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David B. Resnik [167]David B. . Resnik [1]David Benjamin Resnik [1]
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  1.  4
    The Ethics of Research with Human Subjects: Protecting People, Advancing Science, Promoting Trust.David B. Resnik - 2018 - Springer Verlag.
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  2.  27
    Ethical Dilemmas in Protecting Susceptible Subpopulations From Environmental Health Risks: Liberty, Utility, Fairness, and Accountability for Reasonableness.David B. Resnik, D. Robert MacDougall & Elise M. Smith - 2018 - American Journal of Bioethics 18 (3):29-41.
    Various U.S. laws, such as the Clean Air Act and the Food Quality Protection Act, require additional protections for susceptible subpopulations who face greater environmental health risks. The main ethical rationale for providing these protections is to ensure that environmental health risks are distributed fairly. In this article, we consider how several influential theories of justice deal with issues related to the distribution of environmental health risks; show that these theories often fail to provide specific guidance concerning policy choices; and (...)
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  3. H5N1 Avian Flu ESEARCH.David B. Resnik - forthcoming - Hastings Center Report.
     
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  4. The Ethics of Science: An Introduction.David B. Resnik - 1998 - Routledge.
    During the past decade scientists, public policy analysts, politicians, and laypeople, have become increasingly aware of the importance of ethical conduct in scientific research. In this timely book, David B. Resnik introduces the reader to the ethical dilemmas and questions that arise in scientific research. Some of the issues addressed in the book include ethical decision-making, the goals and methods of science, and misconduct in science. The Ethics of Science also discusses significant case studies such as human and animal cloning, (...)
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  5.  37
    Ensuring the Quality, Fairness, and Integrity of Journal Peer Review: A Possible Role of Editors.David B. Resnik & Susan A. Elmore - 2016 - Science and Engineering Ethics 22 (1):169-188.
    A growing body of literature has identified potential problems that can compromise the quality, fairness, and integrity of journal peer review, including inadequate review, inconsistent reviewer reports, reviewer biases, and ethical transgressions by reviewers. We examine the evidence concerning these problems and discuss proposed reforms, including double-blind and open review. Regardless of the outcome of additional research or attempts at reforming the system, it is clear that editors are the linchpin of peer review, since they make decisions that have a (...)
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  6.  69
    Scientific Research and the Public Trust.David B. Resnik - 2011 - Science and Engineering Ethics 17 (3):399-409.
    This essay analyzes the concept of public trust in science and offers some guidance for ethicists, scientists, and policymakers who use this idea defend ethical rules or policies pertaining to the conduct of research. While the notion that public trusts science makes sense in the abstract, it may not be sufficiently focused to support the various rules and policies that authors have tried to derive from it, because the public is not a uniform body with a common set of interests. (...)
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  7.  50
    The Price of Truth: How Money Affects the Norms of Science.David B. Resnik - 2007 - Oup Usa.
    Modern science is big business. Governments, universities, and corporations have invested billions of dollars in scientific and technological research in the hope of obtaining power and profit. For the most part, this investment has benefited science and society, leading to new discoveries, inventions, disciplines, specialties, jobs, and career opportunities. However, there is a dark side to the influx of money into science. Unbridled pursuit of financial gain in science can undermine scientific norms, such as objectivity, honesty, openness, respect for research (...)
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  8. Environmental Health Ethics.David B. Resnik - 2012 - Cambridge University Press.
    Environmental Health Ethics illuminates the conflicts between protecting the environment and promoting human health. In this study, David B. Resnik develops a method for making ethical decisions on environmental health issues. He applies this method to various issues, including pesticide use, antibiotic resistance, nutrition policy, vegetarianism, urban development, occupational safety, disaster preparedness and global climate change. Resnik provides readers with the scientific and technical background necessary to understand these issues. He explains that environmental health controversies cannot simply be reduced to (...)
