Results for 'David B. Thronson'

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  1. Constructing Normative Objectivity in Ethics: David B. Wong.David B. Wong - 2008 - Social Philosophy and Policy 25 (1):237-266.
    This essay explains the inescapability of moral demands. I deny that the individual has genuine reason to comply with these demands only if she has desires that would be served by doing so. Rather, the learning of moral reasons helps to shape and channel self- and other-interested motivations so as to facilitate and promote social cooperation. This shaping happens through the “embedding” of reasons in the intentional objects of motivational propensities. The dominance of the instrumental conception of reason, according to (...)
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  2. Natural Moralities:A Defense of Pluralistic Relativism: A Defense of Pluralistic Relativism.David B. Wong - 2006 - Oxford University Press.
    David B. Wong proposes that there can be a plurality of true moralities, moralities that exist across different traditions and cultures, all of which address facets of the same problem: how we are to live well together. Wong examines a wide array of positions and texts within the Western canon as well as in Chinese philosophy, and draws on philosophy, psychology, evolutionary theory, history, and literature, to make a case for the importance of pluralism in moral life, and to (...)
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  3. The Ethics of Science: An Introduction.David B. Resnik - 1998 - Routledge.
    During the past decade scientists, public policy analysts, politicians, and laypeople, have become increasingly aware of the importance of ethical conduct in scientific research. In this timely book, David B. Resnik introduces the reader to the ethical dilemmas and questions that arise in scientific research. Some of the issues addressed in the book include ethical decision-making, the goals and methods of science, and misconduct in science. The Ethics of Science also discusses significant case studies such as human and animal (...)
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  4.  55
    The Price of Truth: How Money Affects the Norms of Science.David B. Resnik - 2007 - Oup Usa.
    Modern science is big business. Governments, universities, and corporations have invested billions of dollars in scientific and technological research in the hope of obtaining power and profit. For the most part, this investment has benefited science and society, leading to new discoveries, inventions, disciplines, specialties, jobs, and career opportunities. However, there is a dark side to the influx of money into science. Unbridled pursuit of financial gain in science can undermine scientific norms, such as objectivity, honesty, openness, respect for research (...)
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  5.  14
    The Ethics of Research with Human Subjects: Protecting People, Advancing Science, Promoting Trust.David B. Resnik - 2018 - Springer Verlag.
    This book provides a framework for approaching ethical and policy dilemmas in research with human subjects from the perspective of trust. It explains how trust is important not only between investigators and subjects but also between and among other stakeholders involved in the research enterprise, including research staff, sponsors, institutions, communities, oversight committees, government agencies, and the general public. The book argues that trust should be viewed as a distinct ethical principle for research with human subjects that complements other principles, (...)
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  6.  7
    Environmental Health Ethics.David B. Resnik - 2012 - Cambridge University Press.
    Environmental Health Ethics illuminates the conflicts between protecting the environment and promoting human health. In this study, David B. Resnik develops a method for making ethical decisions on environmental health issues. He applies this method to various issues, including pesticide use, antibiotic resistance, nutrition policy, vegetarianism, urban development, occupational safety, disaster preparedness and global climate change. Resnik provides readers with the scientific and technical background necessary to understand these issues. He explains that environmental health controversies cannot simply be reduced (...)
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  7.  59
    Color Conscious: The Political Morality of Race.David B. Wilkins, Kwame Anthony Appiah & Amy Gutmann - 1996 - Princeton University Press.
    In America today, the problem of achieving racial justice--whether through "color-blind" policies or through affirmative action--provokes more noisy name-calling than fruitful deliberation. In Color Conscious, K. Anthony Appiah and Amy Gutmann, two eminent moral and political philosophers, seek to clear the ground for a discussion of the place of race in politics and in our moral lives. Provocative and insightful, their essays tackle different aspects of the question of racial justice; together they provide a compelling response to our nation's most (...)
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  8.  44
    Review Essay: Ethics and the Limits of PhilosophyEthics and the Limits of Philosophy.David B. Wong & Bernard Williams - 1989 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 49 (4):721.
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  9.  32
    Ethical Dilemmas in Protecting Susceptible Subpopulations From Environmental Health Risks: Liberty, Utility, Fairness, and Accountability for Reasonableness.David B. Resnik, D. Robert MacDougall & Elise M. Smith - 2018 - American Journal of Bioethics 18 (3):29-41.
