We give a direct, purely arithmetical and elementary proof of the strong normalization of the cut-elimination procedure for full (i.e., in presence of all the usual connectives) classical natural deduction.
A collection of essays by a group of international scholars from Israel, England, the United States, Italy, Switzerland, Germany, Sweden, and Argentina testify to the humane influence of Baumgardt. There is little that unites the subject matter of these essays and only one deals explicitly with the thought of Baumgardt. A bibliography of Baumgardt's writings is included.—R. J. B.
Basson's introduction to Hume follows the pattern which has led to successful treatments of Aquinas and Kant in this series: he limits himself almost exclusively to exposition and minimal criticism, apparently assuming that the reader will not be able to obtain or to follow the original text.--R. F. T.
Intended to complement the reading of Hume's own works in a philosophy course, this is a collection of recent journal articles on Hume's thought and relevant philosophical problems. Included are essays by Flew, Price, Strawson, Broad, Gasking, Penelhum, and Popper. This book should prove useful in making readily available discussions relating Hume's philosophy to contemporary problems.—R. J. W.
Leibniz' General Investigations, a group of memoranda on logical and methodological matters, remained unpublished until Couturat published the original Latin manuscript in 1903. Only after 1960 was a German translation made by F. Schmidt and an English translation by G. H. R. Parkinson. The present translation provides extensive reference notes to Leibniz' other manuscripts, and a commentary and notes to the text. In these respects it has some advantages over previous translations. The translation is clear although the work itself is (...) sometimes difficult to follow and the notes are most welcome. An introduction discusses the place of the General Investigations within the context of Leibniz' thought. With the interest in Leibniz' logical writings very strong at present, this new translation and commentary is most welcome.--R. H. K. (shrink)
The nine essays in this volume resulted from a symposium on "criminal justice and punishment" at the University of Nebraska at Omaha, in response to concerns about the workability and defensibility of any system of punishment. Among the contributors are Professors of Philosophy, Law, and Government, and the executive director of a Law Enforcement Commission. What emerges as the central focus of the book is a predominant interest in "retributivism." As J. B. Cederblom writes in the introduction, the retributive or (...) "just deserts" theory of punishment has come to dominate at the present time. The extent to which the retributivist position is promoted in opposition to an indistinct representation of utilitarianism, makes the book less challenging as a statement of the retributive position on punishment. Without a doubt, the more recent works of R. M. Hare and David Lyons, among others writing on utilitarian theory, do much to make easy claims against the theory appear facile if not naive. It is interesting that the bibliography does not refer to Hare’s work and mentions only one essay by Lyons. This is not to condemn the book, however, for it serves an important role in reawakening philosophers to the importance of a long-standing debate with a revived and healthy retributivism. But it is a warning that it is oftentimes too easy to defend a position when the opposition is not represented at the hearing. (shrink)
The Uniformly Reflexive Structure was introduced by E. G. Wagner who showed that the theory of such structures generalized much of recursive function theory. In this paper Uniformly Reflexive Structures are constructed as factor algebras of Free nonassociative algebras. Wagner's question about the existence of a model with no computable splinter ("successor set") is answered in the affirmative by the construction of a model whose only computable sets are the finite sets and their complements. Finally, for each countable Boolean algebra (...) R of subsets of a countable set which contains the finite subsets, a model is constructed with R as its family of computable sets. (shrink)
Contrary to the usual interpretation of Locke, Cox argues that Locke's political philosophy has a strong Hobbesian flavor. The state of nature is really a state of war, and the law of nature turns out to be a "con- struct of the mind." To justify this interpretation, Cox carefully analyzes Locke's two Treatises. He suggests that Locke accommodated his philosophic argument to the prevailing political, philosophical, and religious atmosphere of the day, but that this is only a device for (...) presenting a much more radical position. The reader may not be completely persuaded by Cox's forceful arguments, but he will discover insights and difficulties which must be taken into account for an adequate understanding of Locke's political philosophy.--R. J. B. (shrink)
As the author points out, a philosophy of labor can be extremely helpful in illuminating the more general problems of social and political philosophy. For those who are unacquainted with the philosophic treatment of labor, especially in Marx, this discussion may be an aid. However, there is a strong tendency to oversimplify throughout the book and the reader frequently feels that the author is by-passing the really difficult issues. The positive thesis is that humanization of the labor world is (...) an urgent task.--R. J. B. (shrink)
Written in 1933 when the author was under the influence of logical positivism, but published only in 1961. Perhaps because the author did not at the time of writing have access to Wittgenstein's early notebooks, the study suffers from a lack of subtlety and appreciation of the problems that were preoccupying Wittgenstein when he wrote the Tractatus. It offers a general interpretation rather than a detailed explication of specific propositions. Of special interest is Maslow's attempt to show that the Tractatus (...) bears a strong family resemblance to the transcendental philosophy of Kant. Quite independently, he thereby supports an interpretation of the Tractatus which has been gaining acceptance among commentators on Wittgenstein.--R. J. B. (shrink)
A development of a constructive fragment of analysis: "constructive" in the strong sense that instead of, say, Cauchy sequences, it deals only with recursive sequences of rationals which can be recursively shown to converge. Analogues of classical subjects such as continuity and differentiability are explored in detail. The book presupposes familiarity with both classical analysis and the theory of recursive functions.—R. H. T.
