Results for 'David N. Walton'

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  1.  7
    Informal Logic: A Handbook for Critical Argument.David N. Walton - 1989 - Cambridge University Press.
    This is an introductory guide to the basic principles of constructing good arguments and criticizing bad ones. It is nontechnical in its approach, and is based on 150 key examples, each discussed and evaluated in clear, illustrative detail. The author explains how errors, fallacies, and other key failures of argument occur. He shows how correct uses of argument are based on sound argument strategies for reasoned persuasion and critical questions for responding. Among the many subjects covered are: techniques of posing, (...)
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  2. A theory of presumption for everyday argumentation.David M. Godden & Douglas N. Walton - 2007 - Pragmatics and Cognition 15 (2):313-346.
    The paper considers contemporary models of presumption in terms of their ability to contribute to a working theory of presumption for argumentation. Beginning with the Whatelian model, we consider its contemporary developments and alternatives, as proposed by Sidgwick, Kauffeld, Cronkhite, Rescher, Walton, Freeman, Ullmann-Margalit, and Hansen. Based on these accounts, we present a picture of presumptions characterized by their nature, function, foundation and force. On our account, presumption is a modal status that is attached to a claim and has (...)
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  3.  67
    Critical notice.David Miller, Catherine Z. Elgin, Jonathan E. Adler & Douglas N. Walton - 1980 - Synthese 43 (3):125 – 140.
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  4. A history of AI and Law in 50 papers: 25 years of the international conference on AI and Law. [REVIEW]Trevor Bench-Capon, Michał Araszkiewicz, Kevin Ashley, Katie Atkinson, Floris Bex, Filipe Borges, Daniele Bourcier, Paul Bourgine, Jack G. Conrad, Enrico Francesconi, Thomas F. Gordon, Guido Governatori, Jochen L. Leidner, David D. Lewis, Ronald P. Loui, L. Thorne McCarty, Henry Prakken, Frank Schilder, Erich Schweighofer, Paul Thompson, Alex Tyrrell, Bart Verheij, Douglas N. Walton & Adam Z. Wyner - 2012 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 20 (3):215-319.
    We provide a retrospective of 25 years of the International Conference on AI and Law, which was first held in 1987. Fifty papers have been selected from the thirteen conferences and each of them is described in a short subsection individually written by one of the 24 authors. These subsections attempt to place the paper discussed in the context of the development of AI and Law, while often offering some personal reactions and reflections. As a whole, the subsections build into (...)
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  5. DOUGLAS N. WALTON, "Topical Relevance in Argumentation". [REVIEW]David Hitchcock - 1986 - Dialogue 25 (4):819.
     
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  6.  7
    Topical Relevance in Argumentation Douglas N. Walton Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 1982. Pp. viii, 81. $18.00. [REVIEW]David Hitchcock - 1986 - Dialogue 25 (4):819-.
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  7. Quantum indeterminism and evolutionary biology.David N. Stamos - 2001 - Philosophy of Science 68 (2):164-184.
    In "The Indeterministic Character of Evolutionary Theory: No 'Hidden Variables Proof' But No Room for Determinism Either," Brandon and Carson (1996) argue that evolutionary theory is statistical because the processes it describes are fundamentally statistical. In "Is Indeterminism the Source of the Statistical Character of Evolutionary Theory?" Graves, Horan, and Rosenberg (1999) argue in reply that the processes of evolutionary biology are fundamentally deterministic and that the statistical character of evolutionary theory is explained by epistemological rather than ontological considerations. In (...)
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  8.  9
    The Species Problem: Biological Species, Ontology, and the Metaphysics of Biology.David N. Stamos - 2003 - Lexington Books.
    Stamos squarely confronts the problem of determining what a biological species is, whether species are real, and the nature of their reality. He critically considers the evolution of the major contemporary views of species and also offers his own solution to the species problem.
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  9.  91
    Quantales and (noncommutative) linear logic.David N. Yetter - 1990 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 55 (1):41-64.
  10.  12
    The Species Problem: Biological Species, Ontology, and the Metaphysics of Biology.David N. Stamos - 2003 - Lexington Books.
