Results for 'David R. Strong'

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  1.  31
    Evaluation of a Behavioral Measure of Risk Taking: The Balloon Analogue Risk Task.C. W. Lejuez, Jennifer P. Read, Christopher W. Kahler, Jerry B. Richards, Susan E. Ramsey, Gregory L. Stuart, David R. Strong & Richard A. Brown - 2002 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied 8 (2):75-84.
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  2. Geoengineering and Non-Ideal Theory.David R. Morrow & Toby Svoboda - 2016 - Public Affairs Quarterly 30 (1):85-104.
    The strongest arguments for the permissibility of geoengineering (also known as climate engineering) rely implicitly on non-ideal theory—roughly, the theory of justice as applied to situations of partial compliance with principles of ideal justice. In an ideally just world, such arguments acknowledge, humanity should not deploy geoengineering; but in our imperfect world, society may need to complement mitigation and adaptation with geoengineering to reduce injustices associated with anthropogenic climate change. We interpret research proponents’ arguments as an application of a particular (...)
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  3.  50
    The Psychology of Counterfactual Thinking.David R. Mandel, Denis J. Hilton & Patrizia Catellani (eds.) - 2005 - Routledge.
    It is human nature to wonder how things might have turned out differently--either for the better or for the worse. For the past two decades psychologists have been intrigued by this phenomenon, which they call counterfactual thinking. Specifically, researchers have sought to answer the "big" questions: Why do people have such a strong propensity to generate counterfactuals, and what functions does counterfactual thinking serve? What are the determinants of counterfactual thinking, and what are its adaptive and psychological consequences? This (...)
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  4.  64
    Completeness Results for Some Two-Dimensional Logics of Actuality.David R. Gilbert & Edwin D. Mares - 2012 - Review of Symbolic Logic 5 (2):239-258.
    We provide a Hilbert-style axiomatization of the logic of , as well as a two-dimensional semantics with respect to which our logics are sound and complete. Our completeness results are quite general, pertaining to all such actuality logics that extend a normal and canonical modal basis. We also show that our logics have the strong finite model property and permit straightforward first-order extensions.
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  5.  18
    The Environmental Implications of Post Renaissance Christianity.David R. Lea - 1993 - Agriculture and Human Values 10 (4):50-57.
    Recently there has been considerable controversy over the environmental impact of Christian teaching. During the beginnings of our increased awareness of the ecological crisis, several strong papers appeared condemning Christianity for encouraging environmental exploitation. Recently a number of works have sought to defend the Judeo-Christian tradition by emphasizing different aspects of a message that allegedly promotes environmentally friendly behavior. Overall, however, these interpretations exhibit doubtful ontic significance. It is the contention of this paper that Christianity evolved profoundly after the (...)
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  6.  9
    How (Some) Socialists Become Capitalists: The Cases of Three Prominent Intellectuals.David R. Henderson - 1999 - Critical Review: A Journal of Politics and Society 13 (3-4):229-237.
    Abstract Three prominent economists born early in the twentieth century?James Buchanan, Jack Hirshleifer, and Simon Rottenberg?switched from a belief in socialism in their twenties or thirties to strong support for free markets. Interviews show that for all three, and especially for Buchanan and Rottenberg, what changed them is what they learned in their economics classes. For Hirshleifer, another major influence was the pact between Hitler and Stalin, which caused him to be more skeptical about leftist ideas and made him (...)
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  7.  3
    Political Identity Over Personal Impact: Early U.S. Reactions to the COVID-19 Pandemic.Robert N. Collins, David R. Mandel & Sarah S. Schywiola - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 12.
    Research suggests political identity has strong influence over individuals’ attitudes and beliefs, which in turn can affect their behavior. Likewise, firsthand experience with an issue can also affect attitudes and beliefs. A large survey of Americans was analyzed to investigate the effects of both political identity and personal impact on individuals’ reactions to the COVID-19 pandemic. Results show that political identity and personal impact influenced the American public’s attitudes about and response to COVID-19. Consistent with prior research, political identity (...)
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  8.  56
    Forecasted Risk Taking in Youth: Evidence for a Bounded-Rationality Perspective.Mandeep K. Dhami & David R. Mandel - 2012 - Synthese 189 (S1):161-171.