Sir David Ross, now nearing his eightieth birthday has published another of his valuable critical texts, provided, like its predecessors, with a commentary. He has made full use of the contributions of Drossaert Lulofs, Forster and Nuyens, at the same time judging them with an independent mind and adding views and arguments of his own. This book greatly facilitates the study of these physiological-psychological treatises which form so indispensable a supplement to the De Anima. --R. W.
Iris Murdoch's philosophic essays have been infrequent, but extremely distinguished and subtle. This book consists of three essays previously published, "The Idea of Perfection," "On 'God' and 'Good'," and "The Sovereignty of Good Over Other Concepts." Running through all three essays is a gentle critique of some of the main currents of twentieth century moral philosophy--in its British analytical and continental existentialist varieties. Miss Murdoch is very sensitive to the depth similarities of what is frequently considered to be so different. (...) While many philosophers may find these essays elusive, one comes away with a strong sense from both their style and content that Miss Murdoch has a delicate understanding of the complexity, frailty, and ambiguity that are involved in genuine moral situations--and of the various ways in which much of twentieth century moral philosophy has failed to do justice to the texture of our moral lives.--R. J. B. (shrink)
Conformably to the practice of the series to which this edition belongs, the critical apparatus accompanying the Greek text is simplified, reporting only the readings of the six oldest manuscripts, except for eighteen passages on which the readings are given more fully, as samples. In his Latin preface Sir David briefly evaluates the Greek commentators and reports the contributions of the Western editors, particularly Torstrik. In the text he proposes a number of readings of his own, and his edition (...) will be of value to scholars as well as to students.--R. W. (shrink)
The essays in philosophical logic collected in this volume are dedicated to Henry S. Leonard who was one of the first American philosophers to urge the application of modern logic to non-mathematical areas. Leonard also inspired the development of certain areas of contemporary philosophical logic discussed in some of the papers of this volume. This is especially clear in the case of free, or presupposition free, logics which Leonard's early work on a logic of existence inspired. In one essay of (...) this volume Bas C. Van Frassen further develops his work on the semantics of free logic. In another, Milton Fisk relates free logic to modal logic, suggesting a new semantics of strength to deal with various problems in the area and in a third essay, Karel Lambert relates free logic to certain logical puzzles about quantum theory. Leonard was also one of the first to entertain the idea of and discuss a logic of questions and an erotetic logic or logic of interests. The volume contains essays on these topics by Nuel D. Belnap and David Harrah. Leonard's interest in modal logic is reflected in Fisk's article as well as in an article by Richmond Thomason on modal logic and metaphysics. His interest in epistemic logic is seen in an essay on the logic of belief by Jon Vickers and an essay by Hintikka applying the logic of belief and knowledge to problems about the ontological argument. In addition to these essays, there are five others of high quality on diverse topics: R. M. Martin on intentions, Wilfrid Sellars on the metaphysics of the person, R. M. Chisholm on agency, Frederick Fitch on combinatory logic and negative numbers, and H. E. Hendry and G. J. Massey on Sheffer functions. This is a worthy memorial to a quietly influential American philosopher.--R. H. K. (shrink)
Despite the lament of the decline and even the death of political theory, Germino contends that "the revival of political theory is one of the momentous intellectual and cultural developments of our time." The neglect of this revival is, in part, due to the myopia and false conception of political theory by modern political scientists and positivistically orientated philosophers. After criticizing the proponents of the "alleged decline" of political theory, Germino sketches a view of political theory as a tradition of (...) inquiry practiced by the great political theorists from Plato to Hegel. He both describes and criticizes the assault upon political theory by such thinkers as Tracy, Comte, and Marx. The revival of political theory in the grand manner is to be found in such representatives as Oakeshott, Arendt, Jouvenel, and Strauss. It is Eric Voegelin that is the true hero of this revival, and despite his neglect, Germino suggests that later generations may well acclaim Voegelin "as the greatest political theorist of our time." This is a book with a strong positive thesis, and Germino balances developing stages in his argument with expositions of the positions that he both attacks and defends. There is a growing sympathy among both philosophers and political scientists for the defense of the viability of political theory developed in this book, although many of those sympathetic with the thesis may feel that sharper and more penetrating criticism is needed to defend the thesis, and may not share Germino's enthusiasm for Voegelin.--R. J. B. (shrink)