     
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  9.  5
    Misconduct and Misbehavior Related to Authorship Disagreements in Collaborative Science.Elise Smith, Bryn Williams-Jones, Zubin Master, Vincent Larivière, Cassidy R. Sugimoto, Adèle Paul-Hus, Min Shi & David B. Resnik - forthcoming - Science and Engineering Ethics.
    Scientific authorship serves to identify and acknowledge individuals who “contribute significantly” to published research. However, specific authorship norms and practices often differ within and across disciplines, labs, and cultures. As a consequence, authorship disagreements are commonplace in team research. This study aims to better understand the prevalence of authorship disagreements, those factors that may lead to disagreements, as well as the extent and nature of resulting misbehavior. Methods include an international online survey of researchers who had published from 2011 to (...)
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  10.  74
    Is the Precautionary Principle Unscientific?David B. Resnik - 2003 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 34 (2):329-344.
    The precautionary principle holds that we should not allow scientific uncertainty to prevent us from taking precautionary measures in response to potential threats that are irreversible and potentially disastrous. Critics of the principle claim that it deters progress and development, is excessively risk-aversive and is unscientific. This paper argues that the principle can be scientific provided that the threats addressed by the principle are plausible threats, and the precautionary measures adopted are reasonable. The paper also argues that one may use (...)
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  11. The Moral Significance of the Therapy-Enhancement Distinction in Human Genetics.David B. Resnik - 2000 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 9 (3):365-377.
    The therapy-enhancement distinction occupies a central place in contemporary discussions of human genetics and has been the subject of much debate. At a recent conference on gene therapy policy, scientists predicted that within a few years researchers will develop techniques that can be used to enhance human traits. In thinking about the morality of genetic interventions, many writers have defended somatic gene therapy, and some have defended germline gene therapy, but only a handful of writers defend genetic enhancement, or even (...)
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  12.  50
    Developing Drugs for the Developing World: An Economic, Legal, Moral, and Political Dilemma.David B. Resnik - 2001 - Developing World Bioethics 1 (1):11-32.
    This paper discusses the economic, legal, moral, and political difficulties in developing drugs for the developing world. It argues that large, global pharmaceutical companies have social responsibilities to the developing world, and that they may exercise these responsibilities by investing in research and development related to diseases that affect developing nations, offering discounts on drug prices, and initiating drug giveaways. However, these social responsibilities are not absolute requirements and may be balanced against other obligations and commitments in light of economic, (...)
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  13.  58
    How-Possibly Explanations in Biology.David B. Resnik - 1991 - Acta Biotheoretica 39 (2):141-149.
    Biologists in many different fields of research give how-possibly explanations of the phenomena they study. Although such explanations lack empirical support, and might be regarded by some as unscientific, they play an important heuristic role in biology by helping biologists develop theories and concepts and suggesting new areas of research. How-possibly explanations serve as a useful framework for conducting research in the absence of adequate empiri cal data, and they can even become how-actually explanations if they gain enough empirical support.
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  14.  64
    Limits on Risks for Healthy Volunteers in Biomedical Research.David B. Resnik - 2012 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 33 (2):137-149.
    Healthy volunteers in biomedical research often face significant risks in studies that offer them no medical benefits. The U.S. federal research regulations and laws adopted by other countries place no limits on the risks that these participants face. In this essay, I argue that there should be some limits on the risks for biomedical research involving healthy volunteers. Limits on risk are necessary to protect human participants, institutions, and the scientific community from harm. With the exception of self-experimentation, limits on (...)
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  15.  45
    Openness Versus Secrecy in Scientific Research.David B. Resnik - 2006 - Episteme 2 (3):135-147.
    Openness is one of the most important principles in scientifi c inquiry, but there are many good reasons for maintaining secrecy in research, ranging from the desire to protect priority, credit, and intellectual property, to the need to safeguard the privacy of research participants or minimize threats to national or international security. This article examines the clash between openness and secrecy in science in light of some recent developments in information technology, business, and politics, and makes some practical suggestions for (...)
