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David Makinson [101]David C. Makinson [14]David Clement Makinson [2]
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David Makinson
London School of Economics
  1. On the Logic of Theory Change: Partial Meet Contraction and Revision Functions.Carlos E. Alchourrón, Peter Gärdenfors & David Makinson - 1985 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 50 (2):510-530.
    This paper extends earlier work by its authors on formal aspects of the processes of contracting a theory to eliminate a proposition and revising a theory to introduce a proposition. In the course of the earlier work, Gardenfors developed general postulates of a more or less equational nature for such processes, whilst Alchourron and Makinson studied the particular case of contraction functions that are maximal, in the sense of yielding a maximal subset of the theory (or alternatively, of one of (...)
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  2. The Paradox of the Preface.David C. Makinson - 1965 - Analysis 25 (6):205.
    By means of an example, shows the possibility of beliefs that are separately rational whilst together inconsistent.
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  3. Bridges From Classical to Nonmonotonic Logic.David Makinson - 2008 - Studia Logica 89 (3):437-439.
     
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  4. Input/Output Logics.David Makinson & Leendert van der Torre - 2000 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 29 (4):383-408.
    In a range of contexts, one comes across processes resembling inference, but where input propositions are not in general included among outputs, and the operation is not in any way reversible. Examples arise in contexts of conditional obligations, goals, ideals, preferences, actions, and beliefs. Our purpose is to develop a theory of such input/output operations. Four are singled out: simple-minded, basic (making intelligent use of disjunctive inputs), simple-minded reusable (in which outputs may be recycled as inputs), and basic reusable. They (...)
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  5. The Quantitative/Qualitative Watershed for Rules of Uncertain Inference.James Hawthorne & David Makinson - 2007 - Studia Logica 86 (2):247-297.
    We chart the ways in which closure properties of consequence relations for uncertain inference take on different forms according to whether the relations are generated in a quantitative or a qualitative manner. Among the main themes are: the identification of watershed conditions between probabilistically and qualitatively sound rules; failsafe and classicality transforms of qualitatively sound rules; non-Horn conditions satisfied by probabilistic consequence; representation and completeness problems; and threshold-sensitive conditions such as `preface' and `lottery' rules.
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  6. Bridges From Classical to Nonmonotonic Logic.David Makinson - 2005 - King's College Publications.
    An graduate level introduction to nonmonotonic reasoning, emphasizing structures and spirit common to different formulations, with exercises.
     
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  7.  87
    On the Logic of Theory Change: Contraction Functions and Their Associated Revision Functions.Carlos E. Alchourron & David Makinson - 1982 - Theoria 48 (1):14-37.
    A study in the logic of theory change, examining the properties of maxichoice contraction and revision operations.
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  8.  54
    Constraints for Input/Output Logics.David Makinson & Leendert van der Torre - 2001 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 30 (2):155 - 185.
    In a previous paper we developed a general theory of input/output logics. These are operations resembling inference, but where inputs need not be included among outputs, and outputs need not be reusable as inputs. In the present paper we study what happens when they are constrained to render output consistent with input. This is of interest for deontic logic, where it provides a manner of handling contrary-to-duty obligations. Our procedure is to constrain the set of generators of the input/output system, (...)
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  9.  60
    On the Logic of Theory Change: Safe Contraction.Carlos E. Alchourrón & David Makinson - 1985 - Studia Logica 44 (4):405 - 422.
    This paper is concerned with formal aspects of the logic of theory change, and in particular with the process of shrinking or contracting a theory to eliminate a proposition. It continues work in the area by the authors and Peter Gärdenfors. The paper defines a notion of safe contraction of a set of propositions, shows that it satisfies the Gärdenfors postulates for contraction and thus can be represented as a partial meet contraction, and studies its properties both in general and (...)
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  10.  8
    Input/Output Logics.David Makinson & Leendert Van Der Torre - 2000 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 29 (4):383 - 408.
    In a range of contexts, one comes across processes resembling inference, but where input propositions are not in general included among outputs, and the operation is not in any way reversible. Examples arise in contexts of conditional obligations, goals, ideals, preferences, actions, and beliefs. Our purpose is to develop a theory of such input/output operations. Four are singled out: simple-minded, basic (making intelligent use of disjunctive inputs), simple-minded reusable (in which outputs may be recycled as inputs), and basic reusable. They (...)
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  11.  32
    On the Status of the Postulate of Recovery in the Logic of Theory Change.David Makinson - 1987 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 16 (4):383 - 394.
    Describes and discusses the rather special behaviour of one of the postulates in the AGM account of theory change.
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  12. General Patterns in Nonmonotonic Reasoning.David Makinson - 1994 - In Handbook of Logic in Artificial Intelligence Nad Logic Programming, Vol. Iii. Oxford: Clarendon Press. pp. 35-110.
