This paper briefly reviews the theories that seek to explain the phenomenon of corporate charitable donations and then provides a review of the empirical issues that have arisen in previous studies in this area. The findings of an analysis of charitable donations data from the entire U.K. FTSE index for the years 1985–2000 are then reported. These findings include the observation of a time-related increase in charitable donations, which is compared with an earlier study to give a 24 year history (...) of charitable donations in the U.K. The findings note little responsiveness of the monetary value of charitable donations to the economic performance of firms. An international comparison over time against U.S. trends is also reported and shows how U.S. corporations have traditionally been more generous than U.K. firms, but that the trend in the U.S. is downwards. Membership of a U.K.-based "tithing" club (the PerCent Club) is shown to be associated with higher profit performance against non-members. Members' charitable contributions against profit are shown to be higher than the FTSE mean although short of the 0.5% target figure in "cash" terms. The paper concludes with a brief discussion of these findings in relation to the theoretical positions advanced for corporate philanthropy. (shrink)
Sontag's photos of Sarajevo question "the notion of the CNN effect" because "[t]he political context into which the pictures were being inserted was already set, with military intervention not an option, and no amount of horrific photographs was going to change that.".
Proponents of sustainable agriculture seek deeply rooted social changes, but to advance this agenda requires political credibility and work with diverse partners. Asthe literature on political co-optation makesclear, the tension between conviction andcredibility is persistent and unavoidable; nota problem to be solved so much as a built-incondition of movement politics. Drawing on acase history of California's largestsustainable agriculture organization, astructural assessment is made of the strategicchoices facing movement leaders, organizationaltensions that accompany these choices, andperceived gains and losses. The case historydemonstrates (...) how movement leaders craft middlerange strategies that adapt to politicalcircumstances while retaining attachments tocore values and constituencies. Thesestrategies are ripe with tradeoffs, placingdemands on leaders who must implement them in aspirit that sustains organizational vitalitywhile broadening political and social impact.But they also enlarge the democraticsensibilities of movement leaders, increasingtheir ability to listen, learn, and forgealliances based on shared goals rather thansimilar motives. (shrink)
The claims by the Building Societies Association (BSA), some mutual building societies and other observers that mutual status is associated with higher levels of charitable and community involvement than public status banks are tested using the proxy of charitable donations in cash as a proportion of profits before tax (PBT). Using a sample of 31 of the remaining 65 mutual societies and the population of U.K.-based retail banks and still-independent demutualised banks, two hypotheses were tested: first, that charitable giving as (...) a proportion of PBT over the period 1990–2003 was higher for mutuals than banks and second, that longitudinal records of charitable donations as a proportion of PBT for former mutuals will show a lower rate after demutualisation. Neither hypothesis was convincingly supported allowing for the conclusion that any claims suggesting that mutuals are structurally more generous than public companies are not supported by empirical evidence. (shrink)
The possibility of aesthetic objectivity is a standard topic within philosophical aesthetics and raises questions that have always been heavily disputed. ‘Endlos umstritten, ewig schön’ will readdress these issues through the most prominent concept within the philosophy of art, namely the concept of beauty, and ask the question: Can artworks be beautiful in themselves or is beauty a subjective reaction of the viewer? For artists since the beginning of the 20th century, the notion of beauty has been associated with frivolity, (...) consumerism and pure pleasure and as a result, challenged and rejected. Thus the term has been replaced in recent aesthetic debates by discourses such as relational aesthetics, art as social space, art as service and poetic knowledge. The exhibition, which will represent current artistic positions from the UK and Germany that challenge both classical and more contemporary conceptions of beauty, will provide the context for an interdisciplinary symposium. Art theorists and philosophers from varying aesthetic traditions have been invited to take part and to discuss the possible relevance beauty could have for the production and reception of contemporary art. In bringing dynamic artists, philosophers and theorists together, we hope to examine this old debate from new and invigorating perspectives. (shrink)
This book is a thoroughgoing analysis, interpretation, and defense of John Stuart Mill's proof of the principle of utility. It answers the traditional charges levelled against that proof, supports a comprehensive interpretation by painstaking study of Mill's text in Utilitarianism , and marshals arguments on behalf of utility as the first principle of morality. Universal Justice is dedicated to the advancement of justice conceived globally. It publishes interpretations of the history of thought as well as original monographs and collective volumes, (...) including work related to the activities of the International Society for Universalism. (shrink)