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David Shaw [98]David Gary Shaw [21]David M. Shaw [17]David Martin Shaw [3]
David Elliot Shaw [1]Davidmartin Shaw [1]
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David M. Shaw
University of Basel
David Shaw
San Jose State University
  1.  15
    The Quest for Clarity in Research Integrity: A Conceptual Schema.David Shaw - 2019 - Science and Engineering Ethics 25 (4):1085-1093.
    Researchers often refer to “research integrity”, “scientific integrity”, “research misconduct”, “scientific misconduct” and “research ethics”. However, they may use some of these terms interchangeably despite conceptual distinctions. The aim of this paper is to clarify what is signified by several key terms related to research integrity, and to suggest clearer conceptual delineation between them. To accomplish this task, it provides a conceptual analysis based upon definitions and general usage of these phrases and categorization of integrity-breaching behaviours in literature and guidelines, (...)
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  2.  8
    How Do Researchers Acquire and Develop Notions of Research Integrity? A Qualitative Study Among Biomedical Researchers in Switzerland.Priya Satalkar & David Shaw - 2019 - BMC Medical Ethics 20 (1):1-12.
    Background Structured training in research integrity, research ethics and responsible conduct of research is one strategy to reduce research misconduct and strengthen reliability of and trust in scientific evidence. However, how researchers develop their sense of integrity is not fully understood. We examined the factors and circumstances that shape researchers’ understanding of research integrity. Methods This study draws insights from in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 33 researchers in the life sciences and medicine, representing three seniority levels across five research universities in (...)
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  3.  26
    Creating Human Organs in Chimaera Pigs: An Ethical Source of Immunocompatible Organs?David Shaw, Wybo Dondorp, Niels Geijsen & Guido de Wert - 2015 - Journal of Medical Ethics 41 (12):970-974.
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  4.  17
    On Misunderstanding Heraclitus: The Justice of Organisation Structure.David Shaw - 2018 - Philosophy of Management 18 (2):157-167.
    Writers on organisational change often refer to the cosmology of Heraclitus in their work. Some use these references to support arguments for the constancy and universality of organisational change and the consignment to history of organisational continuity and stability. These writers misunderstand the scope of what Heraclitus said. Other writers focus exclusively on the idea that originated with Heraclitus that the universe is composed of processes and not of things. This idea, which has been particularly associated with Heraclitus’s thought from (...)
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  5.  66
    CRISPR and the Rebirth of Synthetic Biology.Raheleh Heidari, David Martin Shaw & Bernice Simone Elger - 2017 - Science and Engineering Ethics 23 (2):351-363.
    Emergence of novel genome engineering technologies such as clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat has refocused attention on unresolved ethical complications of synthetic biology. Biosecurity concerns, deontological issues and human right aspects of genome editing have been the subject of in-depth debate; however, a lack of transparent regulatory guidelines, outdated governance codes, inefficient time-consuming clinical trial pathways and frequent misunderstanding of the scientific potential of cutting-edge technologies have created substantial obstacles to translational research in this area. While a precautionary principle (...)
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  6.  37
    The Right to Participate in High-Risk Research.David Shaw - 2014 - The Lancet 38:1009 – 1011.
    Institutional review boards (IRBs) have a reputation for impeding research. This reputation is understandable inasmuch as many studies are poorly designed, exploit participants, or do not ask a relevant question , and it is entirely proper that IRBs should reject such proposals. However, IRBs also frequently reject or tamper with perfectly sound and relevant studies in the name of protecting participants from harm, in accordance with the widely accepted message that “clinical research is justified only when participants are protected from (...)
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  7. The Body as Unwarranted Life Support: A New Perspective on Euthanasia.David Shaw - 2007 - Journal of Medical Ethics 33 (9):519-521.
    It is widely accepted in clinical ethics that removing a patient from a ventilator at the patient’s request is ethically permissible. This constitutes voluntary passive euthanasia. However, voluntary active euthanasia, such as giving a patient a lethal overdose with the intention of ending that patient’s life, is ethically proscribed, as is assisted suicide, such as providing a patient with lethal pills or a lethal infusion. Proponents of voluntary active euthanasia and assisted suicide have argued that the distinction between killing and (...)