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  16.  19
    Institutional Conflicts of Interest in Academic Research.David B. Resnik - 2015 - Science and Engineering Ethics 25 (6):1661-1669.
    Financial relationships in academic research can create institutional conflicts of interest because the financial interests of the institution or institutional officials may inappropriately influence decision-making. Strategies for dealing with institutional COIs include establishing institutional COI committees that involve the board of trustees in conflict review and management, developing policies that shield institutional decisions from inappropriate influences, and establishing private foundations that are independent of the institution to own stock and intellectual property and to provide capital to start-up companies.
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  17.  18
    Ethics of Community Engagement in Field Trials of Genetically Modified Mosquitoes.David B. Resnik - 2018 - Developing World Bioethics 18 (2):135-143.
    Effective community engagement is an important legal, ethical, and practical prerequisite for conducting field trials of genetically modified mosquitoes, because these studies can substantially impact communities and it is usually not possible to obtain informed consent from each community member. Researchers who are planning to conduct field trials should develop a robust community engagement strategy that meets widely recognized standards for seeking approval from the affected population, such as timeliness, consent, information sharing, transparency, understanding, responsiveness, mutual understanding, inclusiveness, and respectfulness. (...)
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  18.  86
    Exploitation in Biomedical Research.David B. Resnik - 2003 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 24 (3):233--259.
    This essay analyzesexploitation in biomedical research in terms ofthree basic elements: harm, disrespect, orinjustice. There are also degrees ofexploitation, ranging from highly exploitationto minimally exploitation. Althoughexploitation is prima facie wrongful,some exploitative research studies are morallyjustified, all things considered. The reasonan exploitative study can still be ethical isthat other moral considerations, such as theautonomy of the research subject or the socialbenefits of research, may sometimes justifystudies that are minimally exploitative. Calling a research project exploitative doesnot end the debate about the merits (...)
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  19.  23
    Criteria for Authorship in Bioethics.David B. Resnik & Zubin Master - 2011 - American Journal of Bioethics 11 (10):17 - 21.
    Multiple authorship is becoming increasingly common in bioethics research. There are well-established criteria for authorship in empirical bioethics research but not for conceptual research. It is important to develop criteria for authorship in conceptual publications to prevent undeserved authorship and uphold standards of fairness and accountability. This article explores the issue of multiple authorship in bioethics and develops criteria for determining who should be an author on a conceptual publication in bioethics. Authorship in conceptual research should be based on contributing (...)
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  20. A Pragmatic Approach To The Demarcation Problem.David B. Resnik - 2000 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 31 (2):249-267.
    The question of how to distinguish between science and non-science, the so-called ‘demarcation problem’, is one of the most high-profile, perennial, and intractable issues in the philosophy of science. It is not merely a philosophical issue, however, since it has a significant bearing on practical policy questions and practical decisions. This essay develops a pragmatic approach to the demarcation problem: it argues that while there are some core principles that we can use in distinguishing between science and non-science, particular judgments (...)
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  21.  18
    Expanding the Scope of Research Ethics Consultation Services in Safeguarding Research Integrity: Moving Beyond the Ethics of Human Subjects Research.David B. Resnik, Brian C. Martinson & Zubin Master - 2018 - American Journal of Bioethics 18 (1):55-57.
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  22. Hacking’s Experimental Realism.David B. Resnik - 1994 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 24 (3):395-411.
    Traditional debates about scientific realism tend to focus on issues concerning scientific representation and de-emphasize issues concerning scientific intervention. Questions about the relation between theories and the world, the nature of scientific inference, and the structure of scientific explanations have occupied a central place in the realism debate, while questions about experimentation and technology have not. Ian Hacking's experimental realism attempts to reverse this trend by shifting the defense of realism away from representation to intervention. Experimental realism, according to Hacking, (...)