For those who have been impressed or perplexed by the phenomenon of Marcuse, this collection of essays helps us to understand and reconstruct his own intellectual development. Most of the essays were written in the years from 1934 to 1938 when Marcuse had emigrated to the United States, and they were originally published in German in the Zeitschrift fur Sozialforschung. The influence of Hegel and Marx are strong, and the revulsion with the betrayal of German existentialism is evident. The (...) essay "Philosophy and Critical Theory," helps to clarify the type of theoretical activity which Marcuse thinks of himself as practicing. "The Concept of Essence" is perhaps the clearest statement one will find in Marcuse of what he means by "essence" and how it is supposed to serve as a standard for negations. In "On Hedonism," we discover what Marcuse means by happiness and its relevance for critical theory. These early essays are much more philosophical than Marcuse's later writings and do lay bare both the strengths and weaknesses of his critical theory. An unpublished essay "Aggressiveness in Advanced Industrial Society" is included as well as Marcuse's review of Norman O. Brown's Love's Body. The forward presents Marcuse view of these essays from a contemporary perspective.--R. J. B. (shrink)
A patient attempt to get the philological detail of Parmenides' poem precise, by an author who has the virtue of recognizing the inseparability of philosophical considerations and philological technique. The conclusion is offered that the Eleatics were dualists almost in a Platonic sense, but with no causal connection between "being " and phenomena; thus there is no contradiction between the two parts of Parmenides' poem, and a strong historical affinity between Eleaticism and Plato's dualism. There is not quite enough (...) precision nor imagination in the philosophical dimension proper to make this study entirely definitive; but it offers an interesting approach, with a suggestive outcome.--R. S. B. (shrink)
Some things are pervasive and yet elusive. If it can be agreed that the concept of my title and its instances are of this kind, then the observation may serve to justify the present enterprise. The elusiveness of authority is that so often pursued in philosophical enterprise, namely the repeated confident use of a general term by even the unsophisticated, accompanied by the Socratic puzzlement that sets in as soon as a rationale or account of this use is sought. Such (...) puzzlement in the case of the concept of authority is likely to provoke a Cephalitic reaction ). (shrink)
The difficulty of ascribing metaphysical predicates such as absoluteness, necessity and perfection to God while simultaneously ascribing personal predicates such as compassion, freedom and agency has often been noted. Most efforts to resolve this dilemma have tended to fall into one of three categories: a merely verbal solution such as that God is ‘compassionate in terms of our experience but…not so in terms of [God's] own’; the univocal and unqualified ascription of the metaphysical predicates to God coupled with equivocation with (...) respect to the personal predicates which results in the final elimination of the latter; the fideistic denial that intelligible language is applicable to God. Unfortunately, none of these is satisfactory. The first solution is seen to be but a version of the second, and it is arguable that the second is, as Feuerbach contends, tantamount to a ‘subtle, disguised atheism’, since ‘to deny all the qualities of a being is equivalent to denying the being himself’ or, alternatively, ‘an existence in general, an existence without qualities, is an insipidity, an absurdity’. The third ‘solution’ is no better and is hardly more than an evasive tactic. (shrink)
Starting with a model in which κ is the least inaccessible limit of cardinals δ which are δ+ strongly compact, we force and construct a model in which κ remains inaccessible and in which, for every cardinal γ < κ, □γ+ω fails but □γ+ω, ω holds. This generalizes a result of Ben-David and Magidor and provides an analogue in the context of strong compactness to a result of the author and Cummings in the context of supercompactness.
Although interest in the philosophy of the Oxford idealist Robin George Collingwood has been growing steadily during the past two decades, his political thought has up until now been all but forgotten. David Boucher in his book The Social and Political Thought of R. G. Collingwood has set out to rectify the situation by attempting to show that Collingwood’s political philosophy as well as his more widely recognized views on history and aesthetics deserve some serious attention from today’s philosophers.