Results for 'David E. Over'

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  1.  24
    The Probability of Conditionals: The Psychological Evidence.Jonathan St B. Evans David E. Over - 2003 - Mind and Language 18 (4):340-358.
    : The two main psychological theories of the ordinary conditional were designed to account for inferences made from assumptions, but few premises in everyday life can be simply assumed true. Useful premises usually have a probability that is less than certainty. But what is the probability of the ordinary conditional and how is it determined? We argue that people use a two stage Ramsey test that we specify to make probability judgements about indicative conditionals in natural language, and we describe (...)
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  2. Logic and Uncertainty in the Human Mind. A Tribute to David E. Over.I. Elqayam, Igor Douven, Jonathan Evans & N. Cruz (eds.) - forthcoming - Routledge.
    David E. Over is a leading cognitive scientist and, with his firm grounding in philosophical logic, he also exerts a powerful influence on the psychology of reasoning. He is responsible for not only a large body of empirical work and accompanying theory, but for advancing a major shift in thinking about reasoning, commonly known as the ‘new paradigm’ in the psychology of human reasoning. -/- Over’s signature mix of philosophical logic and experimental psychology has inspired generations of (...)
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  3.  1
    Logic and Uncertainty in the Human Mind: A Tribute to David E. Over.S. Elqayam, Igor Douven, J. St B. T. Evans & N. Cruz (eds.) - 2020 - Routledge.
    David Earl Over is a leading cognitive scientist and, with his firm grounding in philosophical logic, he also exerts a powerful influence on the psychology of reasoning. He is responsible for not only a large body of empirical work and accompanying theory, but for advancing a major shift in thinking about reasoning, commonly known as the 'new paradigm' in the psychology of human reasoning. Over's signature mix of philosophical logic and experimental psychology has inspired generations of researchers, (...)
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  4. From Massive Modularity to Metarepresentation: The Evolution of Higher Cognition.David E. Over - 2003 - In Evolution and the Psychology of Thinking: The Debate. Psychology Press. pp. 121--144.
  5.  27
    Evolution and the Psychology of Thinking: The Debate.David E. Over (ed.) - 2003 - Psychology Press.
    In this collection, leading experts evaluate the status of this controversial field, providing a critical analysis of its main hypotheses These hypotheses have ...
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  6.  13
    The Rationality of Evolutionary Psychology.David E. Over - 2002 - In Jose Luis Bermudez & Alan Millar (eds.), Reason and Nature. Clarendon Press. pp. 187--207.
  7.  61
    New Paradigm Psychology of Reasoning.David E. Over - 2009 - Thinking and Reasoning 15 (4):431-438.
  8.  36
    Ecological Issues: A Reply to Todd, Fiddick, & Krauss.David E. Over - 2000 - Thinking and Reasoning 6 (4):385 – 388.
  9.  11
    Contingency, Causation, and Adaptive Inference.David E. Over & David W. Green - 2001 - Psychological Review 108 (3):682-684.
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  10.  6
    A Philosophical Guide to Conditionals.David E. Over - 2005 - Mind and Language 20 (3):357-363.
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  11.  20
    A Philosophical Guide to Conditionals. By Jonathan Bennett. Clarendon Press: Oxford, 2003. Pp. XII + 387.David E. Over - 2005 - Mind and Language 20 (3):357–363.
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  12.  40
    Uncertain Premises and Jeffrey's Rule.David E. Over & Constantinos Hadjichristidis - 2009 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 32 (1):97-98.
    Oaksford & Chater (O&C) begin in the halfway Bayesian house of assuming that minor premises in conditional inferences are certain. We demonstrate that this assumption is a serious limitation. They additionally suggest that appealing to Jeffrey's rule could make their approach more general. We present evidence that this rule is not limited enough to account for actual probability judgements.
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  13. The Probability of Conditionals: The Psychological Evidence.David E. Over & Jonathan St B. T. Evans - 2003 - Mind and Language 18 (4):340–358.
