Results for 'David Moshman Molly Geil'

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  1.  62
    Collaborative Reasoning: Evidence for Collective Rationality.David Moshman Molly Geil - 1998 - Thinking and Reasoning 4 (3):231 – 248.
    Reasoning may be defined as a deliberate effort to coordinate inferences so as to reach justifiable conclusions. Thus defined, reasoning includes collaborative as well as individual forms of cognitive action. The purpose of the present study was to demonstrate a circumstance in which collaborative reasoning is qualitatively superior to individual reasoning. The selection task, a well known logical hypothesis-testing problem, was presented to 143 college undergraduates-32 individuals and 20 groups of 5 or 6 interacting peers. The correct (falsification) response pattern (...)
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  2.  78
    From Inference to Reasoning: The Construction of Rationality.David Moshman - 2004 - Thinking and Reasoning 10 (2):221 – 239.
    Inference is elementary and ubiquitous: Cognition always goes beyond the data. Thinking—including problem solving, decision making, judgement, planning, and argumentation—is here defined as the deliberate application and coordination of one's inferences to serve one's purposes. Reasoning, in turn, is epistemologically self-constrained thinking in which the application and coordination of inferences is guided by a metacognitive commitment to what are deemed to be justifiable inferential norms. The construction of rationality, in this view, involves increasing consciousness and control of logical and other (...)
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  3. Adolescent Psychological Development: Rationality, Morality, and Identity (David Moshman).D. Fasco - 2000 - Journal of Moral Education 29 (4):484-485.
     
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  4.  17
    The Development of Rationality.David Moshman - 2009 - In Harvey Siegel (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Education. Oxford University Press.
  5.  15
    Diversity in Reasoning and Rationality: Metacognitive and Developmental Considerations.David Moshman - 2000 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (5):689-690.
    Tasks in the adult reasoning literature are designed so that heuristic processing leads one astray and adequate rule-based processing requires explicit knowledge about applicable logical and quasi-logical norms. Other research, however, indicates that appropriate rule-based inferences can be automatic. Individual differences in rationality are largely due to differences in developmental progress toward metacognitive understanding of both heuristic and rule-based inferences.
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  6.  4
    Beyond the IRB: Local Service Versus Global Oversight.David Magnus & Molly Havard - 2011 - American Journal of Bioethics 11 (5):1-2.
  7.  13
    Taking Development Seriously: Critique of the 2008 JME Special Issue on Moral Functioning.John C. Gibbs, David Moshman, Marvin W. Berkowitz, Karen S. Basinger & Rebecca L. Grime - 2009 - Journal of Moral Education 38 (3):271-282.
    This essay comments on articles comprising a Journal of Moral Education Special Issue (September, 2008, 37[3]). The issue was intended to honour the 50th anniversary of Lawrence Kohlberg?s doctoral dissertation and his subsequent impact on the field of moral development and education. The articles were characterised by the Issue editor (Don Collins Reed) as providing a ?look forward? from Kohlberg?s work toward a more comprehensive or integrated model of moral functioning. Prominent were culturally pluralist and biologically?based themes, such as cultural (...)
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  8.  14
    Horizontal Structure and the Concept of Stage.David Moshman - 1979 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 2 (1):145-146.
  9.  21
    Identity, Genocide, and Group Violence.David Moshman - 2011 - In Seth J. Schwartz, Koen Luyckx & Vivian L. Vignoles (eds.), Handbook of Identity Theory and Research. Springer Science+Business Media. pp. 917--932.
  10.  3
    Human Flicker Fusion Correlates With Physiological Measures of Magnocellular Neural Efficiency.Alyse Brown, Molly Corner, David P. Crewther & Sheila G. Crewther - 2018 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 12.
  11. David Boonin on the Non-Identity Argument: Rejecting the Second Premise.Molly Gardner - 2019 - Law, Ethics and Philosophy 7:29-47.
    According to various “harm-based” approaches to the non-identity problem, an action that brings a particular child into existence can also harm that child, even if his or her life is worth living. In the third chapter of The Non-Identity Problem and the Ethics of Future People, David Boonin surveys a variety of harm-based approaches and argues that none of them are successful. In this paper I argue that his objections to these various approaches do not impugn a harm-based approach (...)