    Various U.S. laws, such as the Clean Air Act and the Food Quality Protection Act, require additional protections for susceptible subpopulations who face greater environmental health risks. The main ethical rationale for providing these protections is to ensure that environmental health risks are distributed fairly. In this article, we consider how several influential theories of justice deal with issues related to the distribution of environmental health risks; show that these theories often fail to provide specific guidance concerning policy choices; and (...)
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  10.  27
    The Unknowability of God in Al-Ghazali: DAVID B. BURRELL.David B. Burrell - 1987 - Religious Studies 23 (2):171-182.
    The main lines of this exploration are quite simply drawn. That the God whom Jews, Christians, and Muslims worship outstrips our capacities for characterization, and hence must be unknowable, will be presumed as uncontested. The reason that God is unknowable stems from our shared confession that ‘the Holy One, blessed be He’, and ‘the Father almighty, creator of heaven and earth’, and certainly ‘Allah, the merciful One’ is one ; and just why God's oneness entails God's being unknowable deserves discussion, (...)
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  11.  21
    The Psychology of Philosophy: Associating Philosophical Views with Psychological Traits in Professional Philosophers.David B. Yaden & Derek E. Anderson - forthcoming - Philosophical Psychology:1-35.
    Do psychological traits predict philosophical views? We administered the PhilPapers Survey, created by David Bourget and David Chalmers, which consists of 30 views on central philosophical topics (e.g., epistemology, ethics, metaphysics, philosophy of mind, and philosophy of language) to a sample of professional philosophers (N = 314). We extended the PhilPapers survey to measure a number of psychological traits, such as personality, numeracy, well-being, lifestyle, and life experiences. We also included non-technical ‘translations’ of these views for eventual use (...)
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  12.  80
    Scientific Research and the Public Trust.David B. Resnik - 2011 - Science and Engineering Ethics 17 (3):399-409.
    This essay analyzes the concept of public trust in science and offers some guidance for ethicists, scientists, and policymakers who use this idea defend ethical rules or policies pertaining to the conduct of research. While the notion that public trusts science makes sense in the abstract, it may not be sufficiently focused to support the various rules and policies that authors have tried to derive from it, because the public is not a uniform body with a common set of interests. (...)
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  13.  38
    Ensuring the Quality, Fairness, and Integrity of Journal Peer Review: A Possible Role of Editors.David B. Resnik & Susan A. Elmore - 2016 - Science and Engineering Ethics 22 (1):169-188.
    A growing body of literature has identified potential problems that can compromise the quality, fairness, and integrity of journal peer review, including inadequate review, inconsistent reviewer reports, reviewer biases, and ethical transgressions by reviewers. We examine the evidence concerning these problems and discuss proposed reforms, including double-blind and open review. Regardless of the outcome of additional research or attempts at reforming the system, it is clear that editors are the linchpin of peer review, since they make decisions that have a (...)
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  14. Do Dead Bodies Pose a Problem for Biological Approaches to Personal Identity?David B. Hershenov - 2005 - Mind 114 (453):31-59.
    One reason why the Biological Approach to personal identity is attractive is that it doesn’t make its advocates deny that they were each once a mindless fetus.[i] According to the Biological Approach, we are essentially organisms and exist as long as certain life processes continue. Since the Psychological Account of personal identity posits some mental traits as essential to our persistence, not only does it follow that we could not survive in a permanently vegetative state or irreversible coma, but it (...)
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  15.  28
    Vicarious Memories.David B. Pillemer, Kristina L. Steiner, Kie J. Kuwabara, Dorthe Kirkegaard Thomsen & Connie Svob - 2015 - Consciousness and Cognition 36:233-245.
  16.  69
    How-Possibly Explanations in Biology.David B. Resnik - 1991 - Acta Biotheoretica 39 (2):141-149.
    Biologists in many different fields of research give how-possibly explanations of the phenomena they study. Although such explanations lack empirical support, and might be regarded by some as unscientific, they play an important heuristic role in biology by helping biologists develop theories and concepts and suggesting new areas of research. How-possibly explanations serve as a useful framework for conducting research in the absence of adequate empiri cal data, and they can even become how-actually explanations if they gain enough empirical support.
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  17.  65
    Early Confucian Philosophy and the Development of Compassion.David B. Wong - 2015 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 14 (2):157-194.
    Metaphors of adorning, crafting, water flowing downward, and growing sprouts appear in the Analects , the Mencius , and the Xunzi 荀子. They express and guide thinking about what there is in human nature to cultivate and how it is to be cultivated. The craft metaphor seems to imply that our nature is of the sort that must be disciplined and reshaped to achieve goodness, while the adorning, water, and sprout metaphors imply that human nature has an inbuilt directionality toward (...)