    The two main psychological theories of the ordinary conditional were designed to account for inferences made from assumptions, but few premises in everyday life can be simply assumed true. Useful premises usually have a probability that is less than certainty. But what is the probability of the ordinary conditional and how is it determined? We argue that people use a two stage Ramsey test that we specify to make probability judgements about indicative conditionals in natural language, and we describe experiments (...)
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  14.  14
    The Logic of Natural Sampling.David E. Over - 2007 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 30 (3):277-277.
    Barbey & Sloman (B&S) relegate the logical rule of the excluded middle to a footnote. But this logical rule is necessary for natural sampling. Making the rule explicit in a logical tree can make a problem easier to solve. Examples are given of uses of the rule that are non-constructive and not reducible to a domain-specific module.
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  15.  35
    New Paradigm Psychology of Reasoning: An Introduction to the Special Issue Edited by Elqayam, Bonnefon, and Over.Shira Elqayam & David E. Over - 2013 - Thinking and Reasoning 19 (3-4):249-265.
  16. Deontic Reasoning.Ken I. Manktelow & David E. Over - 1995 - Perspectives on Thinking and Reasoning: Essays in Honour of Peter Wason.
    The following values have no corresponding Zotero field: PB - Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Ltd Hove,, UK.
     
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  17. Rationality in Reasoning: The Problem of Deductive Competence.Jonathan Evans & David E. Over - unknown - Current Psychology of Cognition 16 (1-2):3-38.
     
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  18.  48
    Probability and Choice in the Selection Task.David W. Green, David E. Over & Robin A. Pyne - 1997 - Thinking and Reasoning 3 (3):209-235.
    Two experiments using a realistic version of the selection task examined the relationship between participants' probability estimates of finding a counter example and their selections. Experiment 1 used everyday categories in the context of a scenario to determine whether or not the number of instances in a category affected the estimated probability of a counter-example. Experiment 2 modified the scenario in order to alter participants' estimates of finding a specific counter-example. Unlike Kirby 1994a, but consistent with his proposals, both studies (...)
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  19. Uncertainty and the de Finetti Tables.Jean Baratgin, David E. Over & Guy Politzer - 2013 - Thinking and Reasoning 19 (3-4):308-328.
    The new paradigm in the psychology of reasoning adopts a Bayesian, or prob- abilistic, model for studying human reasoning. Contrary to the traditional binary approach based on truth functional logic, with its binary values of truth and falsity, a third value that represents uncertainty can be introduced in the new paradigm. A variety of three-valued truth table systems are available in the formal literature, including one proposed by de Finetti. We examine the descriptive adequacy of these systems for natural language (...)
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  20. Betting on Conditionals.Jean Baratgin, David E. Over & Guy Politzer - 2010 - Thinking and Reasoning 16 (3):172-197.
    A study is reported testing two hypotheses about a close parallel relation between indicative conditionals, if A then B , and conditional bets, I bet you that if A then B . The first is that both the indicative conditional and the conditional bet are related to the conditional probability, P(B|A). The second is that de Finetti's three-valued truth table has psychological reality for both types of conditional— true , false , or void for indicative conditionals and win , lose (...)
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  21.  19
    Editorial: From Is to Ought: The Place of Normative Models in the Study of Human Thought.Shira Elqayam & David E. Over - 2016 - Frontiers in Psychology 7.
  22.  27
    Reaching a Decision: A Reply to Oaksford.David W. Green & David E. Over - 1998 - Thinking and Reasoning 4 (2):187-192.
    In his commentary, Oaksford makes two main claims: (1) that the externalisation method used by Green, Over, and Pyne (1997) enforces the correlation observed between probability estimates and selection, and (2) that these estimates support the prediction of a downward revision of P(p) when P(p) > P(q). In this reply, we rebut claim 1 by describing the instructions more comprehensively, and claim 2 by reiterating the importance of making certain theoretical distinctions which Oaksford does not make. Our interest is (...)
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  23.  54
    Reasoning and Rationality.K. Manktelow & David E. Over - 1987 - Mind and Language 2 (3):199-219.
