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David Hitchcock [80]David Lancelot Hitchcock [1]
  1.  28
    On Reasoning and Argument: Essays in Informal Logic and on Critical Thinking.David Hitchcock - 2017 - Cham, Switzerland: Springer Verlag.
    This book brings together in one place David Hitchcock’s most significant published articles on reasoning and argument. In seven new chapters he updates his thinking in the light of subsequent scholarship. Collectively, the papers articulate a distinctive position in the philosophy of argumentation. Among other things, the author:• develops an account of “material consequence” that permits evaluation of inferences without problematic postulation of unstated premises.• updates his recursive definition of argument that accommodates chaining and embedding of arguments and allows any (...)
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  2.  43
    Enthymematic Arguments.David Hitchcock - 1985 - Informal Logic 7 (2).
  3.  35
    Does the Traditional Treatment of Enthymemes Rest on a Mistake?David Hitchcock - 1998 - Argumentation 12 (1):15-37.
    In many actual arguments, the conclusion seems intuitively to follow from the premisses, even though we cannot show that it follows logically. The traditional approach to evaluating such arguments is to suppose that they have an unstated premiss whose explicit addition will produce an argument where the conclusion does follow logically. But there are good reasons for doubting that people so frequently leave the premisses of their arguments unstated. The inclination to suppose that they do stems from the belief that (...)
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  4.  78
    Informal logic and the concept of argument.David Hitchcock - 2006 - In Dale Jacquette (ed.), Philosophy of Logic. North Holland. pp. 5--101.
  5.  5
    Arguing on the Toulmin Model: New Essays in Argument Analysis and Evaluation.David Hitchcock & Bart Verheij (eds.) - 2006 - Dordrecht, Netherland: Springer.
    In The Uses of Argument, Stephen Toulmin proposed a model for the layout of arguments: claim, data, warrant, qualifier, rebuttal, backing. Since then, Toulmin’s model has been appropriated, adapted and extended by researchers in speech communications, philosophy and artificial intelligence. This book assembles the best contemporary reflection in these fields, extending or challenging Toulmin’s ideas in ways that make fresh contributions to the theory of analysing and evaluating arguments.
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  6.  6
    Critical Thinking: A Guide to Evaluating Information.David Hitchcock - 1983 - Taylor & Francis.
  7.  35
    Deduction, Induction and Conduction.David Hitchcock - 1980 - Informal Logic 3 (2).
  8.  68
    The Practice of Argumentative Discussion.David Hitchcock - 2002 - Argumentation 16 (3):287-298.
    I propose some changes to the conceptions of argument and of argumentative discussion in Ralph Johnson's Manifest Rationality (2000). An argument is a discourse whose author seeks to persuade an audience to accept a thesis by producing reasons in support of it and discharging his dialectical obligations. An argumentative discussion (what Johnson calls ‘argumentation’) is a sociocultural activity of constructing, presenting, interpreting, criticizing, and revising arguments for the purpose of reaching a shared rationally supported position on some issue. Johnson's theory (...)
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  9.  51
    Inference Claims.David Hitchcock - 2011 - Informal Logic 31 (3):191-229.
    A conclusion follows from given premisses if and only if an acceptable counterfactual-supporting covering generalization of the argument rules out, either definitively or with some modal qualification, simultaneous acceptability of the premisses and non-accepta-bility of the conclusion, even though it does not rule out acceptability of the premisses and does not require acceptability of the conclusion independently of the premisses. Hence the reiterative associated conditional of an argument is true if and only it has such a covering generalization, and a (...)
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  10.  31
    Relevance.David Hitchcock - 1992 - Argumentation 6 (2):251-270.
    Relevance is a triadic relation between an item, an outcome or goal, and a situation. Causal relevance consists in an item's ability to help produce an outcome in a situation. Epistemic relevance, a distinct concept, consists in the ability of a piece of information (or a speech act communicating or requesting a piece of information) to help achieve an epistemic goal in a situation. It has this ability when it can be ineliminably combined with other at least potentially accurate information (...)
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  11.  71
    Good Reasoning on the Toulmin Model.David Hitchcock - 2005 - Argumentation 19 (3):373-391.