    An extended review of what is known about the formal behaviour of nonmonotonic inference operations, including those generated by the principal systems in the artificial intelligence literature. Directed towards computer scientists and others with some background in logic.
     
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  13.  41
    Five Faces of Minimality.David Makinson - 1993 - Studia Logica 52 (3):339 - 379.
    We discuss similarities and residual differences, within the general semantic framework of minimality, between defeasible inference, belief revision, counterfactual conditionals, updating — and also conditional obligation in deontic logic. Our purpose is not to establish new results, but to bring together existing material to form a clear overall picture.
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  14.  62
    Conditional Probability in the Light of Qualitative Belief Change.David Makinson - 2011 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 40 (2):121 - 153.
    We explore ways in which purely qualitative belief change in the AGM tradition throws light on options in the treatment of conditional probability. First, by helping see why it can be useful to go beyond the ratio rule defining conditional from one-place probability. Second, by clarifying what is at stake in different ways of doing that. Third, by suggesting novel forms of conditional probability corresponding to familiar variants of qualitative belief change, and conversely. Likewise, we explain how recent work on (...)
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  15.  46
    Permission From an Input/Output Perspective.David Makinson & Leendert van der Torre - 2003 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 32 (4):391 - 416.
    Input/output logics are abstract structures designed to represent conditional obligations and goals. In this paper we use them to study conditional permission. This perspective provides a clear separation of the familiar notion of negative permission from the more elusive one of positive permission. Moreover, it reveals that there are at least two kinds of positive permission. Although indistinguishable in the unconditional case, they are quite different in conditional contexts. One of them, which we call static positive permission, guides the citizen (...)
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  16.  31
    Hierarchies of Regulations and Their Logic.Carlos E. Alchourrón & David Makinson - 1981 - In Risto Hilpinen (ed.), New Studies in Deontic Logic. Dordrecht: Reidel. pp. 125--148.
    Investigates the resolution of contradictions and ambiguous derogations in a code, by means of the imposition of partial orderings.
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  17.  47
    How to Give It Up: A Survey of Some Formal Aspects of the Logic of Theory Change.David Makinson - 1985 - Synthese 62 (3):347 - 363.
    The paper surveys some recent work on formal aspects of the logic of theory change. It begins with a general discussion of the intuitive processes of contraction and revision of a theory, and of differing strategies for their formal study. Specific work is then described, notably Gärdenfors'' postulates for contraction and revision, maxichoice contraction and revision functions and the condition of orderliness, partial meet contraction and revision functions and the condition of relationality, and finally the operations of safe contraction and (...)
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  18.  18
    Relations Between the Logic of Theory Change and Nonmonotonic Logic.David Makinson & Peter Gärdenfors - 1991 - In André Fuhrmann & Michael Morreau (eds.), The Logic of Theory Change. Springer. pp. 183--205.
    Examines the link between nonmonotonic inference relations and theory revision operations, focusing on the correspondence between abstract properties which each may satisfy.
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  19.  18
    Some Embedding Theorems for Modal Logic.David Makinson - 1971 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 12 (2):252-254.
    Some results on the upper end of the lattice of all modal propositional logics.
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  20.  11
    Bridges Between Classical and Nonmonotonic Logic.David Makinson - 2003 - Logic Journal of the IGPL 11 (1):69-96.
    The purpose of this paper is to take some of the mystery out of what is known as nonmonotonic logic, by showing that it is not as unfamiliar as may at first sight appear. In fact, it is easily accessible to anybody with a background in classical propositional logic, provided that certain misunderstandings are avoided and a tenacious habit is put aside. In effect, there are logics that act as natural bridges between classical consequence and the principal kinds of nonmonotonic (...)
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  21.  65
    The Logic of Inconsistency: A Study in Nonstandard Possible-World Semantics and Ontology.David Makinson - 1979 - American Philosophical Quarterly, Library of Philosophy 5 (1):233-236.
  22.  9
    Deontic Logic.David Makinson & Lennart Aqvist - 1989 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 54 (4):1481.
  23.  39
    Parallel Interpolation, Splitting, and Relevance in Belief Change.George Kourousias & David C. Makinson - 2007 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 72 (3):994-1002.
    The splitting theorem says that any set of formulae has a finest representation as a family of letter-disjoint sets. Parikh formulated this for classical propositional logic, proved it in the finite case, used it to formulate a criterion for relevance in belief change, and showed that AGMpartial meet revision can fail the criterion. In this paper we make three further contributions. We begin by establishing a new version of the well-known interpolation theorem, which we call parallel interpolation, use it to (...)
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  24. A Normal Modal Calculus Between T and S4 Without the Finite Model Property.David Makinson - 1969 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 34 (1):35-38.