  24.  9
    Deduction From Uncertain Premises.Rosemary J. Stevenson & David E. Over - 1995 - Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology Section A 48 (3):613-643.
    We investigate how the perceived uncertainty of a conditional affects a person's choice of conclusion. We use a novel procedure to introduce uncertainty by manipulating the conditional probability of the consequent given the antecedent. In Experiment 1, we show first that subjects reduce their choice of valid conclusions when a conditional is followed by an additional premise that makes the major premise uncertain. In this we replicate Byrne. These subjects choose, instead, a qualified conclusion expressing uncertainty. If subjects are given (...)
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  25.  34
    Reasoning From Uncertain Premises: Effects of Expertise and Conversational Context.Rosemary J. Stevenson & David E. Over - 2001 - Thinking and Reasoning 7 (4):367 – 390.
    Four experiments investigated uncertainty about a premise in a deductive argument as a function of the expertise of the speaker and of the conversational context. The procedure mimicked everyday reasoning in that participants were not told that the premises were to be treated as certain. The results showed that the perceived likelihood of a conclusion was greater when the major or the minor premise was uttered by an expert rather than a novice (Experiment 1). The results also showed that uncertainty (...)
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  26. Victory Over Violence: Jesus and the Revolutionists.Martin Hengel & David E. Green - 1973
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  27.  16
    Probabilities of Conditionals and Previsions of Iterated Conditionals.Giuseppe Sanfilippo, Angelo Gilio, David E. Over & Niki Pfeifer - 2020 - International Journal of Approximate Reasoning 121.
    We analyze selected iterated conditionals in the framework of conditional random quantities. We point out that it is instructive to examine Lewis's triviality result, which shows the conditions a conditional must satisfy for its probability to be the conditional probability. In our approach, however, we avoid triviality because the import-export principle is invalid. We then analyze an example of reasoning under partial knowledge where, given a conditional if A then Cas information, the probability of A should intuitively increase. We explain (...)
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  28.  2
    Mormons and Evangelicals: Reasons for Faith.David E. Smith - 2009 - Gorgias Press.
    Introduction: Foundations of faith described -- Christian history : a brief overview -- The Apostolic Age (ca. A.D. 30-100 -- The Patristic Age (ca. A.D. 100-500) -- The Medieval Age (ca. A.D. 500-1500) -- The Reformation/counter-Reformation Age -- The Modern Age (ca. A.D. 1600-1950) -- The Postmodern Age (ca. A.D. 1950-present) -- Mormon and evangelical theology : a comparison -- Scripture and revelation -- God and humanity -- Church and temple -- Salvation and the afterlife -- Moral and social standards (...)
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  29.  62
    A Minimal Characterization of Indeterminacy.David E. Taylor - 2018 - Philosophers' Imprint 18.
    The current literature on indeterminacy centers around two projects. One concerns the logic of indeterminacy; the other concerns its nature or source. The aim of this paper is to introduce, motivate and go some way toward addressing a new, third project: that of providing what I call a minimal characterization of indeterminacy. An MC, to a first approximation, is a relatively pre-theoretical characterization of indeterminacy that is neutral between the various substantive theories of the nature and logic of indeterminacy. An (...)
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  30. The Corporation as Anomaly.David E. Schrader - 1993 - Cambridge University Press.
    This 1993 book discusses the rise of the marginalist conception of the firm in the context of economic thought over the past two centuries, and explains why economists continue to defend a theory with demonstrable shortcomings. Professor Schrader argues that the marginalist view of the firm retains its support not through any comparative advantage in empirical or predictive power, but by virtue of its being a part of the predominant marginalist economic programme. The clear problems that beset the marginalist (...)
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  31. Boethius and the Enchiriadis Theory: The Metaphysics of Consonance and the Concept of Organum.David E. Cohen - 1993 - Dissertation, Brandeis University
    The ninth-century treatises Musica and Scolica Enchiriadis are the first musical writings in the West to present a theory of organum, a mode of plainchant performance that is the earliest known form of Western medieval polyphony. The fundamental principle of this theory is that the intervallic relationship between the simultaneous melodic lines be one of "consonance" . Nevertheless, intervals arise between the voice-parts that are not symphoniae; the theory responds to this, not by explicitly invoking the concept of dissonance, but (...)