    This research examined whether youth's forecasted risk taking is best predicted by a compensatory (namely, subjective expected utility) or non-compensatory (e.g., single-factor) model. Ninety youth assessed the importance of perceived benefits, importance of perceived drawbacks, subjective probability of benefits, and subjective probability of drawbacks for 16 risky behaviors clustered evenly into recreational and health/safety domains. In both domains, there was strong support for a noncompensatory model in which only the perceived importance of the benefits of engaging in a risky (...)
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  9.  22
    In the Absence of Evidentiary Harm, Existing Societal Norms Regarding Parental Authority Should Prevail.Kimberly A. Strong, Arthur R. Derse, David P. Dimmock, Kaija L. Zusevics, Jessica Jeruzal, Elizabeth Worthey, David Bick, Gunter Scharer, Alison La Pean Kirschner, Ryan Spellecy, Michael H. Farrell, Jennifer Geurts, Regan Veith & Thomas May - 2014 - American Journal of Bioethics 14 (3):24-26.
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  10.  31
    Salience Not Status: How Category Labels Influence Feature Inference.Mark K. Johansen, Justin Savage, Nathalie Fouquet & David R. Shanks - 2015 - Cognitive Science 39 (7):1594-1621.
    Two main uses of categories are classification and feature inference, and category labels have been widely shown to play a dominant role in feature inference. However, the nature of this influence remains unclear, and we evaluate two contrasting hypotheses formalized as mathematical models: the label special-mechanism hypothesis and the label super-salience hypothesis. The special-mechanism hypothesis is that category labels, unlike other features, trigger inference decision making in reference to the category prototypes. This results in a tendency for prototype-compatible inferences because (...)
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  11.  10
    Consumer Reactions to Tax Avoidance: Evidence from the United States and Germany.Inga Hardeck, J. William Harden & David R. Upton - 2021 - Journal of Business Ethics 170 (1):75-96.
    This research investigates the impact of corporate tax strategies on consumers’ corporate social responsibility perceptions, willingness to pay, and attitude toward the firm in two laboratory experiments in the United States and Germany. Using the Becker–DeGroot–Marschak incentive-compatible mechanism, which avoids a social desirability bias found in prior research, our results indicate only a minor indirect effect of corporate tax strategies on WTP by way of the mediator CSR perceptions. However, we find a strong effect on attitude toward the firm (...)
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  12.  72
    Moral Objectivism Across the Lifespan.James R. Beebe & David Sackris - 2016 - Philosophical Psychology 29 (6):912-929.
    We report the results of two studies that examine folk metaethical judgments about the objectivity of morality. We found that participants attributed almost as much objectivity to ethical statements as they did to statements of physical fact and significantly more objectivity to ethical statements than to statements about preferences or tastes. In both studies, younger participants attributed less objectivity to ethical statements than older participants. Females were observed to attribute slightly less objectivity to ethical statements than males, and we found (...)
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  13.  13
    David Easton.Tracy B. Strong - 1998 - Political Theory 26 (3):267-280.
    I do not for these defects despair of our republic. R. W. Emerson, Politics.
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  14.  25
    Religious Involvement and Feelings of Connectedness with Others Among Older Americans.R. David Hayward & Neal Krause - 2013 - Archive for the Psychology of Religion 35 (2):259-282.
    Some researchers maintain that one of the primary functions of religion is to help individuals develop a strong sense of connectedness with other people. However, there is little research on how a sense of connectedness arises. The purpose of this study is to examine this issue. A conceptual model is developed to test the following key hypotheses: blacks are more likely than whites to affiliate with Conservative Christian denominations; Conservative Christians attend worship services more often than individuals in other (...)
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  15.  9
    N. R. Hanson and von Uexküll: A Biosemiotic and Evolutionary Account of Theories.C. David Suárez Pascal - 2021 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 52 (2):247-261.
    This paper proposes a biosemiotic conception of theories, as non-intentional organic theories, which is based on an analysis and comparison of philosopher Norwood Russell Hanson’s account of theories and zoologist Jakob von Uexküll’s theory of organisms. It is argued that Hanson’s proposals about scientific theories and their relation to observation are semiotic in nature and that there exists a correspondence between Hanson’s depiction of the relationship between theories, observation, and reality and von Uexküll’s views on the relationship between organisms and (...)
