This report documents the program and the outcomes of Dagstuhl Seminar 13391 "Algorithm Engineering". The algorithm engineering approach consists of a cycle of algorithm design, analysis, implementation, and experimental evaluation, with the aim of bridging the gap between theory and practice in the area of algorithms. This cycle of phases is driven by falsifiable hypotheses validated by experiments. Moreover, real-world instances often have direct impact on this cycle since they often expose modeling and analysis shortcomings. Algorithm engineering touches other research (...) areas such as algorithm theory, combinatorial optimization, computer architecture, parallel and distributed computing, high-performance computing, and operations research. Prominent success stories in algorithm engineering include the linear program solver CPLEX, the traveling salesman suite CONCORDE, speed-up techniques for shortest paths computation, for example, in route planning, as well as graph partitioning and the computation of Steiner trees. All these topics are driven by the need for efficient algorithms and libraries for problems that appear frequently in real-world applications. In the last fifteen years, this approach to algorithmic research has gained increasing attention. There is an ACM Journal on Experimental Algorithmics and several annual conferences (WAE/ESA applied track since 1997, Alenex since 1998, and WEA/SEA since 2001) and the series of DIMACS implementation challenges where people meet to compare implementations for a specific problem. From 2007 to 2013 the German Research Foundation also funded a special priority program on algorithm engineering (DFG SPP 1307). (shrink)
Property rights are important institutions that influence economic performance and reflect the historical, cultural, and political realities of particular societies. Drawing on a variety of concepts from legal and economic studies, a framework for explaining the origin and evolution of property rights is developed and applied to the specific case of changing ground water rights in Nebraska. The Nebraska case is an interesting example of reliance on local control in regulating water use. Despite the importance of local initiatives in ground (...) water management, this case also illustrates the need for external support from the judicial and legislative systems. The evolution of ground water property rights in Nebraska, as in other parts of the United States, has been conditioned by historical circumstances and changing values and attitudes as well as by economic and political forces. (shrink)
GREGORY R. JOHNSON and DAVID RASMUSSEN argue that Rand's defense of abortion on demand is inconsistent with her own fundamental metaphysical, epistemological, and moral principles, namely that everything that exists has a determinate identity, that the concept of man refers to all of man's characteristics, not just his essential characteristics, and that there is no gap between what an organism truly is and what it ought to be.
GREGORY R. JOHNSON and DAVID RASMUSSEN defend their critique of Ayn Rand's views on abortion, arguing that their critics miss its main points. Tibor Machan and Alexander Tabarrok actually depart from Rand's own position under the guise of defending it; they introduce a non-Randian distinction between being a human organism and being a moral person.
Gregory R. Johnson and David Rasmussen defend their critique of Ayn Rand's views on abortion, arguing that their critics miss its main points. Tibor Machan and Alexander Tabarrok actually depart from Rand's own position under the guise of defending it; they introduce a non-Randian distinction between being a human organism and being a moral person.
Schmitt allots a chapter to each of the main types of theories about truth: pragmatism, coherentism, deflationism, and the correspondence theory. He discusses various arguments for these positions and concludes that only the arguments supporting the correspondence theory are successful. Schmitt's positive case for correspondence makes up the least original part of the book. He explicitly credits Field and remarks that he is mainly concerned with making Field's difficult account more accessible —a task that he discharges honorably..) Schmitt also offers (...) detailed discussions of about fifteen negative arguments aimed against pragmatism, coherentism, and deflationism. He finds most of them effective, with the result that the correspondence theory emerges as the only tenable account of truth. He discusses some objections but seems somewhat less eager to raise problems for his own view than for its competitors. (shrink)