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  23.  27
    Paternalistic Food and Beverage Policies: A Response to Conly.David B. Resnik - 2014 - Public Health Ethics 7 (2):170-177.
    Sarah Conly defends paternalistic public health policies, such as New York City’s soft drink ban, on the grounds that they promote values that people accept but have difficulty realizing, owing to their cognitive biases. In this commentary, I criticize Conly’s defense of the soft drink ban and offer my own view of the justification for paternalistic food and beverage policies. I propose that paternalistic government restrictions on food and beverage choices should address a significant health problem pertaining to a specific (...)
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  24.  23
    Strategies to Minimize Risks and Exploitation in Phase One Trials on Healthy Subjects.Adil E. Shamoo & David B. Resnik - 2006 - American Journal of Bioethics 6 (3):W1-W13.
    Most of the literature on phase one trials has focused on ethical and safety issues in research on patients with advanced cancer, but this article focuses on healthy, adult subjects. The article makes six specific recommendations for protecting the rights and welfare of healthy subjects in phase one trials: 1) because phase one trials are short in duaration (usually 1 to 3 months), researchers should gather more data on the short-term and long-term risks of participation in phase one studies by (...)
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  25.  73
    The Commercialization of Human Stem Cells: Ethical and Policy Issues. [REVIEW]David B. Resnik - 2002 - Health Care Analysis 10 (2):127-154.
    The first stage of the human embryonic stem(ES) cell research debate revolved aroundfundamental questions, such as whether theresearch should be done at all, what types ofresearch may be done, who should do theresearch, and how the research should befunded. Now that some of these questions arebeing answered, we are beginning to see thenext stage of the debate: the battle forproperty rights relating to human ES cells. The reason why property rights will be a keyissue in this debate is simple and (...)
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  26.  67
    The Ethics of HIV Research in Developing Nations.David B. Resnik - 1998 - Bioethics 12 (4):286–306.
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  27.  28
    Bioethics and Climate Change: A Response to Macpherson and Valles.David B. Resnik - 2016 - Bioethics 30 (8):649-652.
    Two articles published in Bioethics recently have explored the ways that bioethics can contribute to the climate change debate. Cheryl Cox Macpherson argues that bioethicists can play an important role in the climate change debate by helping the public to better understand the values at stake and the trade-offs that must be made in individual and social choices, and Sean Valles claims that bioethicists can contribute to the debate by framing the issues in terms of the public health impacts of (...)
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  28. Owning the Genome: A Moral Analysis of Dna Patenting.David B. Resnik - 2004 - State University of New York Press.
    A clear, introductory overview of the issues surrounding gene patenting.
     
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  29.  5
    Commentary on Koplin and Wilkinson.David B. Resnik - 2019 - Journal of Medical Ethics 45 (7):449-450.
    In their feature article, ‘Moral uncertainty and the farming of human-pig chimeras,’ Koplin and Wilkinson argue that there is a tension between thinking that creating pig-human chimaeras with partly humanised brains as a source of organs for transplantation as morally problematic because of the uncertainty of their moral status and thinking that the raising normal pigs for food is not morally problematic because of the certainty concerning their moral status.1 Koplin and Wilkson claim that the reasons that we are uncertain (...)
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  30.  14
    Examining the Social Benefits Principle in Research with Human Participants.David B. Resnik - 2018 - Health Care Analysis 26 (1):66-80.
    The idea that research with human participants should benefit society has become firmly entrenched in various regulations, policies, and guidelines, but there has been little in-depth analysis of this ethical principle in the bioethics literature. In this paper, I distinguish between strong and weak versions and the social benefits principle and examine six arguments for it. I argue that while it is always ethically desirable for research with human subjects to offer important benefits to society, the reasonable expectation of substantial (...)
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  31.  18
    Ethics and Phishing Experiments.David B. Resnik & Peter R. Finn - 2018 - Science and Engineering Ethics 24 (4):1241-1252.