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  16.  31
    Different Vocal Parameters Predict Perceptions of Dominance and Attractiveness.Carolyn R. Hodges-Simeon, Steven J. C. Gaulin & David A. Puts - 2010 - Human Nature 21 (4):406-427.
    Low mean fundamental frequency (F 0) in men’s voices has been found to positively influence perceptions of dominance by men and attractiveness by women using standardized speech. Using natural speech obtained during an ecologically valid social interaction, we examined relationships between multiple vocal parameters and dominance and attractiveness judgments. Male voices from an unscripted dating game were judged by men for physical and social dominance and by women in fertile and non-fertile menstrual cycle phases for desirability in short-term and long-term (...)
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  17.  21
    Striving for Clarity About the “Lamarckian” Nature of CRISPR-Cas Systems.Sam Woolley, Emily C. Parke, David Kelley, Anthony M. Poole & Austen R. D. Ganley - 2019 - Biology and Philosophy 34 (1):11.
    Koonin argues that CRISPR-Cas systems present the best-known case in point for Lamarckian evolution because they satisfy his proposed criteria for the specific inheritance of acquired adaptive characteristics. We see two interrelated issues with Koonin’s characterization of CRISPR-Cas systems as Lamarckian. First, at times he appears to confuse an account of the CRISPR-Cas system with an account of the mechanism it employs. We argue there is no evidence for the CRISPR-Cas system being “Lamarckian” in any sense. Second, it is unclear (...)
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  18.  3
    Epictetus: His Continuing Influence and Contemporary Relevance.Dane R. Gordon & David B. Suits (eds.) - 2014 - Rit Press.
    Epictetus was born a slave. His master, Epaphroditus, allowed him to attend the lectures of the Stoic philosopher Musonius Rufus and later gave him his freedom. From numerous references in his Discourses it is clear that Epictetus valued freedom as a precious possession. He would have been on the side of the many people living now who, while not actually enslaved, are denied true freedom by the harsh circumstances of their lives. Epictetus's teachings about freedom and human dignity have echoed (...)
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  19.  6
    Qualitative Cues in the Discrimination of Affine-Transformed Minimal Patterns.Helja T. Kukkonen, David H. Foster, Jonathan R. Wood, Johan Wagemans & Luc Van Gool - 1996 - In Enrique Villanueva (ed.), Perception. Ridgeview. pp. 195-206.
    An important factor in judging whether two retinal images arise from the same object viewed from different positions may be the presence of certain properties or cues that are 'qualitative invariants' with respect to the natural transformations, particularly affine transformations, associated with changes in viewpoint. To test whether observers use certain affine qualitative cues such as concavity, convexity, collinearity, and parallelism of the image elements, a 'same-different' discrimination experiment was carried out with planar patterns that were defined by four points (...)
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  20.  1
    Unsupervised Machine Learning for Time-Lapse Seismic Studies and Reservoir Monitoring.Marwa Hussein, Robert R. Stewart, Deborah Sacrey, David H. Johnston & Jonny Wu - 2021 - Interpretation 9 (3):T791-T807.
    Time-lapse seismic analysis plays a vital role in reservoir management and reservoir simulation model updates. However, 4D seismic data are subject to interference and tuning effects. Being able to resolve and monitor thin reservoirs of different quality can aid in optimizing infill drilling or in locating bypassed hydrocarbons. Using 4D seismic data from the Maui field in the offshore Taranaki Basin of New Zealand, we generate typical seismic attributes sensitive to reservoir thickness and rock properties. We find that spectral instantaneous (...)
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  21.  21
    Authority: David R. Bell.David R. Bell - 1970 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 4:190-203.
    Some things are pervasive and yet elusive. If it can be agreed that the concept of my title and its instances are of this kind, then the observation may serve to justify the present enterprise. The elusiveness of authority is that so often pursued in philosophical enterprise, namely the repeated confident use of a general term by even the unsophisticated, accompanied by the Socratic puzzlement that sets in as soon as a rationale or account of this use is sought. Such (...)
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  22. Etiological Theories of Function: A Geographical Survey.David J. Buller - 1998 - Biology and Philosophy 13 (4):505-527.