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  12. Chalmers, David J. The Character of Consciousness, Oxford University Press, 2010, 624 Pp. Cliteur, Paul. The Secular Outlook: In Defense of Moral and Political Secularism, Wiley-Blackwell, 2010, 328 Pp. Cochran, Molly. The Cambridge Companion to Dewey, Cambridge Uni. [REVIEW]Fred Evans, Allan Gotthelf, James G. Lennox, Jesus Ilundain-Agurruza, Michael W. Austin, Timothy O'Connor, Constantine Sandis, Graham Oppy, Michael Scott & Roland Pierik - 2011 - Metaphilosophy 42 (3):0026-1068.
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  13.  14
    Many Paths Lead Chromatin to the Nuclear Periphery.Molly R. Gordon, Benjamin D. Pope, Jiao Sima & David M. Gilbert - 2015 - Bioessays 37 (8):862-866.
    t is now well accepted that defined architectural compartments within the cell nucleus can regulate the transcriptional activity of chromosomal domains within their vicinity. However, it is generally unclear how these compartments are formed. The nuclear periphery has received a great deal of attention as a repressive compartment that is implicated in many cellular functions during development and disease. The inner nuclear membrane, the nuclear lamina, and associated proteins compose the nuclear periphery and together they interact with proximal chromatin creating (...)
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  14.  19
    Sexless Reproduction: A Status Symbol.Molly Havard & David Magnus - 2011 - American Journal of Bioethics 11 (3):1-1.
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  15. Book Review: Globalization and America: Race, Human Rights, and Inequality (Perspectives on a Multiracial America). Edited by Angela J. Hattery, David G. Embrick, and Earl Smith. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2008, 304 Pp., $75.00 (Cloth); $29.95. [REVIEW]Molly Talcott - 2010 - Gender and Society 24 (6):848-850.
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  16.  13
    A Theory of Moral Praise.Rajen A. Anderson, Molly J. Crockett & David A. Pizarro - 2020 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 24 (9):694-703.
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  17.  7
    Innocent Fun or “Microslavery”?Hayden Harvey, Molly Havard, David Magnus, Mildred K. Cho & Ingmar H. Riedel-Kruse - 2014 - Hastings Center Report 44 (6):38-46.
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  18.  1
    More Than Words: Extra-Sylvian Neuroanatomic Networks Support Indirect Speech Act Comprehension and Discourse in Behavioral Variant Frontotemporal Dementia.Meghan Healey, Erica Howard, Molly Ungrady, Christopher A. Olm, Naomi Nevler, David J. Irwin & Murray Grossman - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 14.
    Indirect speech acts—responding “I forgot to wear my watch today” to someone who asked for the time—are ubiquitous in daily conversation, but are understudied in current neurobiological models of language. To comprehend an indirect speech act like this one, listeners must not only decode the lexical-semantic content of the utterance, but also make a pragmatic, bridging inference. This inference allows listeners to derive the speaker’s true, intended meaning—in the above dialog, for example, that the speaker cannot provide the time. In (...)
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  19. Critical Thinking as an Intellectual Right.Harvey Siegel - 1987 - Analytic Teaching and Philosophical Praxis 8 (1).
    This chapter is adapted from Siegel, in which I argue that the critical thinker is best thought of as one who is appropriately moved by reasons. In this view, critical thinking involves a variety of reasoning and other cognitive skills; knowledge of various sorts; a set of tendencies or dispositions to exercise those skills and utilize that knowledge; the valuing of reasons and an appreciation of their epistemological force; and a certain sort of character. I am grateful to David (...)
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  20.  57
    Reasoning as a Social Competence.Dan Sperber - unknown
    Groups do better at reasoning tasks than individuals, and, in some cases, do even better than any of their individual members. Here is an illustration. In the standard version of Wason selection task (Wason, 1966), the most commonly studied problem in the psychology of reasoning, only about 10% of participants give the correct solution, even though it can be arrived at by elementary deductive reasoning.1 Such poor performance begs for an explanation, and a great many have been offered. What makes (...)
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  21. Quantifying the Gender Gap: An Empirical Study of the Underrepresentation of Women in Philosophy.Molly Paxton, Carrie Figdor & Valerie Tiberius - 2012 - Hypatia 27 (4):949-957.