    Stamos squarely confronts the problem of determining what a biological species is, whether species are real, and the nature of their reality. He critically considers the evolution of the major contemporary views of species and also offers his own solution to the species problem.
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  11.  18
    Lucretius and the transformation of Greek wisdom.David N. Sedley - 1998 - New York: Cambridge University Press.
    This book is designed to appeal both to those interested in Roman poetry and to specialists in ancient philosophy. In it David Sedley explores Lucretius ' complex relationship with Greek culture, in particular with Empedocles, whose poetry was the model for his own, with Epicurus, the source of his philosophical inspiration, and with the Greek language itself. He includes a detailed reconstruction of Epicurus' great treatise On Nature, and seeks to show how Lucretius worked with this as his sole (...)
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  12.  13
    Is It Painful to Think? Conversations with Arne Næss.David Rothenberg & Arne Næss - 1993 - U of Minnesota Press.
    This is the compelling story of one of the most fascinating thinkers of the twentieth century- a richly toned portrait of a modern-day Thoreau.
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  13.  21
    Akratic Ignorance and Endoxic Inquiry.David N. Mcneill - 2018 - Review of Metaphysics 72 (2):259-299.
    Aristotle claims in the Metaphysics that in order to be resourceful in first philosophic inquiry it is useful to go through perplexity well. In this essay, the author argues that that perplexity plays a parallel role in Aristotle’s account of practical, deliberative inquiry in the Nicomachean Ethics. He does so by offering an interpretation of the relation between Aristotle’s account of akratic ignorance in Nicomachean Ethics 7 and his emphasis on the necessity of going through perplexity when inquiring into akrasia. (...)
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  14.  21
    Science for profit. What are the ethical implications of bioprospecting in the Arctic and Antarctica?David K. Leary & David W. H. Walton - 2010 - Ethics in Science and Environmental Politics 10 (1):1-4.
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  15.  20
    Was Darwin Really a Species Nominalist?David N. Stamos - 1996 - Journal of the History of Biology 29 (1):127 - 144.
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  16.  15
    Darwin and the Nature of Species.David N. Stamos - 2006 - State University of New York Press.
    Examines Darwin’s concept of species in a philosophical context.
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  17. Pre-Darwinian taxonomy and essentialism – a reply to Mary Winsor.David N. Stamos - 2005 - Biology and Philosophy 20 (1):79-96.
    Mary Winsor (2003) argues against the received view that pre-Darwinian taxonomy was characterized mainly by essentialism. She argues, instead, that the methods of pre-Darwinian taxonomists, in spite of whatever their beliefs, were that of clusterists, so that the received view, propagated mainly by certain modern biologists and philosophers of biology, should at last be put to rest as a myth. I argue that shes right when it comes to higher taxa, but wrong when it comes the most important category of (...)
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  18.  14
    What is Wrong with "Ethics for Sale"? An Analysis of the Many Issues that Complicate the Debate about Conflicts of Interests in Bioethics.David N. Sontag - 2007 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 35 (1):175-186.
    This article addresses all of the issues involved in the debate about whether or not bioethicists should be paid by private biomedical companies to perform consultations. These issues include the following: differentiation of this role from bioethicists' other roles, an analysis of to whom bioethicists owe a duty, consideration of what bioethicists are “selling,” whether bioethicists should be allowed to get paid, when payment becomes problematic, and whether consulting fee arrangements should be regulated. The author often compares bioethicists' relationship to (...)
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  19. Antigone's Autonomy.David N. McNeill - 2011 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 54 (5):411-441.
    Sophocles' Antigone contains the first recorded instance of the word αὑτ ό νομος, the source for our word “autonomous”. I argue that reflection upon the human aspiration toward autonomy is central to that work. I begin by focusing on the difficulty readers of the play have determining whether Antigone's actions in the play should be considered autonomous and then suggest that recognizing this difficulty is crucial to a proper understanding of the play. The very aspects of Antigone's character that seem (...)
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  20.  39
    Mountain Goddess: Gender and Politics in a Himalayan Pilgrimage.David N. Lorenzen & William S. Sax - 1995 - Journal of the American Oriental Society 115 (3):505.