     
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  32.  43
    Historical Dictionary of Schopenhauer's Philosophy.David E. Cartwright - 2004 - Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    This second edition of Historical Dictionary of Schopenhauer's Philosophy contains a chronology, an introduction, an appendix, and an extensive bibliography. The dictionary section has over 300 cross-referenced entries on all of Schopenhauer’s books, significant philosophical ideas and concepts.
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  33.  2
    Barriers to Peace in Civil War.David E. Cunningham - 2011 - Cambridge University Press.
    Civil wars vary greatly in their duration. This book argues that conflicts are longer when they involve more actors who can block agreement and identifies specific problems that arise in multi-party bargaining. Quantitative analysis of over 200 civil wars since World War II reveals that conflicts with more of these actors last much longer than those with fewer. Detailed comparison of negotiations in Rwanda and Burundi demonstrates that multi-party negotiations present additional barriers to peace not found in two party (...)
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  34.  49
    Categorical Induction From Uncertain Premises: Jeffrey's Doesn't Completely Rule.Constantinos Hadjichristidis, Steven A. Sloman & David E. Over - 2014 - Thinking and Reasoning 20 (4):405-431.
    Studies of categorical induction typically examine how belief in a premise (e.g., Falcons have an ulnar artery) projects on to a conclusion (e.g., Robins have an ulnar artery). We study induction in cases in which the premise is uncertain (e.g., There is an 80% chance that falcons have an ulnar artery). Jeffrey's rule is a normative model for updating beliefs in the face of uncertain evidence. In three studies we tested the descriptive validity of Jeffrey's rule and a related probability (...)
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  35. Are Functional Accounts of Goodness Relativist?David E. W. Fenner - 1994 - Reason Papers 19:109-117.
    The short answer, which will no doubt frustrate those who read to find the short answer, is yes and no. Yes in respect of the fact that all agents are not the same and so what is good for one agent may be different from what is good for another agent. No in respect of the fact that normativity, or standards which range over agents relevantly similar, is still quite present. The point of this paper will be to unpack (...)
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  36.  57
    Explicit Representations in Hypothetical Thinking.Jonathan St B. T. Evans & David E. Over - 1999 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (5):763-764.
    Dienes' & Perner's proposals are discussed in relation to the distinction between explicit and implicit systems of thinking. Evans and Over (1996) propose that explicit processing resources are required for hypothetical thinking, in which mental models of possible world states are constructed. Such thinking requires representations in which the individuals' propositional attitudes including relevant beliefs and goals are made fully explicit.
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  37.  29
    The Fifth Element in Aristotle's "De Philosophia": A Critical Re-Examination.David E. Hahm - 1982 - Journal of Hellenic Studies 102:60-74.
    Twenty-five years ago Paul Wilpert called for a thorough re-examination of our knowledge of the content of Aristotle's lost workDe Philosophia. Expressing his reservations about the validity of our current reconstruction of the work, he wrote: ‘On the basis of attested fragments, we form for ourselves a picture of the content of a lost writing, and this picture in turn serves to interpret new fragments as echoes of that writing. So our joy over the swift growth of our collection (...)
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  38.  28
    Dual Frames for Causal Induction: The Normative and the Heuristic.Ikuko Hattori, Masasi Hattori, David E. Over, Tatsuji Takahashi & Jean Baratgin - 2017 - Thinking and Reasoning 23 (3):292-317.
    Causal induction in the real world often has to be quick and efficient as well as accurate. We propose that people use two different frames to achieve these goals. The A-frame consists of heuristic processes that presuppose rarity and can detect causally relevant factors quickly. The B-frame consists of analytic processes that can be highly accurate in detecting actual causes. Our dual frame theory implies that several factors affect whether people use the A-frame or the B-frame in causal induction: among (...)