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  18. Is There a Distinction Between Reason and Emotion in Mencius?David B. Wong - 1991 - Philosophy East and West 41 (1):31-44.
  19. Topics in the Foundations of General Relativity and Newtonian Gravitation Theory.David B. Malament - 2012 - Chicago: Chicago University Press.
    1.1 Manifolds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.2 Tangent Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (...)
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  20.  15
    Examining the Social Benefits Principle in Research with Human Participants.David B. Resnik - 2018 - Health Care Analysis 26 (1):66-80.
    The idea that research with human participants should benefit society has become firmly entrenched in various regulations, policies, and guidelines, but there has been little in-depth analysis of this ethical principle in the bioethics literature. In this paper, I distinguish between strong and weak versions and the social benefits principle and examine six arguments for it. I argue that while it is always ethically desirable for research with human subjects to offer important benefits to society, the reasonable expectation of substantial (...)
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  21.  65
    Limits on Risks for Healthy Volunteers in Biomedical Research.David B. Resnik - 2012 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 33 (2):137-149.
    Healthy volunteers in biomedical research often face significant risks in studies that offer them no medical benefits. The U.S. federal research regulations and laws adopted by other countries place no limits on the risks that these participants face. In this essay, I argue that there should be some limits on the risks for biomedical research involving healthy volunteers. Limits on risk are necessary to protect human participants, institutions, and the scientific community from harm. With the exception of self-experimentation, limits on (...)
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  22.  17
    The Structure of Geology. David B. Kitts. [REVIEW]David B. Kitts - 1979 - Philosophy of Science 46 (1):166-167.
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  23.  25
    Ethics of Community Engagement in Field Trials of Genetically Modified Mosquitoes.David B. Resnik - 2018 - Developing World Bioethics 18 (2):135-143.
    Effective community engagement is an important legal, ethical, and practical prerequisite for conducting field trials of genetically modified mosquitoes, because these studies can substantially impact communities and it is usually not possible to obtain informed consent from each community member. Researchers who are planning to conduct field trials should develop a robust community engagement strategy that meets widely recognized standards for seeking approval from the affected population, such as timeliness, consent, information sharing, transparency, understanding, responsiveness, mutual understanding, inclusiveness, and respectfulness. (...)
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  24.  26
    Playing Politics with Science: Balancing Scientific Independence and Government Oversight.David B. Resnik - 2009 - Oxford University Press.
    In Playing Politics with Science, David B. Resnik explores the philosophical, political, and ethical issues related to the politicalization of science and ...
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  25.  36
    Arguments and Cases: An Inevitable Intertwining. [REVIEW]David B. Skalak & Edwina L. Rissland - 1992 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 1 (1):3-44.
    We discuss several aspects of legal arguments, primarily arguments about the meaning of statutes. First, we discuss how the requirements of argument guide the specification and selection of supporting cases and how an existing case base influences argument formation. Second, we present,our evolving taxonomy of patterns of actual legal argument. This taxonomy builds upon our much earlier work on argument moves and also on our more recent analysis of how cases are used to support arguments for the interpretation of legal (...)
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  26. Three Kinds of Incommensurability.David B. Wong - 1989 - In M. Krausz (ed.), Relativism: Interpretation and Confrontation. Notre Dame University Press. pp. 140--58.
  27. Hacking’s Experimental Realism.David B. Resnik - 1994 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 24 (3):395-411.
    Traditional debates about scientific realism tend to focus on issues concerning scientific representation and de-emphasize issues concerning scientific intervention. Questions about the relation between theories and the world, the nature of scientific inference, and the structure of scientific explanations have occupied a central place in the realism debate, while questions about experimentation and technology have not. Ian Hacking's experimental realism attempts to reverse this trend by shifting the defense of realism away from representation to intervention. Experimental realism, according to Hacking, (...)
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  28. A Pragmatic Approach To The Demarcation Problem.David B. Resnik - 2000 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 31 (2):249-267.
    The question of how to distinguish between science and non-science, the so-called ‘demarcation problem’, is one of the most high-profile, perennial, and intractable issues in the philosophy of science. It is not merely a philosophical issue, however, since it has a significant bearing on practical policy questions and practical decisions. This essay develops a pragmatic approach to the demarcation problem: it argues that while there are some core principles that we can use in distinguishing between science and non-science, particular judgments (...)
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  29.  33
    Degrees Joining to 0'. [REVIEW]David B. Posner & Robert W. Robinson - 1981 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 46 (4):714 - 722.