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  21.  62
    Shang divination and metaphysics.David N. Keightley - 1988 - Philosophy East and West 38 (4):367-397.
  22.  7
    Evolution and the Big Questions: Sex, Race, Religion, and Other Matters.David N. Stamos - 2011 - Wiley-Blackwell.
    This provocative text considers whether evolutionary explanations can be used to clarify some of life’s biggest questions. Examines topics of race, sex, gender, the nature of language, religion, ethics, knowledge, consciousness and ultimately, the meaning of life Each chapter presents a main topic, together with discussion of related ideas and arguments from various perspectives Addresses questions such as: Did evolution make men and women fundamentally different? Is the concept of race merely a social construction? Is morality, including universal human rights, (...)
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  23.  20
    What is Wrong with “Ethics for Sale”? An Analysis of the Many Issues That Complicate the Debate about Conflicts of Interests in Bioethics.David N. Sontag - 2007 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 35 (1):175-186.
    Bioethics, once a four-letter word in the private sector, is now an integral part of the decisionmaking process of biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies. And bioethicists, once confined to the classroom and limited to abstract, philosophical discussions about what is right and wrong in medicine and medical research, now play an important role in the practical implementation of ethical boundaries. Bioethicists increasingly are hired by biomedical companies as consultants to highlight and help resolve complex ethical issues that arise in the companies’ (...)
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  24.  58
    Suicide and Stoic Ethics in the Doctrine of Virtue.David N. James - 1998 - Kant Studien 90 (1):40-58.
  25.  77
    Species, languages, and the horizontal/vertical distinction.David N. Stamos - 2002 - Biology and Philosophy 17 (2):171-198.
    In addition to the distinction between species as a category and speciesas a taxon, the word species is ambiguous in a very different butequally important way, namely the temporal distinction between horizontal andvertical species. Although often found in the relevant literature, thisdistinction has thus far remained vague and undefined. In this paper the use ofthe distinction is explored, an attempt is made to clarify and define it, andthen the relation between the two dimensions and the implications of thatrelation are examined. (...)
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  26.  8
    Evolution and the Big Questions: Sex, Race, Religion, and Other Matters.David N. Stamos - 2008 - Wiley-Blackwell.
    This provocative text considers whether evolutionary explanations can be used to clarify some of life’s biggest questions. Examines topics of race, sex, gender, the nature of language, religion, ethics, knowledge, consciousness and ultimately, the meaning of life Each chapter presents a main topic, together with discussion of related ideas and arguments from various perspectives Addresses questions such as: Did evolution make men and women fundamentally different? Is the concept of race merely a social construction? Is morality, including universal human rights, (...)
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  27. Popper, falsifiability, and evolutionary biology.David N. Stamos - 1996 - Biology and Philosophy 11 (2):161-191.
    First, a brief history is provided of Popper's views on the status of evolutionary biology as a science. The views of some prominent biologists are then canvassed on the matter of falsifiability and its relation to evolutionary biology. Following that, I argue that Popper's programme of falsifiability does indeed exclude evolutionary biology from within the circumference of genuine science, that Popper's programme is fundamentally incoherent, and that the correction of this incoherence results in a greatly expanded and much more realistic (...)
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  28.  11
    The unrealised ethical potential of the Methodist theology of prevenient grace.David N. Field - 2015 - HTS Theological Studies 71 (1).
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  29.  61
    Buffon, Darwin, and the non-individuality of species – a reply to Jean Gayon.David N. Stamos - 1998 - Biology and Philosophy 13 (3):443-470.
    Gayon's recent claim that Buffon developed a concept of species as physical individuals is critically examined and rejected. Also critically examined and rejected is Gayon's more central thesis that as a consequence of his analysis of Buffon's species concept, and also of Darwin's species concept, it is clear that modern evolutionary theory does not require species to be physical individuals. While I agree with Gayon's conclusion that modern evolutionary theory does not require species to be physical individuals, I disagree with (...)