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  39.  35
    The Psychology of Uncertainty and Three-Valued Truth Tables.Jean Baratgin, Guy Politzer, David E. Over & Tatsuji Takahashi - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
    Psychological research on people’s understanding of natural language connectives has traditionally used truth table tasks, in which participants evaluate the truth or falsity of a compound sentence given the truth or falsity of its components in the framework of propositional logic. One perplexing result concerned the indicative conditional if A then C which was often evaluated as true when A and C are true, false when A is true and C is false but irrelevant“ (devoid of value) when A is (...)
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  40.  33
    From Platonism to Pragmatism.David E. Hahm - 2002 - Apeiron 35 (4):103-124.
    Teases out from assumptions underlying Polybius's constitutional theory an otherwise unknown subjectivist, agent-relative utilitarian theory of well-being. In contrast to other ancient theories, other-concern is assumed to be rooted in nonrational human nature and without moral value. Moral concepts arise within a social community from rational reflection on personal experience and lead to socially constructed moral values and political institutions that promote cooperative over competitive behaviors. The assumptions meet Arcesilaus's skeptical objections to dogmatic ethics. Polybius, some of whose political (...)
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  41.  12
    Suppositions, Extensionality, and Conditionals: A Critique of the Mental Model Theory of Johnson-Laird and Byrne (2002).Jonathan St B. T. Evans, David E. Over & Simon J. Handley - 2005 - Psychological Review 112 (4):1040-1052.
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  42.  53
    Reasoning to and From Belief: Deduction and Induction Are Still Distinct.Jonathan St B. T. Evans & David E. Over - 2013 - Thinking and Reasoning 19 (3-4):267-283.
  43.  11
    Rationality in the Selection Task: Epistemic Utility Versus Uncertainty Reduction.Jonathan St B. T. Evans & David E. Over - 1996 - Psychological Review 103 (2):356-363.
    M. Oaksford and N. Chater presented a Bayesian analysis of the Wason selection task in which they proposed that people choose cards in order to maximize expected information gain as measured by reduction in uncertainty in the Shannon-Weaver information theory sense. It is argued that the EIG measure is both psychologically implausible and normatively inadequate as a measure of epistemic utility. The article is also concerned with the descriptive account of findings in the selection task literature offered by Oaksford and (...)
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  44.  13
    Rationality and Reasoning.Jonathan St B. T. Evans, David E. Over & Peter Carruthers - 1998 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 49 (1):189-194.
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  45. Whole Mind Theory: Massive Modularity Meets Dual Processes.Jonathan St B. T. Evans & David E. Over - 2008 - Thinking and Reasoning 14 (2):200 – 208.
  46.  10
    When Can We Say ‘If’?Jonathan StB. T. Evans, Helen Neilens, Simon J. Handley & David E. Over - 2008 - Cognition 108 (1):100-116.
  47.  34
    Uncertain Deduction and Conditional Reasoning.Jonathan St B. T. Evans, Valerie A. Thompson & David E. Over - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
  48.  65
    The Role of Language in the Dual Process Theory of Thinking.Jonathan St B. T. Evans & David E. Over - 2002 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (6):684-685.
    Carruthers’proposals would seem to implicate language in what is known as System 2 thinking (explicit) rather than System 1 thinking (implicit) in contemporary dual process theories of thinking and reasoning. We provide outline description of these theories and show that while Carruthers’characterization of non-verbal processes as domain-specific identifies one critical feature of System 1 thinking, he appears to overlook the fact that much cognition of this type results from domain-general learning processes. We also review cognitive psychological evidence that shows that (...)
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  49.  35
    Frequency Versus Probability Formats in Statistical Word Problems.Jonathan St B. T. Evans, Simon J. Handley, Nick Perham, David E. Over & Valerie A. Thompson - 2000 - Cognition 77 (3):197-213.
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  50.  13
    Frequency Versus Probability Formats in Statistical Word Problems.Jonathan StB. T. Evans, Simon J. Handley, Nick Perham, David E. Over & Valerie A. Thompson - 2000 - Cognition 77 (3):197-213.
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