    It is shown that if A and C are sets of degrees uniformly recursive in 0' with $\mathbf{0} \nonin \mathscr{C}$ then there is a degree b with b' = 0', b ∪ c = 0' for every c ∈ C, and $\mathbf{a} \nleq \mathbf{b}$ for every a ∈ A ∼ {0}. The proof is given as an oracle construction recursive in 0'. It follows that any nonrecursive degree below 0' can be joined to 0' by a degree strictly below 0'. (...)
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  30.  70
    The Ethics of HIV Research in Developing Nations.David B. Resnik - 1998 - Bioethics 12 (4):286–306.
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  31.  91
    Exploitation in Biomedical Research.David B. Resnik - 2003 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 24 (3):233--259.
    This essay analyzesexploitation in biomedical research in terms ofthree basic elements: harm, disrespect, orinjustice. There are also degrees ofexploitation, ranging from highly exploitationto minimally exploitation. Althoughexploitation is prima facie wrongful,some exploitative research studies are morallyjustified, all things considered. The reasonan exploitative study can still be ethical isthat other moral considerations, such as theautonomy of the research subject or the socialbenefits of research, may sometimes justifystudies that are minimally exploitative. Calling a research project exploitative doesnot end the debate about the merits (...)
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  32.  27
    Institutional Conflicts of Interest in Academic Research.David B. Resnik - 2015 - Science and Engineering Ethics 25 (6):1661-1669.
    Financial relationships in academic research can create institutional conflicts of interest because the financial interests of the institution or institutional officials may inappropriately influence decision-making. Strategies for dealing with institutional COIs include establishing institutional COI committees that involve the board of trustees in conflict review and management, developing policies that shield institutional decisions from inappropriate influences, and establishing private foundations that are independent of the institution to own stock and intellectual property and to provide capital to start-up companies.
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  33.  50
    Openness Versus Secrecy in Scientific Research.David B. Resnik - 2006 - Episteme 2 (3):135-147.
    Openness is one of the most important principles in scientifi c inquiry, but there are many good reasons for maintaining secrecy in research, ranging from the desire to protect priority, credit, and intellectual property, to the need to safeguard the privacy of research participants or minimize threats to national or international security. This article examines the clash between openness and secrecy in science in light of some recent developments in information technology, business, and politics, and makes some practical suggestions for (...)
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  34.  39
    Paternalistic Food and Beverage Policies: A Response to Conly.David B. Resnik - 2014 - Public Health Ethics 7 (2):170-177.
    Sarah Conly defends paternalistic public health policies, such as New York City’s soft drink ban, on the grounds that they promote values that people accept but have difficulty realizing, owing to their cognitive biases. In this commentary, I criticize Conly’s defense of the soft drink ban and offer my own view of the justification for paternalistic food and beverage policies. I propose that paternalistic government restrictions on food and beverage choices should address a significant health problem pertaining to a specific (...)
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  35.  74
    The Commercialization of Human Stem Cells: Ethical and Policy Issues. [REVIEW]David B. Resnik - 2002 - Health Care Analysis 10 (2):127-154.
    The first stage of the human embryonic stem(ES) cell research debate revolved aroundfundamental questions, such as whether theresearch should be done at all, what types ofresearch may be done, who should do theresearch, and how the research should befunded. Now that some of these questions arebeing answered, we are beginning to see thenext stage of the debate: the battle forproperty rights relating to human ES cells. The reason why property rights will be a keyissue in this debate is simple and (...)
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  36.  6
    Automatic Removal of Physiological Artifacts in EEG: The Optimized Fingerprint Method for Sports Science Applications.David B. Stone, Gabriella Tamburro, Patrique Fiedler, Jens Haueisen & Silvia Comani - 2018 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 12.
  37.  25
    Criteria for Authorship in Bioethics.David B. Resnik & Zubin Master - 2011 - American Journal of Bioethics 11 (10):17 - 21.
    Multiple authorship is becoming increasingly common in bioethics research. There are well-established criteria for authorship in empirical bioethics research but not for conceptual research. It is important to develop criteria for authorship in conceptual publications to prevent undeserved authorship and uphold standards of fairness and accountability. This article explores the issue of multiple authorship in bioethics and develops criteria for determining who should be an author on a conceptual publication in bioethics. Authorship in conceptual research should be based on contributing (...)
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  38.  51
    Relational and Autonomous Selves.David B. Wong - 2004 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 31 (4):419–432.
  39.  38
    The Ethical Decision-Making Processes of Information Systems Workers.David B. Paradice & Roy M. Dejoie - 1991 - Journal of Business Ethics 10 (1):1 - 21.