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  30.  41
    Human Acclimatization: Perspectives on a Contested Field of Inquiry in Science, Medicine and Geography.David N. Livingstone - 1987 - History of Science 25 (4):359-394.
  31.  21
    Sources of Shang History.David N. Keightley - 1980 - Philosophy East and West 30 (2):277-278.
  32.  36
    Public spectacle and scientific theory: William Robertson Smith and the reading of evolution in Victorian Scotland.David N. Livingstone - 2004 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 35 (1):1-29.
    This paper examines the reaction of Victorian Presbyterian culture to the theory of evolution in late nineteenth century Scotland. Focusing on the role played by the Free Church theologian, biblical critic and anthropological theorist, William Robertson Smith, it argues that, compared with Smith’s radical scholarship, evolutionary theories did little to disturb the Scottish Calvinist mind-set. After surveying the attitudes to evolution among a range of theological leaders, the paper examines Smith’s fundamentally threatening proposals and the circumstances that led to the (...)
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  33.  21
    Darwin's Species Category Realism.David N. Stamos - 1999 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 21 (2):137 - 186.
    Ever since Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species was published, the received view has been that Darwin literally thought of species as not extra-mentally real. In 1969 Michael Ghiselin upset the received view by interpreting Darwin to mean that species taxa are indeed real but not the species category. In 1985 John Beatty took Ghiselin's thesis a step further by providing a strategy theory to explain why Darwin would say one thing (his repeated nominalistic definition of species) and do (...)
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  34. Popper, laws, and the exclusion of biology from genuine science.David N. Stamos - 2007 - Acta Biotheoretica 55 (4):357-375.
    The primary purpose of this paper is to argue that biologists should stop citing Karl Popper on what a genuinely scientific theory is. Various ways in which biologists cite Popper on this matter are surveyed, including the use of Popper to settle debates on methodology in phylogenetic systematics. It is then argued that the received view on Popper—namely, that a genuinely scientific theory is an empirically falsifiable one—is seriously mistaken, that Popper’s real view was that genuinely scientific theories have the (...)
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  35.  3
    Wily Elites and Spirited Peoples in Machiavelli’s Republicanism.David N. Levy - 2014 - Lanham, Maryland: Lexington Books.
    In this book, author David N. Levy uses Machiavelli’s conflict between the elite and the people as the lens through which to understand the other major features of his republicanism. Through analyzing his Discourses on Livy, Levy shows that Machiavelli’s principles can provide support for, and constructive criticism of, modern liberal democracy.
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  36.  25
    Confession as ongoing conversion.David N. Power - 1977 - Heythrop Journal 18 (2):180-190.
  37. Toward An Ontology of Geo-Reasoning to Aid Response to Weapons of Mass Destruction.David Kirsh, Peterson N. & Lenert L. - 2005 - American Medical Assoc Conference:400-404.
    A startling amount of intelligent activity can be controlled without reasoning or thought. By tuning the perceptual system to task relevant properties a creature can cope with relatively sophisticated environments without concepts. There is a limit, however, to how far a creature without concepts can go. Rod Brooks, like many ecologically oriented scientists, argues that the vast majority of intelligent behaviour is concept-free. To evaluate this position I consider what special benefits accrue to concept-using creatures. Concepts are either necessary for (...)
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  38.  11
    Total liberation: the power and promise of animal rights and the radical earth movement.David N. Pellow - 2014 - Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
    When in 2001 Earth Liberation Front activists drove metal spikes into hundreds of trees in Gifford Pinchot National Forest, they were protesting the sale of a section of the old-growth forest to a timber company. But ELF's communiqu on the action went beyond the radical group's customary brief. Drawing connections between the harms facing the myriad animals who make their home in the trees and the struggles for social justice among ordinary human beings resisting exclusion and marginalization, the dispatch declared, (...)
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  39.  6
    Management dilemmas that will shape wilderness in the 21st century.David N. Cole - 2001 - Journal of Forestry 99 (1).