    The first example of an intuitively meaningful propositional logic without the finite model property, and still the simplest one in the literature. The question of its decidability appears still to be open.
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  25.  35
    On the Formal Representation of Rights Relations.David Makinson - 1986 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 15 (4):403 - 425.
    A discussion of work formalising Hohfeld's classic taxonomy of rights relations between two parties.
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  26.  23
    Counterfactuals.David Makinson - 1974 - Studia Logica 33 (4):425-427.
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  27.  16
    Propositional Relevance Through Letter-Sharing.David Makinson - 2009 - Journal of Applied Logic 7 (4):377-387.
    The concept of relevance between classical propositional formulae, defined in terms of letter-sharing, has been around for a long time. But it began to take on a fresh life in the late 1990s when it was reconsidered in the context of the logic of belief change. Two new ideas appeared in independent work of Odinaldo Rodrigues and Rohit Parikh: the relation of relevance was considered modulo the choice of a background belief set, and the belief set was put into a (...)
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  28. Bridges From Classical to Nonmonotonic Logic.David Makinson - 2006 - London: College Publications.
    A textbook for graduate students of philosophy, computer science, and mathematics, on various approaches to nonmonotonic logic, with emphasis on they way in which they fall into an overall pattern.
     
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  29. Handbook of Logic in Artificial Intelligence Nad Logic Programming, Vol. Iii.David Makinson - 1994 - Clarendon Press.
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  30.  1
    Doing the Best We Can. An Essay in Informal Deontic Logic.David Makinson - 1987 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 52 (4):1050-1051.
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  31.  58
    Maps Between Some Different Kinds of Contraction Function: The Finite Case.Carlos E. Alchourrón & David Makinson - 1986 - Studia Logica 45 (2):187 - 198.
    In some recent papers, the authors and Peter Gärdenfors have defined and studied two different kinds of formal operation, conceived as possible representations of the intuitive process of contracting a theory to eliminate a proposition. These are partial meet contraction (including as limiting cases full meet contraction and maxichoice contraction) and safe contraction. It is known, via the representation theorem for the former, that every safe contraction operation over a theory is a partial meet contraction over that theory. The purpose (...)
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  32.  27
    On an Inferential Semantics for Classical Logic.David C. Makinson - 2014 - Logic Journal of the IGPL 22 (1):147-154.
    We seek a better understanding of why an inferential semantics devised by Tor Sandqvist yields full classical logic, by providing and analysing a direct proof via a suitable maximality construction.
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  33.  24
    Alan Rose. Extensions of Some Theorems of Anderson and Belnap. The Journal of Symbolic Logic, Vol. 27 No. 4 , Pp. 423–425. [REVIEW]David Makinson - 1975 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 40 (3):466-466.
    Review of the paper by Rose mentioned in the title.
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  34.  46
    How to Give It Up: A Survey of Some Formal Aspects of the Logic of Theory Change.David Makinson - 1986 - Synthese 68 (1):185 - 186.
    The paper surveys some recent work on formal aspects of the logic of theory change. It begins with a general discussion of the intuitive processes of contraction and revision of a theory, and of differing strategies for their formal study. Specific work is then described, notably Gärdenfors' postulates for contraction and revision, maxichoice contraction and revision functions and the condition of orderliness, partial meet contraction and revision functions and the condition of relationality, and finally the operations of safe contraction and (...)
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  35.  24
    Brian F. Chellas. Modal Logic. An Introduction. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge Etc. 1980, Xii + 295 Pp. [REVIEW]David Makinson - 1981 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 46 (3):670-672.
  36. Logical Questions Behind the Lottery and Preface Paradoxes: Lossy Rules for Uncertain Inference.David Makinson - 2012 - Synthese 186 (2):511-529.
    We reflect on lessons that the lottery and preface paradoxes provide for the logic of uncertain inference. One of these lessons is the unreliability of the rule of conjunction of conclusions in such contexts, whether the inferences are probabilistic or qualitative; this leads us to an examination of consequence relations without that rule, the study of other rules that may nevertheless be satisfied in its absence, and a partial rehabilitation of conjunction as a ‘lossy’ rule. A second lesson is the (...)
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  37.  20
    Charles F. Kielkopf. Kripke's Axiomatization of S2. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic, Vol. 13 , Pp. 379–380.David Makinson - 1973 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 38 (4):661.
    Review of the paper mentioned in the title.
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  38.  19
    Saul A. Kripke. Semantical Analysis of Modal Logic II. Non-Normal Modal Propositional Calculi. The Theory of Models, Proceedings of the 1963 International Symposium at Berkeley, Edited by J. W. Addison, Leon Henkin, and Alfred Tarski, Studies in Logic and the Foundations of Mathematics, North-Holland Publishing Company, Amsterdam1965, Pp. 206–220. - R. Routley and H. Montgomery. The Inadequacy of Kripke's Semantical Analysis of D2 and D3. The Journal of Symbolic Logic, Vol. 33 , P. 568. [REVIEW]David Makinson - 1970 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 35 (1):135.