    Some solo verbal reasoning serves the function of arriving at a correct answer to a question from information at the reasoner’s disposal. Such reasoning is good if and only if its grounds are justified and adequate, its warrant is justified, and the reasoner is justified in assuming that no defeaters apply. I distinguish seven sources of justified grounds and state the conditions under which each source is trustworthy. Adequate grounds include all good relevant information practically obtainable by the reasoner. The (...)
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  12.  73
    Appeals to Considerations.David Hitchcock - 2013 - Informal Logic 33 (2):195-237.
    Wellman’s “conduction” and Govier’s “conductive arguments” are best described as appeals to considerations. The considerations cited are features of a subject of interest, and the conclusion is the attribution to it of a supervenient status like a classification, an evaluation, a prescription or an interpretation. The conclusion may follow either conclusively or non-conclusively or not at all. Weighing the pros and cons is only one way of judging whether the conclusion follows. Further, the move from in-formation about the subject’s cited (...)
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  13.  35
    The Significance of Informal Logic for Philosophy.David Hitchcock - 2000 - Informal Logic 20 (2).
    Informal logic is a new sub-discipline of philosophy, roughly definable as the philosophy of argument. Contributors have challenged the traditional concept of an argument as a premiss-conclusion complex, in favour of speech-act, functional and dialogical conceptions; they have identified as additional components warrants, modal qualifiers, rebuttals, and a dialectical tier. They have objected that "soundness" is neither necessary nor sufficient for a good argument. Alternative proposals include acceptability, relevance and sufficiency of the premisses; conformity to a valid argument schema; conformity (...)
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  14.  48
    Deductive and Inductive: Types of Validity, Not Types of Argument.David Hitchcock - 1979 - Informal Logic 2 (3).
  15.  18
    A Framework for Deliberation Dialogues.David Hitchcock, Peter Mcburney & Simon Parsons - unknown
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  16.  7
    So.David Hitchcock - unknown
    I argue, contrary to a recent assertion by Lilian Bermejo-Luque, that the inference-claim in an argument of the form ‘p, so q’ is not its associated material conditional ‘if p then q’. Rather, it is the claim that the argument has a covering generalization that is non-trivially true. I defend this interpretation against three objections by Bermejo-Luque.
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  17.  16
    Transsubjectivity.David Hitchcock - 2017 - Informal Logic 37 (3):230-239.
    I describe and evaluate Harald Wohlrapp’s proposal in The Concept of Argument that we should see reasonable argumentation as guided by the “principle of transsubjectivity... that, beginning with my subjectivity, I put my actual ego up for consideration as well as heighten and transcend it by seeking to participate in a general human potential, which is only attainable by recognizing the subjectivity of the Other”, and thus as having a quasi-religious meaning.
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  18.  23
    A note on implicit premisses.David Hitchcock - 2002 - Informal Logic 22 (2).
  19.  37
    Pollock on Practical Reasoning.David Hitchcock - 2002 - Informal Logic 22 (3).
    The epistemologist John Pollock has implemented computationally an architecture for a rational agent which he calls OSCAR. OSCAR models both practical and theoretical (or epistemic) reasoning. I argue that Pollock's model of practical reasoning, which has seven components, is superior not only to the two-component belief-desire model stemming from Aristotle, but also to the three-component belief-desire-intention model developed especially by Michael Bratman. Despite its advantages, Pollock's model of practical reasoning is incomplete in at least three respects: it is solipsistic, it (...)
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  20.  42
    The Effectiveness of Computer Assisted Instruction in Critical Thinking.David Hitchcock - 2004 - Informal Logic 24 (3):183-217.
    278 non-freshman university students taking a l2-week critical thinking course in a large single-section class, with computer-assisted guided practice as a replacement for small-group discussion, and all testing in machine-scored multiple-choice format, improved their critical thinking skills, as measured by the California Critical Thinking Skills Test, by half a standard deviation, a moderate improvement. The improvement was more than that reported with a traditional format without computer-assisted instruction, but less than that reported with a format using both computer-assisted instruction and (...)
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  21.  35
    Definition: A practical guide to constructing and evaluating definitions of terms.David Hitchcock - 2021 - Windsor, ON: Windsor Studies in Argumentation.