    Formulations of the essential commitment of the etiological theory of functions have varied significantly, with some individual authors' formulations even varying from one place to another. The logical geography of these various formulations is different from what is standardly assumed; for they are not stylistic variants of the same essential commitment, but stylistic variants of two non-equivalent versions of the etiological theory. I distinguish these “strong” and “weak” versions of the etiological theory (which differ with respect to the role (...)
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  23. Minds in the Making Essays in Honor of David R. Olson.David R. Olson & Janet W. Astington - 2000
     
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  24. Color Primitivism.David R. Hilbert & Alex Byrne - 2006 - Erkenntnis 66 (1-2):73 - 105.
    The typical kind of color realism is reductive: the color properties are identified with properties specified in other terms (as ways of altering light, for instance). If no reductive analysis is available — if the colors are primitive sui generis properties — this is often taken to be a convincing argument for eliminativism. That is, realist primitivism is usually thought to be untenable. The realist preference for reductive theories of color over the last few decades is particularly striking in light (...)
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  25.  20
    Beyond Human Racism.R. Eckersley - 1998 - Environmental Values 7 (2):165-182.
    In 'Non-Anthropocentrism? A Killing Objection', Tony Lynch and David Wells argue that any attempt to develop a non-anthropocentric morality must invariably slide back to either anthropocentrism (either weak or strong) or a highly repugnant misanthropy in cases of direct conflict between the survival needs of humans and nonhuman species. This reply argues that their attempt to expose the flaws in non-anthropocentrism deflects attention away from the crux of the ecocentric critique, which can best be understood if we replace (...)
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  26.  28
    Color and Color Perception: A Study in Anthropocentric Realism.David R. Hilbert - 1987 - Csli Press.
    Colour has often been supposed to be a subjective property, a property to be analysed orretly in terms of the phenomenological aspects of human expereince. In contrast with subjectivism, an objectivist analysis of color takes color to be a property objects possess in themselves, independently of the character of human perceptual expereince. David Hilbert defends a form of objectivism that identifies color with a physical property of surfaces - their spectral reflectance. This analysis of color is shown to provide (...)
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  27.  2
    Wilfrid Sellars and His Legacy.James R. O'Shea - 2016 - Oxford University Press UK.
    This collection of new essays on the systematic thought and intellectual legacy of the American philosopher Wilfrid Sellars (1912–1989) comes at a time when Sellars’s influence on contemporary debates about mind, meaning, knowledge, and metaphysics has never been greater. Sellars was among the most important philosophers of the twentieth century, and many of his central ideas have become philosophical stock-in-trade: for example, his conceptions of the ‘myth of the given’, the ‘logical space of reasons’, and the ‘clash’ between the ‘manifest (...)
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  28.  75
    Introduction to Montague Semantics.David R. Dowty, Robert Eugene Wall & Stanley Peters - 1981 - Springer.
    INTRODUCTION Linguists who work within the tradition of transformational generative grammar tend to regard semantics as an intractable, perhaps ultimately ...
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  29.  47
    Word Meaning and Montague Grammar.David R. Dowty - 1982 - Philosophical Review 91 (2):290-295.
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  30. Hardin, Tye, and Color Physicalism.David R. Hilbert - 2004 - Journal of Philosophy 101 (1):37 - 43.
    Larry Hardin has been the most steadfast and influential critic of physicalist theories of color over the last 20 years. In their modern form these theories originated with the work of Smart and Armstrong in the 1960s and 1970s1 and Hardin appropriately concentrated on their views in his initial critique of physicalism.2 In his most recent contribution to this project3 he attacks Michael Tye’s recent attempts to defend and extend color physicalism.4 Like Byrne and Hilbert5, Tye identifies color with the (...)
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  31. Characteristics of Dissociable Human Learning Systems.David R. Shanks & Mark F. St John - 1994 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (3):367-447.
    A number of ways of taxonomizing human learning have been proposed. We examine the evidence for one such proposal, namely, that there exist independent explicit and implicit learning systems. This combines two further distinctions, (1) between learning that takes place with versus without concurrent awareness, and (2) between learning that involves the encoding of instances (or fragments) versus the induction of abstract rules or hypotheses. Implicit learning is assumed to involve unconscious rule learning. We examine the evidence for implicit learning (...)