    How we resolve two management dilemmas will determine the future nature and value of wilderness. The first dilemma is providing for use and enjoyment while protecting wilderness conditions. The second is whether wilderness ecosystems should be left wild and “untrammeled” or, paradoxically, be manipulated toward a more natural state. Alternative solutions are explored. Because compromises between value systems will tend to homogenize wilderness areas, such that no area will fully meet any goal, we should consider allocating separate lands to each (...)
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  40. The negated conjunction in Stoicism.David N. Sedley - 1984 - Elenchos 5 (311):16.
  41.  23
    An Image of the Soul in Speech: Plato and the Problem of Socrates.David N. McNeill - 2010 - Pennsylvania State University Press.
    In this book, David McNeill illuminates Plato’s distinctive approach to philosophy by examining how his literary portrayal of Socrates manifests an essential interdependence between philosophic and ethical inquiry. In particular, McNeill demonstrates how Socrates’s confrontation with profound ethical questions about his public philosophic activity is the key to understanding the distinctively mimetic, dialogic, and reflexive character of Socratic philosophy. Taking a cue from Nietzsche’s account of “the problem of Socrates,” McNeill shows how the questions Nietzsche raises are questions that, (...)
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  42.  9
    The Sacramentalization of Penance.David N. Power - 1977 - Heythrop Journal 18 (1):5-22.
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  43.  7
    Of which we cannot speak … Philosophy and the humanities.David N. Rodowick - 2011 - Zeitschrift für Medien- Und Kulturforschung 2 (2):9-22.
    Philosophie und Geisteswissenschaften finden in Bezug auf Theorie kaum eine gemeinsame Gesprächsgrundlage. Der Beitrag zeigt, dass der späte Wittgenstein ebenfalls »Theorie« hinterfragt, dies aber als eine Weise begreift, den Dialog zwischen Philosophie und Geisteswissenschaft wiederherzustellen. Wittgenstein zielt in seinen Philosophischen Untersuchungen nicht – wie in der Analytischen Philosophie üblich – auf Gewissheit, sondern sucht Wege, die Philosophie zu Fragen des menschlichen Verstehens und Interpretierens zurückzuführen. Philosophy and the humanities have not found much common ground for conversation in theory. I argue (...)
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  44.  7
    Confession as ongoing conversion.O. M. I. David N. Power - 1977 - Heythrop Journal 18 (2):180–190.
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  45.  17
    Upholding the Common Life: The Community of Mirabai.David N. Lorenzen & Parita Mukta - 1995 - Journal of the American Oriental Society 115 (4):692.
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  46.  4
    2. The Opening Lemmas of the Derveni Papyrus.David N. Sedley - 2019 - In Christian Vassallo (ed.), Presocratics and Papyrological Tradition: A Philosophical Reappraisal of the Sources. Proceedings of the International Workshop Held at the University of Trier. Berlin: De Gruyter. pp. 45-72.
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  47.  39
    The Acquisition of Virtue.David N. James - 1986 - The Personalist Forum 2 (2):101-121.
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  48.  84
    Argument from Expert Opinion as Legal Evidence: Critical Questions and Admissibility Criteria of Expert Testimony in the American Legal System.David M. Godden & Douglas Walton - 2006 - Ratio Juris 19 (3):261-286.
    While courts depend on expert opinions in reaching sound judgments, the role of the expert witness in legal proceedings is associated with a litany of problems. Perhaps most prevalent is the question of under what circumstances should testimony be admitted as expert opinion. We review the changing policies adopted by American courts in an attempt to ensure the reliability and usefulness of the scientific and technical information admitted as evidence. We argue that these admissibility criteria are best seen in a (...)
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  49.  61
    Human Discourse, Eros, and Madness In Plato’s Republic.David N. McNeill - 2001 - Review of Metaphysics 55 (2):235 - 268.
    IN BOOK 9 OF THE REPUBLIC, Socrates tells Adeimantus that the “tyrantmakers” manage to defeat the relatives of the nascent tyrant in the battle over the young man’s soul by contriving “to make in him some eros, a sort of great winged drone, to be the leader of the idle desires.” This “leader of the soul,” Socrates claims.
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  50.  25
    The friendship model:A reply to Illingworth.David N. James - 1989 - Bioethics 3 (2):142–146.
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