    This book proposes guidelines for constructing and evaluating definitions of terms, i.e. words or phrases of general application. The guidelines extend to adoption of nomenclature. The book is meant to be a practical guide for people who find themselves in their daily lives or their employment producing or evaluating definitions of terms. It can be consulted rather than being read through. The book’s theoretical framework is a distinction, due to Robert H. Ennis, of three dimensions of definitions: the act of (...)
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  22.  11
    Sampling scholarly arguments: a test of a theory of good inference.David Hitchcock - unknown
  23. Non-logical Consequence.David Hitchcock - 2009 - Studies in Logic, Grammar and Rhetoric 16 (29).
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  24.  26
    Freeman's Syntactic Criterion for Linkage.David Hitchcock - 2015 - Informal Logic 35 (4):1-31.
    Freeman’s syntactic criterion for linked argument structure is often readily applicable, captures intuitively linked structures, and implies that refuting a single premiss of a linked argument suffices to refute the argument. But one cannot sharply separate analysis from inference evaluation in applying it, whether an argument satisfies it can be uncertain, it under-generates cases where refuting one premiss suffices to refute an argument, some arguments satisfying it can be easily rescued if a single premiss is refuted, and Freeman’s underlying account (...)
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  25.  6
    The Culture of Spoken Arguments.David Hitchcock - unknown
    37 arguments were selected by random sampling methods from calls to radio and television phone-in programs. I discuss whether my general theory of inference evaluation applies to them and how frequently they exemplify a recognized argument scheme. I also compare their dependence on context, their complexity and their quality to those features of a previously studied sample of 50 scholarly arguments.
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  26.  14
    Tarski’s Theory of the Formal Correctness of Definitions.David Hitchcock - 2024 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 53 (1):181-221.
    In his 1933 monograph on the concept of truth, Alfred Tarski claimed that his definition of truth satisfied “the usual conditions of methodological correctness”, which in a 1935 article he identified as consistency and back-translatability. Following the rules of defining for an axiomatized theory was supposed to ensure satisfaction of the two conditions. But Tarski neither explained the two conditions nor supplied rules of defining for any axiomatized theory. We can make explicit what Tarski understood by consistency and back-translatability, with (...)
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  27.  27
    The pragma-dialectical analysis of the ad hominem fallacy.David Hitchcock - 2006 - In F. H. van Eemeren, Peter Houtlosser, Haft-van Rees & A. M. (eds.), Considering Pragma-Dialectics: A Festschrift for Frans H. L. Erlbaum Associates. pp. 103.
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  28.  9
    Material consequences and counter-factuals.David Hitchcock - unknown
    A conclusion is a “material consequence” of reasons if it follows necessarily from them in accordance with a valid form of argument with content. The corresponding universal generalization of the argument’s associated conditional must be true, must be a covering generalization, and must be true of counter-factual instances. But it need not be law-like. Pearl’s structural model semantics is easier to apply to such counter-factual instances than Lewis’s closest-worlds semantics, and gives intuitively correct results.
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  29.  26
    The peculiarities of stoic propositional logic.David Hitchcock - 2005 - In John Woods, Kent A. Peacock & A. D. Irvine (eds.), Mistakes of Reason: Essays in Honour of John Woods. University of Toronto Press. pp. 224--242.
  30. Dissensus and the search for common ground.David Hitchcock (ed.) - 2007 - OSSA.
     
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  31.  73
    Fallacies and formal logic in Aristotle.David Hitchcock - 2000 - History and Philosophy of Logic 21 (3):207-221.
    The taxonomy and analysis of fallacies in Aristotle's Sophistical Refutations pre-date the formal logic of his Prior Analytics A4-6. Of the 64 fully described examples of ?sophistical refutations? which are fallacious because they are only apparently valid, 49 have the wrong number of premisses or the wrong form of premiss or conclusion for analysis by the Prior Analytics theory of the categorical syllogism. The rest Aristotle either frames so that they do not look like categorical syllogisms or analyses in a (...)
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  32.  7
    Did Jesus Commit a Fallacy?David Hitchcock - unknown
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  33.  64
    Arguing as Trying to Show That a Target-claim is Correct.David Hitchcock - 2011 - Theoria 26 (3):301-309.
    In Giving Reasons, Bermejo-Luque rightly claims that a normative model of the speech act of argumentation is more defensible if it rests on an internal aim that is constitutive of the act of arguing than if it rests, as she claims existing normative models do, on an aim that one need not pursue when one argues. She rightly identifies arguing with trying to justify something. But it is not so clear that she has correctly identified the internal aim of arguing (...)