    Phishing is a fraudulent form of email that solicits personal or financial information from the recipient, such as a password, username, or social security or bank account number. The scammer may use the illicitly obtained information to steal the victim’s money or identity or sell the information to another party. The direct costs of phishing on consumers are exceptionally high and have risen substantially over the past 12 years. Phishing experiments that simulate real world conditions can provide cybersecurity experts with (...)
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  32.  49
    Hype and Public Trust in Science.Zubin Master & David B. Resnik - 2013 - Science and Engineering Ethics 19 (2):321-335.
    Social scientists have begun elucidating the variables that influence public trust in science, yet little is known about hype in biotechnology and its effects on public trust. Many scholars claim that hyping biotechnology results in a loss of public trust, and possibly public enthusiasm or support for science, because public expectations of the biotechnological promises will be unmet. We argue for the need for empirical research that examines the relationships between hype, public trust, and public enthusiasm/support. We discuss the complexities (...)
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  33.  18
    Field Trials of Genetically Modified Mosquitoes and Public Health Ethics.David B. Resnik - 2017 - American Journal of Bioethics 17 (9):24-26.
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  34.  17
    H5N1 Avian Flu Research and the Ethics of Knowledge.David B. Resnik - 2013 - Hastings Center Report 43 (2):22-33.
  35.  18
    Research Participation and Financial Inducements.David B. Resnik - 2001 - American Journal of Bioethics 1 (2):54-56.
  36.  13
    Practical Problems Related to Health Research Funding Decisions.David B. Resnik - 2018 - American Journal of Bioethics 18 (11):21-22.
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  37.  6
    Ethical Issues in Field Trials of Genetically Modified Disease-Resistant Mosquitoes.David B. Resnik - 2014 - Developing World Bioethics 14 (1):37-46.
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  38.  24
    A Proposal for a New System of Credit Allocation in Science.David B. Resnik - 1997 - Science and Engineering Ethics 3 (3):237-243.
    This essay discusses some of the problems with current authorship practices and puts forward a proposal for a new system of credit allocation: in published works, scientists should more clearly define the responsibilities and contributions of members of research teams and should distinguish between different roles, such as author, statistican, technician, grant writer, data collector, and so forth.
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  39.  47
    Can Scientists Regulate the Publication of Dual Use Research?David B. Resnik - 2010 - Law and Ethics of Human Rights 4 (1).
    The growing threat of the misuse of science and technology for terrorist or criminal purposes has led scientists, institutions, professional organizations, funding agencies, journals, and governments to consider how best to control research that can be readily used to cause significant harm to public health, the economy, the environment, or national security, also known as dual use research. This commentary argues that scientists can regulate dual use research, provided that they are committed to developing effective dual use policies and a (...)
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  40.  36
    The Distribution of Biomedical Research Resources and International Justice.David B. Resnik - 2004 - Developing World Bioethics 4 (1):42–57.
    According to some estimates, less than 10% of the world's biomedical research funds are dedicated to addressing problems that are responsible for 90% of the world's burden of disease. This paper explains why this disparity exists and what should be done about it. It argues that the disparity exists because: 1) multinational pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies do not regard research and development investments on the health problems of developing nations to be economically lucrative; and 2) governmental agencies that sponsor biomedical (...)
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  41.  35
    Perceptions of Ethical Problems with Scientific Journal Peer Review: An Exploratory Study.David B. Resnik, Christina Gutierrez-Ford & Shyamal Peddada - 2008 - Science and Engineering Ethics 14 (3):305-310.
    This article reports the results of an anonymous survey of researchers at a government research institution concerning their perceptions about ethical problems with journal peer review. Incompetent review was the most common ethical problem reported by the respondents, with 61.8% (SE = 3.3%) claiming to have experienced this at some point during peer review. Bias (50.5%, SE = 3.4%) was the next most common problem. About 22.7% (SE = 2.8%) of respondents said that a reviewer had required them to include (...)