    The lack of gender parity in philosophy has garnered serious attention recently. Previous empirical work that aims to quantify what has come to be called “the gender gap” in philosophy focuses mainly on the absence of women in philosophy faculty and graduate programs. Our study looks at gender representation in philosophy among undergraduate students, undergraduate majors, graduate students, and faculty. Our findings are consistent with what other studies have found about women faculty in philosophy, but we were able to add (...)
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  22.  50
    The Problem of Moral Progress: The Slavery Debates and the Development of Liberal Protestantism in the United States: Molly Oshatz.Molly Oshatz - 2008 - Modern Intellectual History 5 (2):225-250.
    The slavery debates in the antebellum United States sparked a turning point in American theology. They forced moderately antislavery Protestants, including William Ellery Channing, Francis Wayland, and Horace Bushnell, to reconcile their contradictory loyalties to the Bible and to antislavery reform. Unable to use the letter of the Bible to make a scriptural case against slavery in itself, the moderates argued that although slavery had been acceptable in biblical times, it had become a sin. Antislavery Protestantism required a theory of (...)
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  23.  51
    Models of Morality.Molly J. Crockett - 2013 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 17 (8):363-366.
  24. A Harm Based Solution to the Non-Identity Problem.Molly Gardner - 2015 - Ergo: An Open Access Journal of Philosophy 2:427-444.
    Many of us agree that we ought not to wrong future people, but there remains disagreement about which of our actions can wrong them. Can we wrong individuals whose lives are worth living by taking actions that result in their very existence? The problem of justifying an answer to this question has come to be known as the non-identity problem.[1] While the literature contains an array of strategies for solving the problem,[2] in this paper I will take what I call (...)
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  25.  32
    Moral Bioenhancement: A Neuroscientific Perspective.Molly J. Crockett - 2014 - Journal of Medical Ethics 40 (6):370-371.
    Can advances in neuroscience be harnessed to enhance human moral capacities? And if so, should they? De Grazia explores these questions in ‘Moral Enhancement, Freedom, and What We Value in Moral Behaviour’.1 Here, I offer a neuroscientist's perspective on the state of the art of moral bioenhancement, and highlight some of the practical challenges facing the development of moral bioenhancement technologies.The science of moral bioenhancement is in its infancy. Laboratory studies of human morality usually employ highly simplified models aimed at (...)
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  26.  81
    When Good Things Happen to Harmed People.Molly Gardner - 2019 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 22 (4):893-908.
    The problem of justified harm is the problem of explaining why it is permissible to inflict harm for the sake of future benefits in some cases but not in others. In this paper I first motivate the problem by comparing a case in which a lifeguard breaks a swimmer’s arm in order to save her life to a case in which Nazis imprison a man who later grows wiser as a result of the experience. I consider other philosophers’ attempts to (...)
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  27. On the Strength of the Reason Against Harming.Molly Gardner - 2017 - Journal of Moral Philosophy 14 (1):73-87.
    _ Source: _Volume 14, Issue 1, pp 73 - 87 According to action-relative accounts of harming, an action harms someone only if it makes her worse off in some respect than she would have been, had the action not been performed. Action-relative accounts can be contrasted with effect-relative accounts, which hold that an action may harm an individual in virtue of its effects on that individual, regardless of whether the individual would have been better off in the absence of the (...)
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  28. Beneficence and Procreation.Molly Gardner - 2016 - Philosophical Studies 173 (2):321-336.
    Consider a duty of beneficence towards a particular individual, S, and call a reason that is grounded in that duty a “beneficence reason towards S.” Call a person who will be brought into existence by an act of procreation the “resultant person.” Is there ever a beneficence reason towards the resultant person for an agent to procreate? In this paper, I argue for such a reason by appealing to two main premises. First, we owe a pro tanto duty of beneficence (...)
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  29. Richard Rorty: Critical Dialogues.Matthew Festenstein & Simon Thompson (eds.) - 2001 - Polity.
    Richard Rorty is one of the most influential and provocative figures in contemporary intellectual life. He argues that many of philosophy's traditional concerns are redundant, and that the goal of inquiry should not be truth but human betterment. In this collection a distinguished team of scholars grapples with the implications of his writings for social and political thought. Avoiding mindless adulation or ritual denunciation, they offer careful but critical investigations of the meaning of Rorty's work for a range of important (...)
