Hayek claimed that the idea of social justice is meaningless in a market economy because in that context, no identifiable agent intentionally brings about the distribution of wealth. But the assumption that the existence of injustice entails an identifiable agent of injustice is erroneous. Moreover, Hayek ignores the fact that in a market economy, the broad pattern of economic outcomes is foreseeable even if detailed, person?by?person outcomes are not. Hayek's rejection of the idea of social justice reveals a striking naïveté (...) about his own ethical presuppositions. (shrink)
Abstract Hayek assailed the idea of social justice by arguing that any effort to realize it would transform society into an oppressive organization, stißing liberty. Hayek's view is marred by two omissions. First, he fails to consider that the goal of social justice, like the goal of wealth generation, might be promoted by strategies of indirection that do not entail oppressive organization. Second, he underestimates the tendency of the market order itself to generate oppressive organization, and consequently sees advantages in (...) the market order that it may not possess. (shrink)
In spite of the shortage in Rawls’s work of references to Smith’s later and even more famous book, the ideas and arguments of An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations are central to Rawls’s theory of justice. This article intends to show that without the ideas Smith proposed in The Wealth of Nations, Rawls would not have been able to write A Theory of Justice. Smith’s ideas in The Wealth of Nations supply Rawls with the (...) central question he attempts to answer in his theory of justice. They also supply him with a key component of his answer to that question, a component without which Rawls’s answer to the question would have looked sharply different. Smith’s contributions to the set of ideas on which Rawls drew to formulate his theory of justice are as important to that theory as Kant’s contributions and are more important to Rawls’s theory than the contributions of any thinker other than Kant (with the possible exception of Sidgwick). (shrink)
The thesis presents a development of J. L. Austin's analysis of truth and its accompanying analysis of sentence structure. This involves a discussion and refinement of Austin's notions of the demonstrative and descriptive conventions of language and of the demonstrative and descriptive devices of sentences. The main point of the thesis is that ordinary language must be treated as an historical phenomenon: one that has evolved its more complex features through a long series of variations upon a small number of (...) rudimentary conventions and locutions. The utility of Austin's analysis is shown to lie in the description that it provides of the functions of these rudimentary conventions and locutions. The analysis is used to illuminate a number of problematic sentences and expressions of ordinary language, including identity sentences, definite descriptions, existential sentences, and conditionals. (shrink)
This book is about the grounds of ethical life, or the nature and basis of our ethical obligations. It contains an original account of these grounds and shows how this understanding requires specific forms of social and political life. Charvet considers the ideas of the freedom and equality of men in the many forms they have taken and shows that there is a radical incoherence underlying them which consists in the failure to integrate in a coherent way the particular and (...) the moral or communal dimensions of individual life. These two dimensions are separated and opposed to each other. In the final section of the book Charvet develops an original account of the grounds of ethical life which satisfactorily integrates these particular and communal elements of individuality. It is designed to show how the moral claims of individuals are grounded in their associated wills in a community and yet how such a conception preserves the separate individuality of the community's members. (shrink)
_A Brief History of_ _Justice_ traces the development of the idea of justice from the ancient world until the present day, with special attention to the emergence of the modern idea of social justice. An accessible introduction to the history of ideas about justice Shows how complex ideas are anchored in ordinary intuitions about justice Traces the emergence of the idea of social justice Identifies connections as well as differences between distributive and corrective justice Offers accessible, concise introductions to the (...) thought of several leading figures and schools of thought in the history of philosophy. (shrink)
Organized around such themes as equality before the law, equality of opportunity, and equality of result, the selections included in this anthology range from Plato to the present, treating a topic of fundamental importance to political theory.
This dissertation is a heuristic and hermeneutic research paper on the evolution of consciousness and the individuation process. I begin by examining the question of the evolution of consciousness and its significance regarding individuation in the work of four different authors: Jung, Neumann, Sri Aurobindo, and Gebser. I then study the nature of the development of the Western mind since the period of the Greek philosophers up to postmodernism and beyond. Finally, I discuss the meaning of the individuation process. ;All (...) four of the authorities referred to on the evolution of consciousness emphasize the need to integrate life around the Self. From the point of view of this study, each brings forward different factors that help one appreciate how consciousness has evolved and how the individuation process can be fostered. An instructive aspect of Neumann's theory is the underlying error in his thinking involving his depiction of the evolution of consciousness as a direct, linear development from matriarchy to patriarchy. Both Sri Aurobindo and Jung saw it as a spiral-like process. The former also describes several different cultural attitudes, each of which can contribute to the realization of an integral consciousness. According to Gebser, the new integral awareness includes the integration of subjectively experienced time, a life of felt-intensity and the concrete realization of spiritual energy in life. ;Regarding the development of the Western mind, not only has there been a widening separation between the spirit and instincts over time, but the intellect has gradually descended from the realm of ideas to the physical universe. This has led to the modern mind and its offshoot, postmodernism. Jung takes us beyond both tendencies, while reconciling the split in the Western psyche. His psychology involves both following a superior will and the in-depth transformation of the chthonic feminine and realization of the chthonic spirit. I support Jung's view with the one held by Sri Aurobindo and his spiritual collaborator, the Mother, contrasting it with views held by Hillman, Ponce, and Fromm. (shrink)