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  42.  29
    Human Health and the Environment: In Harmony or in Conflict? [REVIEW]David B. Resnik - 2009 - Health Care Analysis 17 (3):261-276.
    Health policy frameworks usually construe environmental protection and human health as harmonious values. Policies that protect the environment, such as pollution control and pesticide regulation, also benefit human health. In recent years, however, it has become apparent that promoting human health sometimes undermines environmental protection. Some actions, policies, or technologies that reduce human morbidity, mortality, and disease can have detrimental effects on the environment. Since human health and environmental protection are sometimes at odds, political leaders, citizens, and government officials need (...)
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  43.  23
    The Precautionary Principle and Medical Decision Making.David B. Resnik - 2004 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 29 (3):281 – 299.
    The precautionary principle is a useful strategy for decision-making when physicians and patients lack evidence relating to the potential outcomes associated with various choices. According to a version of the principle defended here, one should take reasonable measures to avoid threats that are serious and plausible. The reasonableness of a response to a threat depends on several factors, including benefit vs. harm, realism, proportionality, and consistency. Since a concept of reasonableness plays an essential role in applying the precautionary principle, this (...)
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  44.  28
    Authorship Policies of Scientific Journals: Table 1.David B. Resnik, Ana M. Tyler, Jennifer R. Black & Grace Kissling - 2016 - Journal of Medical Ethics 42 (3):199-202.
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  45.  71
    Genetic Modification and Genetic Determinism.David B. Resnik & Daniel B. Vorhaus - 2006 - Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 1:9.
    In this article we examine four objections to the genetic modification of human beings: the freedom argument, the giftedness argument, the authenticity argument, and the uniqueness argument. We then demonstrate that each of these arguments against genetic modification assumes a strong version of genetic determinism. Since these strong deterministic assumptions are false, the arguments against genetic modification, which assume and depend upon these assumptions, are therefore unsound. Serious discussion of the morality of genetic modification, and the development of sound science (...)
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  46.  21
    Bioterrorism and Patent Rights: "Compulsory Licensure" and the Case of Cipro.David B. Resnik & Kenneth A. De Ville - 2002 - American Journal of Bioethics 2 (3):29 – 39.
  47.  35
    Incorporating Exclusion Clauses Into Informed Consent for Biobanking.Zubin Master & David B. Resnik - 2013 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 22 (2):203-212.
  48.  30
    The Clinical Investigator-Subject Relationship: A Contextual Approach.David B. Resnik - 2009 - Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 4:16-.
    BackgroundThe nature of the relationship between a clinical investigator and a research subject has generated considerable debate because the investigator occupies two distinct roles: clinician and scientist. As a clinician, the investigator has duties to provide the patient with optimal care and undivided loyalty. As a scientist, the investigator has duties to follow the rules, procedures and methods described in the protocol.Results and conclusionIn this article, I present a contextual approach to the investigator-subject relationship. The extent of the investigator's duty (...)
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  49.  29
    Food and Beverage Policies and Public Health Ethics.David B. Resnik - 2015 - Health Care Analysis 23 (2):122-133.
    Government food and beverage policies can play an important role in promoting public health. Few people would question this assumption. Difficult questions can arise, however, when policymakers, public health officials, citizens, and businesses deliberate about food and beverage policies, because competing values may be at stake, such as public health, individual autonomy, personal responsibility, economic prosperity, and fairness. An ethically justified policy strikes a reasonable among competing values by meeting the following criteria: the policy serves important social goal; the policy (...)
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  50.  25
    Playing Politics with Science: Balancing Scientific Independence and Government Oversight.David B. Resnik - 2009 - Oxford University Press.
    In Playing Politics with Science, David B. Resnik explores the philosophical, political, and ethical issues related to the politicalization of science and ...
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