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  34.  27
    The origin of the technical use of "sound argument": a postscript.David Hitchcock - 1999 - Informal Logic 19 (2).
  35.  37
    The Thomas-Nolt Dispute: Some Lessons about Induction.David Hitchcock - 1999 - Informal Logic 19 (2).
    I resolve an apparently unresolved dispute about how probable uniform experience makes an extrapolation from it, and draw some general lessons about such enumerative induction. Uniform experience does not necessarily confer a high probability on an extrapolation of or generalization from that experience. Rational extrapolation or generalization typically involves a lot of specific background information, though not necessarily a general assumption that nature is uniform or that the future will resemble the past. And new evidence which is highly likely on (...)
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  36.  14
    Textbook Treatments of Fallacies.David Hitchcock - 2023 - Argumentation 37 (2):233-245.
    In his Fallacies, Hamblin (1970) castigated what he called the “standard treatment” of fallacies in introductory textbooks of his day as debased, worn-out, dogmatic, and unconnected to anything else in modern logic. A bit more than 50 years later, I investigate the treatment of fallacies in six English-language introductory textbooks with a section on fallacies that have gone into 10 or more editions, to see whether their treatment of fallacies has taken account of the scholarship on fallacies that Hamblin’s book (...)
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  37.  89
    The Toulmin Model Today: Introduction to the Special Issue on Contemporary Work using Stephen Edelston Toulmin’s Layout of Arguments.David Hitchcock & Bart Verheij - 2005 - Argumentation 19 (3):255-258.
  38.  10
    Commentary on Plumer.David Hitchcock - unknown
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  39.  16
    Johnson`s The Rise of Informal Logic: Essays on Argumentation, Critical Thinking, Reasoning and Politics.David Hitchcock - 1996 - Informal Logic 18 (2):269-83.
  40.  37
    The Good in Plato's Republic.David Hitchcock - 1985 - Apeiron 19 (2):65.
  41. The good in Plato's "republic".David Hitchcock - 1985 - Apeiron 19 (2):65 - 92.
    After clarifying what plato means by "the good," noting accounts of the good which he explicitly rejects in the "republic", and carefully interpreting the comparison of the good with the sun at "republic" 508-509, this paper infers from the comparison that the good is unity. It then examines the coherence of this account with what the "republic" says about the foundations of mathematics and about the good of individuals and of cities, and offers a preliminary appraisal.
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  42.  12
    Arguing for Questions.David Hitchcock - 2020 - In Bart Garssen & Frans van Eemeren (eds.), From Argument Schemes to Argumentative Relations in the Wild: A Variety of Contributions to Argumentation Theory. Springer Verlag. pp. 167-184.
    People sometimes argue for questions, as can be verified by a Web search using as search terms phrases consisting of a conclusion indicator and an interrogative particle. These arguments provide a reason for asking the question and thus try to establish that it needs to be answered. Typically, they do so either in order to motivate interest in discovering the answer or in order to challenge addressees or a third party to explain their behaviour. The “inferential erotetic logic” of the (...)
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  43.  53
    Advances in Pragma-Dialectics.David Hitchcock - 2003 - Informal Logic 23 (1).
  44.  2
    Analysis of Last Issue`s Passage.David Hitchcock - 1978 - Informal Logic 1 (2).
  45.  1
    A Theory of Argument Appraisal.David Hitchcock - 1988 - Philosophie Et Culture: Actes du XVIIe Congrès Mondial de Philosophie 2:821-827.
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  46.  23
    Conflicting Affairs.David Hitchcock - 1986 - Teaching Philosophy 9 (3):255-257.
  47.  7
    Commentary on Blair.David Hitchcock - unknown
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  48.  3
    Commentary on Barron.David Hitchcock - unknown
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  49.  6
    Commentary on Boger.David Hitchcock - unknown
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  50.  3
    Comments on Floris Roelofsen’s Questions and Indeterminate Reference.David Hitchcock - 2021 - In Moritz Cordes (ed.), Asking and Answering: Rivalling Approaches to Interrogative Methods. Tübingen: Narr Francke Attempto. pp. 253–258.
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