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  32.  66
    Characteristics of Dissociable Human Learning Systems.David R. Shanks & Mark F. St John - 1994 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (3):367-395.
    A number of ways of taxonomizing human learning have been proposed. We examine the evidence for one such proposal, namely, that there exist independent explicit and implicit learning systems. This combines two further distinctions, between learning that takes place with versus without concurrent awareness, and between learning that involves the encoding of instances versus the induction of abstract rules or hypotheses. Implicit learning is assumed to involve unconscious rule learning. We examine the evidence for implicit learning derived from subliminal learning, (...)
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  33. What is Color Vision?David R. Hilbert - 1992 - Philosophical Studies 68 (3):351-70.
    There are serious reasons for accepting each of these propositions individually but there are apparently insurmountable difficulties with accepting all three of them simultaneously if we assume that color is a single property. 1) and 2) together seem to imply that there is some property which all organisms with color vision can see and 3) seems to imply that there can be no such property. If these implications really are valid then one or more of these propositions will have to (...)
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  34.  55
    Pain, Vivisection, and the Value of Life.R. G. Frey - 2005 - Journal of Medical Ethics 31 (4):202-204.
    Pain alone does not settle the issue of vivisectionIn his paper, Lab animals and the art of empathy, David Thomas presents his case against animal experimentation. That case is a rather unusual one in certain respects. It turns upon the fact that, for Thomas, nothing can be proved or established in ethics, with the result that what we are left to operate with, apart from assumptions about cases that we might choose to make, are people’s feelings. We cannot show (...)
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  35. Deepening the Controversy Over Metaphysical Realism.Sophie R. Allen - 2002 - Philosophy 77 (4):519-541.
    A significant ontological commitment is required to sustain metaphysical realism—the view that there is a single, objective way the world is—in order to defend it from common sense objections. This involves presupposing the existence of properties (or tropes, or universals) and relations between them which define the objective structure of the world. This paper explores the grounds for accepting this ontological assumption and examines a sceptical argument which questions whether, having assumed the world is objectively divided into fundamental properties, we (...)
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  36. Color Realism and Color Science.Alex Byrne & David R. Hilbert - 2003 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (1):3-21.
    The target article is an attempt to make some progress on the problem of color realism. Are objects colored? And what is the nature of the color properties? We defend the view that physical objects (for instance, tomatoes, radishes, and rubies) are colored, and that colors are physical properties, specifically types of reflectance. This is probably a minority opinion, at least among color scientists. Textbooks frequently claim that physical objects are not colored, and that the colors are "subjective" or "in (...)
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  37. Basic Sensible Qualities and the Structure of Appearance.David R. Hilbert & Alex Byrne - 2008 - Philosophical Issues 18 (1):385-405.
    A sensible quality is a perceptible property, a property that physical objects (or events) perceptually appear to have. Thus smells, tastes, colors and shapes are sensible qualities. An egg, for example, may smell rotten, taste sour, and look cream and round.1,2 The sensible qualities are not a miscellanous jumble—they form complex structures. Crimson, magenta, and chartreuse are not merely three different shades of color: the first two are more similar than either is to the third. Familiar color spaces or color (...)
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  38. Color and the Inverted Spectrum.David R. Hilbert & Mark Eli Kalderon - 2000 - In Steven Davis (ed.), Vancouver Studies in Cognitive Science. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 187-214.
    If you trained someone to emit a particular sound at the sight of something red, another at the sight of something yellow, and so on for other colors, still he would not yet be describing objects by their colors. Though he might be a help to us in giving a description. A description is a representation of a distribution in a space (in that of time, for instance).
     
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  39.  53
    Word Meaning and Montague Grammar. The Semantics of Verbs and Times in Generative Semantics and in Montague's PTQ.David R. Dowty - 1983 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 48 (2):501-502.
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  40. Toward a Semantic Analysis of Verb Aspect and the English 'Imperfective' Progressive.David R. Dowty - 1977 - Linguistics and Philosophy 1 (1):45 - 77.
  41.  14
    A Mission-Driven Research Program on Solar Geoengineering Could Promote Justice and Legitimacy.David R. Morrow - 2020 - Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 23 (5):618-640.
