puzzle figures, perception lapses into a sequence of spontaneous alternations, switching every few seconds between two or more visual interpretations of the stimulus. Although their nature and origin remain topics of debate, these stochastic switches are generally thought to be the automatic and inevitable consequence of viewing a pattern without a unique solution. We report here that in humans such (...)
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  50.  33
    “Equality Theory” as a Counterbalance to Equity Theory in Human Resource Management.David A. Morand & Kimberly K. Merriman - 2012 - Journal of Business Ethics 111 (1):133-144.
    This conceptual paper revisits the concept of equality as a base of distributive justice and contends that it is underspecified, both theoretically and in terms of its ethical and pragmatic application to human resource management (HRM) within organizations. Prior organizational literature focuses primarily upon distributive equality of remunerative outcomes within small groups and implicitly employs an equity-based conception of inputs to define equality. In contrast, through exposition of the philosophical roots of equality principles, we reconceptualize inputs as de facto equal (...)
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