    An empirical investigation was conducted to determine whether management information systems (MIS) majors, on average, exhibit ethical decision-making processes that differ from students in other functional business areas. The research also examined whether the existence of a computer-based information system in an ethical dilemma influences ethical desision-making processes. Although student subjects were used, the research instrument has been highly correlated with educational levels attained by adult subjects in similar studies. Thus, we feel that our results have a high likelihood of (...)
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  40.  80
    Zhuangzi and the Obsession with Being Right.David B. Wong - 2005 - History of Philosophy Quarterly 22 (2):91 - 107.
  41.  32
    Scientific Retractions and Corrections Related to Misconduct Findings.David B. Resnik & Gregg E. Dinse - 2013 - Journal of Medical Ethics 39 (1):46-50.
    We examined all 208 closed cases involving official findings of research misconduct published by the US Office of Research Integrity from 1992 to 2011 to determine how often scientists mention in a retraction or correction notice that there was an ethical problem with an associated article. 75 of these cases cited at least one published article affected by misconduct for a total of 174 articles. For 127 of these 174, we found both the article and a retraction or correction statement. (...)
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  42. Why Death Is Not Bad for the One Who Died.David B. Suits - 2001 - American Philosophical Quarterly 38 (1):69 - 84.
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  43.  19
    Ethics and Phishing Experiments.David B. Resnik & Peter R. Finn - 2018 - Science and Engineering Ethics 24 (4):1241-1252.
    Phishing is a fraudulent form of email that solicits personal or financial information from the recipient, such as a password, username, or social security or bank account number. The scammer may use the illicitly obtained information to steal the victim’s money or identity or sell the information to another party. The direct costs of phishing on consumers are exceptionally high and have risen substantially over the past 12 years. Phishing experiments that simulate real world conditions can provide cybersecurity experts with (...)
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  44.  24
    A Proposal for a New System of Credit Allocation in Science.David B. Resnik - 1997 - Science and Engineering Ethics 3 (3):237-243.
    This essay discusses some of the problems with current authorship practices and puts forward a proposal for a new system of credit allocation: in published works, scientists should more clearly define the responsibilities and contributions of members of research teams and should distinguish between different roles, such as author, statistican, technician, grant writer, data collector, and so forth.
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  45.  35
    Perceptions of Ethical Problems with Scientific Journal Peer Review: An Exploratory Study.David B. Resnik, Christina Gutierrez-Ford & Shyamal Peddada - 2008 - Science and Engineering Ethics 14 (3):305-310.
    This article reports the results of an anonymous survey of researchers at a government research institution concerning their perceptions about ethical problems with journal peer review. Incompetent review was the most common ethical problem reported by the respondents, with 61.8% (SE = 3.3%) claiming to have experienced this at some point during peer review. Bias (50.5%, SE = 3.4%) was the next most common problem. About 22.7% (SE = 2.8%) of respondents said that a reviewer had required them to include (...)
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  46.  34
    Value-Entanglement and the Integrity of Scientific Research.David B. Resnik & Kevin C. Elliott - 2019 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 75:1-11.
  47.  32
    Authorship Policies of Scientific Journals: Table 1.David B. Resnik, Ana M. Tyler, Jennifer R. Black & Grace Kissling - 2016 - Journal of Medical Ethics 42 (3):199-202.
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  48.  30
    Bioethics and Climate Change: A Response to Macpherson and Valles.David B. Resnik - 2016 - Bioethics 30 (8):649-652.
    Two articles published in Bioethics recently have explored the ways that bioethics can contribute to the climate change debate. Cheryl Cox Macpherson argues that bioethicists can play an important role in the climate change debate by helping the public to better understand the values at stake and the trade-offs that must be made in individual and social choices, and Sean Valles claims that bioethicists can contribute to the debate by framing the issues in terms of the public health impacts of (...)
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  49.  10
    Ethical Issues in Field Trials of Genetically Modified Disease-Resistant Mosquitoes.David B. Resnik - 2014 - Developing World Bioethics 14 (1):37-46.
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  50.  26
    The Precautionary Principle and Medical Decision Making.David B. Resnik - 2004 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 29 (3):281 – 299.
    The precautionary principle is a useful strategy for decision-making when physicians and patients lack evidence relating to the potential outcomes associated with various choices. According to a version of the principle defended here, one should take reasonable measures to avoid threats that are serious and plausible. The reasonableness of a response to a threat depends on several factors, including benefit vs. harm, realism, proportionality, and consistency. Since a concept of reasonableness plays an essential role in applying the precautionary principle, this (...)
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