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  30.  56
    Rights-Based Food Systems and the Goals of Food Systems Reform.Molly D. Anderson - 2008 - Agriculture and Human Values 25 (4):593-608.
    Food security, health, decent livelihoods, gender equity, safe working conditions, cultural identity and participation in cultural life are basic human rights that can be achieved at least in part through the food system. But current trends in the US prevent full realization of these economic, social, and cultural rights (ESCR) for residents, farmers, and wageworkers in the food system. Supply chains that strive to meet the goals of social justice, economic equity, and environmental quality better than the dominant globalized food (...)
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  31.  18
    The Length of Words Reflects Their Conceptual Complexity.Molly L. Lewis & Michael C. Frank - 2016 - Cognition 153:182-195.
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  32.  49
    Introduction to Symposium on Food Sovereignty: Expanding the Analysis and Application. [REVIEW]Molly D. Anderson & Anne C. Bellows - 2012 - Agriculture and Human Values 29 (2):177-184.
  33.  12
    The Value of Vengeance and the Demand for Deterrence.Molly J. Crockett, Yagiz Özdemir & Ernst Fehr - 2014 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 143 (6):2279-2286.
  34.  25
    Unification Beyond Justification: A Strategy for Theory Development.Molly Kao - 2017 - Synthese:1-16.
    This paper considers the importance of unification in the context of developing scientific theories. I argue that unifying hypotheses are not valuable simply because they are supported by multiple lines of evidence. Instead, they can be valuable because they guide experimental research in different domains in such a way that the results from those experiments inform the scope of the theory being developed. I support this characterization by appealing to the early development of quantum theory. I then draw some comparisons (...)
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  35.  11
    Unification Beyond Justification: A Strategy for Theory Development.Molly Kao - 2019 - Synthese 196 (8):3263-3278.
    This paper considers the importance of unification in the context of developing scientific theories. I argue that unifying hypotheses are not valuable simply because they are supported by multiple lines of evidence. Instead, they can be valuable because they guide experimental research in different domains in such a way that the results from those experiments inform the scope of the theory being developed. I support this characterization by appealing to the early development of quantum theory. I then draw some comparisons (...)
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  36.  12
    Assessing Decision-Making Capacity in Patients with Communication Impairments.Molly Cairncross, Andrew Peterson, Andrea Lazosky, Teneille Gofton & Charles Weijer - 2016 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 25 (4):691-699.
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  37. The Living Body as the Origin of Culture: What the Shift in Husserl’s Notion of “Expression” Tells Us About Cultural Objects.Molly Brigid Flynn - 2009 - Husserl Studies 25 (1):57-79.
    Husserl’s philosophy of culture relies upon a person’s body being expressive of the person’s spirit, but Husserl’s analysis of expression in Logical Investigations is inadequate to explain this bodily expressiveness. This paper explains how Husserl’s use of “expression” shifts from LI to Ideas II and argues that this shift is explained by Husserl’s increased understanding of the pervasiveness of sense in subjective life and his increased appreciation for the unity of the person. I show how these two developments allow Husserl (...)
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  38.  22
    A Psychoanalytic Examination of Birth Order in The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe.Geil Sarah - 2016 - Aletheia: The Alpha Chi Journal of Undergraduate Scholarship 1 (1).
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  39.  2
    ‘The Cruel Radiance of What Is’: Empathy, Imagination and Estrangement in Johan van der Keuken's Face Value and Herman Slobbe.Abraham Geil - 2020 - Paragraph 43 (3):330-347.
    This article takes up film and imagination via the problem of empathy. Proposing a different entry into contemporary polemics over empathy, the ‘empathic imagination’ is reconceptualized as a problematic of form rather than psychological experience. That is, instead of adopting a pre-given notion of empathy to illuminate the relation between film and the spectator's moral imagination, this article considers how that imagination is constituted in and through the image to begin with. After tracing the genealogy of empathy in German aesthetics, (...)
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  40.  33
    Old Evidence in the Development of Quantum Theory.Molly Kao - 2018 - Philosophy of Science 85 (1):126-143.