    Reviews of the papers mentioned in the title.
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  39.  58
    Respecting Relevance in Belief Change.David C. Makinson & George Kourousias - 2006 - Análisis Filosófico 26 (1):53-61.
    In this paper dedicated to Carlos Alchourrón, we review an issue that emerged only after his death in 1996, but would have been of great interest to him: To what extent do the formal operations of AGM belief change respect criteria of relevance? A natural criterion was proposed in 1999 by Rohit Parikh, who observed that the AGM model does not always respect it. We discuss the pros and cons of this criterion, and explain how the AGM account may be (...)
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  40.  19
    Lennart Åqvist. Deontic Logic. Handbook of Philosophical Logic, Volume II, Extensions of Classical Logic, Edited by D. Gabbay and F. Guenthner, Synthese Library, Vol. 165, D. Reidel Publishing Company, Dordrecht, Boston, and Lancaster, 1984, Pp. 605–714. [REVIEW]David Makinson - 1989 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 54 (4):1481-1483.
    Review of the book mentioned in the title.
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  41.  36
    Propositional Relevance Through Letter-Sharing: Review and Contribution.David C. Makinson - unknown
    The concept of relevance between classical propositional formulae, defined in terms of letter-sharing, has been around for a very long time. But it began to take on a fresh life in 1999 when it was reconsidered in the context of the logic of belief change. Two new ideas appeared in independent work of Odinaldo Rodrigues and Rohit Parikh. First, the relation of relevance was considered modulo the belief set under consideration, Second, the belief set was put in a canonical form, (...)
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  42.  17
    Jean Drabbe. Les S4-Algèbres Finies. Comptes Rendus Hehdomadaires des Séances de l'Académic des Sciences, Sér. A Vol. 265 , P. 309. [REVIEW]David Makinson - 1973 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 38 (2):330.
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  43.  17
    Nicholas Rescher and Robert Brandom. The Logic of Inconsistency. A Study in Non-Standard Possible-World Semantics and Ontology. APQ Library of Philosophy. Basil Blackwell, Oxford, and Rowman and Littlefield, Totowa, N.J., © 1979, Pub. 1980, X + 174 Pp. [REVIEW]David Makinson - 1982 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 47 (1):233-236.
    Review of the book mentioned in the title.
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  44.  29
    The Gärdenfors Impossibility Theorem in Non-Monotonic Contexts.David Makinson - 1990 - Studia Logica 49 (1):1 - 6.
    Gärdenfors' impossibility theorem draws attention to certain formal difficulties in defining a conditional connective from a notion of theory revision, via the Ramsey test. We show that these difficulties are not avoided by taking the background inference operation to be non-monotonic.
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  45.  9
    The Logic of Inconsistency. A Study in Non-Standard Possible-World Semantics and Ontology.David Makinson - 1979 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 47 (1):233-236.
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  46.  86
    Intuitionistic Logic and Elementary Rules.Lloyd Humberstone & David Makinson - 2011 - Mind 120 (480):1035-1051.
    The interplay of introduction and elimination rules for propositional connectives is often seen as suggesting a distinguished role for intuitionistic logic. We prove three formal results concerning intuitionistic propositional logic that bear on that perspective, and discuss their significance. First, for a range of connectives including both negation and the falsum, there are no classically or intuitionistically correct introduction rules. Second, irrespective of the choice of negation or the falsum as a primitive connective, classical and intuitionistic consequence satisfy exactly the (...)
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  47.  14
    Gerald J. Massey. Four Simple Systems of Modal Propositional Logic. Philosophy of Science, Vol. 32 , Pp. 342–355.David Makinson - 1972 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 37 (4):754.
    Review of the paper mentioned in the title.
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  48.  14
    Ian Hacking. What is Strict Implication?The Journal of Symbolic Logic, Vol. 28 No. 1 , Pp. 51–71.David Makinson - 1972 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 37 (2):417.
    Review of the paper mentioned in the title.
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  49.  27
    A Generalisation of the Concept of a Relational Model for Modal Logic.David Makinson - 1970 - Theoria 36 (3):331-335.
    Generalises the concept of a relational model for modal logic, due to Kripke, so as to obtain a closer correspondence between relational and algebraic models. The generalisation obtained is essentially equivalent to the notion of a "first-order" model that was defined independently by S.K.Thomason.
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  50.  41
    Post Completeness and Ultrafilters.David Makinson & Krister Segerberg - 1974 - Zeitschrift fur mathematische Logik und Grundlagen der Mathematik 20 (25-27):385-388.
    A cardinality result in modal propositional logic.
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