    Over the past decade or so, several commentators have called for mission-driven research programs on solar geoengineering, also known as solar radiation management (SRM) or climate engineering. Building on the largely epistemic reasons offered by earlier commentators, this paper argues that a well-designed mission-driven research program that aims to evaluate solar geoengineering could promote justice and legitimacy, among other valuable ends. Specifically, an international, mission-driven research program that aims to produce knowledge to enable well-informed decision-making about solar geoengineering could (1) (...)
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  42.  28
    Natural Symbols: Explorations in Cosmology.David R. Bell & Mary Douglas - 1972 - Philosophical Quarterly 22 (88):280.
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  43.  53
    Starting a Flood to Stop a Fire? Some Moral Constraints on Solar Radiation Management.David R. Morrow - 2014 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 17 (2):123-138.
    Solar radiation management (SRM), a form of climate engineering, would offset the effects of increased greenhouse gas concentrations by reducing the amount of sunlight absorbed by the Earth. To encourage support for SRM research, advocates argue that SRM may someday be needed to reduce the risks from climate change. This paper examines the implications of two moral constraints?the Doctrine of Doing and Allowing, and the Doctrine of Double Effect?on this argument for SRM and SRM research. The Doctrine of Doing and (...)
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  44. Expressive-Assertivism: A Dual-Use Solution to the Moral Problem.Daniel R. Boisvert - 2003 - Dissertation, University of Florida
    This dissertation argues for a metaethical theory I call "Expressive-Assertivism." Expressive-Assertivism is a distinctive, substantial refinement of dual-use metaethical theories traditionally associated with R. M. Hare, C. L. Stevenson, and, more recently, with David Copp. If true, Expressive-Assertivism clarifies, resolves, or dissolves---without, in turn, raising additional difficulties---a number of philosophical problems, including what Michael Smith calls "The Moral Problem," which many consider to be the central organizing problem in contemporary metaethics. The following are the three most important features of (...)
     
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  45.  46
    Phenomenological Method: Reflection, Introspection, and Skepticism.David R. Cerbone - 2012 - In Dan Zahavi (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Contemporary Phenomenology. Oxford University Press.
    Scepticism about phenomenology typically begins with worries concerning the reliability of introspection. Such worries concern the accuracy or fidelity of descriptions of experience to the experience itself, although if pressed, such worries ultimately call into question the very idea of the experience itself. This chapter considers scepticism in both its epistemological and ontological varieties and questions whether either form genuinely engages phenomenological method, properly understood. Starting from the problematic identification of phenomenology with introspection and drawing upon considerations from the work (...)
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  46.  19
    Language and Thought: Aspects of a Cognitive Theory of Semantics.David R. Olson - 1970 - Psychological Review 77 (4):257-273.
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  47.  56
    The Probability of Iterated Conditionals.Janneke Wijnbergen‐Huitink, Shira Elqayam & David E. Over - 2015 - Cognitive Science 39 (4):788-803.
    Iterated conditionals of the form If p, then if q, r are an important topic in philosophical logic. In recent years, psychologists have gained much knowledge about how people understand simple conditionals, but there are virtually no published psychological studies of iterated conditionals. This paper presents experimental evidence from a study comparing the iterated form, If p, then if q, r with the “imported,” noniterated form, If p and q, then r, using a probability evaluation task and a truth-table task, (...)
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  48.  54
    Reflexive-Insensitive Modal Logics.David R. Gilbert & Giorgio Venturi - 2016 - Review of Symbolic Logic 9 (1):167-180.
  49.  94
    The Effects of Aspectual Class on the Temporal Structure of Discourse: Semantics or Pragmatics? [REVIEW]David R. Dowty - 1986 - Linguistics and Philosophy 9 (1):37 - 61.
  50. How Do Things Look to the Color-Blind?David R. Hilbert & Alex Byrne - 2010 - In Jonathan Cohen & Mohan Matthen (eds.), Color Ontology and Color Science. MIT Press. pp. 259.
    Color-vision defects constitute a spectrum of disorders with varying degrees and types of departure from normal human color vision. One form of color-vision defect is dichromacy; by mixing together only two lights, the dichromat can match any light, unlike normal trichromatic humans, who need to mix three. In a philosophical context, our titular question may be taken in two ways. First, it can be taken at face value as a question about visible properties of external objects, and second, it may (...)
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