    In this article, I evaluate Hartmann and Fitelson’s solution to the Bayesian problem of old evidence by applying it to an early stage in the development of quantum theory. I argue that this case study suggests that whether old evidence is anomalous affects its support for a hypothesis. I introduce and defend two formal assumptions to accommodate this idea. This analysis not only explicates an important historical example, but it also shows that the given solution captures the intuitive importance of (...)
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  41.  24
    Community Food Security: Practice in Need of Theory? [REVIEW]Molly D. Anderson & John T. Cook - 1999 - Agriculture and Human Values 16 (2):141-150.
    Practitioners and advocates of community food security (CFS) envision food systems that are decentralized, environmentally-sound over a long time-frame, supportive of collective rather than only individual needs, effective in assuring equitable food access, and created by democratic decision-making. These themes are loosely connected in literature about CFS, with no logical linkages among them. Clear articulation in a theoretical framework is needed for CFS to be effective as a guide for policy and action. CFS theory should delimit the level of analysis (...)
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  42.  30
    Social Communication and Theory of Mind in Boys with Autism and Fragile X Syndrome.Molly Losh, Gary E. Martin, Jessica Klusek, Abigail L. Hogan-Brown & John Sideris - 2012 - Frontiers in Psychology 3.
  43.  41
    Women's Neuroethics? Why Sex Matters for Neuroethics.Molly C. Chalfin, Emily R. Murphy & Katrina A. Karkazis - 2008 - American Journal of Bioethics 8 (1):1 – 2.
    The Neuroethics Affinity Group of the American Society for Bioethics and Humanities met for the third time in October 2007 to review progress in the field of neuroethics and consider high-impact priorities for the future. Closely aligned with ASBH's own goals of recruiting junior scholars to bioethics and mentoring them to successful careers, the Neuroethics Affinity Group placed a call for new ideas to be presented at the Group meeting, specifically by junior attendees. One group responded with the idea to (...)
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  44.  13
    Pharmaceutical Effects on Moral Behavior: A Neuroscientific Perspective.Molly J. Crockett - 2014 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 21 (2):131-134.
  45. Animals and Anthropology.Molly Mullin - 2002 - Society and Animals 10 (4):387-393.
  46.  97
    How Lives Measure Up.Molly Gardner & Justin Weinberg - 2013 - Acta Analytica 28 (1):31-48.
    The quality of a life is typically understood as a function of the actual goods and bads in it, that is, its actual value. Likewise, the value of a population is typically taken to be a function of the actual value of the lives in it. We introduce an alternative understanding of life quality: adjusted value. A life’s adjusted value is a function of its actual value and its ideal value (the best value it could have had). The concept of (...)
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  47.  7
    Structural Analysis of the Wichita Uplift and Structures in the Anadarko Basin, Southern Oklahoma.Molly Turko & Shankar Mitra - 2021 - Interpretation 9 (1):T107-T122.
    We have constructed regional structural transects across the Wichita Uplift and the adjacent Anadarko Basin to show the relationship between thick-skinned basement-involved structures and thin-skinned detached fold-thrust structures. Slip from the basement-involved structures in the Wichita Uplift is transferred along two major detachments into the Anadarko Basin. Our interpretation is that along the northwestern margin, the Wichita Uplift is marked by a zone of frontal imbricates forming a triangular wedge with most of the slip dissipated along the Wichita front. Paleozoic (...)
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  48. Well-Being and the Non-Identity Problem.Molly Gardner - 2016 - In Guy Fletcher (ed.), The Routledge Handbook of the Philosophy of Well-Being. Routledge. pp. 429-438.
  49.  33
    Unification and the Quantum Hypothesis in 1900--1913.Molly Kao - unknown
    In this paper, I consider some of the first appearances of a hypothesis of quantized energy between the years 1900 and 1913 and provide an analysis of the nature of the unificatory power of this hypothesis in a Bayesian framework. I argue that the best way to understand the unification here is in terms of informational relevance: on the assumption of the quantum hypothesis, phenomena that were previously thought to be unrelated turned out to yield information about one another based (...)
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  50. David Hume, Contractarian.David Gauthier - 1979 - Philosophical Review 88 (1):3-38.
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