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  8.  27
    An Analysis of Heart Donation After Circulatory Determination of Death.Anne Laure Dalle Ave, David Shaw & James L. Bernat - 2016 - Journal of Medical Ethics 42 (5):312-317.
  9.  16
    Structural Racism in Precision Medicine: Leaving No One Behind.Tenzin Wangmo, Bernice Simone Elger, David Shaw, Andrea Martani & Lester Darryl Geneviève - 2020 - BMC Medical Ethics 21 (1):1-13.
    Precision medicine is an emerging approach to individualized care. It aims to help physicians better comprehend and predict the needs of their patients while effectively adopting in a timely manner the most suitable treatment by promoting the sharing of health data and the implementation of learning healthcare systems. Alongside its promises, PM also entails the risk of exacerbating healthcare inequalities, in particular between ethnoracial groups. One often-neglected underlying reason why this might happen is the impact of structural racism on PM (...)
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  10.  95
    We Should Not Let Relatives Veto Organ Donation From Their Dead Relatives.David Shaw - 2012 - British Medical Journal 34:e5275.
    This article highlights the often overlooked fact that doctors who respect a bereaved family's veto of a deceased patient's organ donation are complicit in the deaths of those who would have benefited from the organs in question. Respecting the veto violates the dying wish of the patient, is against the spirit of the law and contributes to the deaths of other patients.
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  11.  26
    The Side Effects of Deemed Consent: Changing Defaults in Organ Donation.David M. Shaw - 2019 - Journal of Medical Ethics 45 (7):435-439.
    In this Current Controversy article, I describe and analyse the imminent move to a system of deemed consent for deceased organ donation in England and similar planned changes in Scotland, in light of evidence from Wales, where the system changed in 2015. Although the media has tended to focus on the potential benefits and ethical issues relating to the main change from an opt-in default to an opt-out one, other defaults will also change, while some will remain the same. Interaction (...)
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  12. Cryoethics: Seeking Life After Death.David Shaw - 2009 - Bioethics 23 (9):515-521.
    Cryonic suspension is a relatively new technology that offers those who can afford it the chance to be 'frozen' for future revival when they reach the ends of their lives. This paper will examine the ethical status of this technology and whether its use can be justified. Among the arguments against using this technology are: it is 'against nature', and would change the very concept of death; no friends or family of the 'freezee' will be left alive when he is (...)
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  13.  13
    Using Non-Human Primates to Benefit Humans: Research and Organ Transplantation.David Shaw, Wybo Dondorp & Guido de Wert - 2014 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 17 (4):573-578.
    Emerging biotechnology may soon allow the creation of genetically human organs inside animals, with non-human primates and pigs being the best candidate species. This prospect raises the question of whether creating organs in primates in order to then transplant them into humans would be more acceptable than using them for research. In this paper, we examine the validity of the purported moral distinction between primates and other animals, and analyze the ethical acceptability of using primates to create organs for human (...)
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  14.  37
    The Consequences of Vagueness in Consent to Organ Donation.David M. Shaw - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (5):424-431.
    In this article I argue that vagueness concerning consent to post-mortem organ donation causes considerable harm in several ways. First, the information provided to most people registering as organ donors is very vague in terms of what is actually involved in donation. Second, the vagueness regarding consent to donation increases the distress of families of patients who are potential organ donors, both during and following the discussion about donation. Third, vagueness also increases the chances that the patient's intention to donate (...)
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  15.  8
    The Role of the Family in Deceased Organ Procurement: A Guide for Clinitians and Policymakers.Janet Delgado, Alberto Molina Pérez & David M. Shaw - 2019 - Transplantation 103 (5):e112-e118.
    Families play an essential role in deceased organ procurement. As the person cannot directly communicate his or her wishes regarding donation, the family is often the only source of information regarding consent or refusal. We provide a systematic description and analysis of the different roles the family can play, and actions the family can take, in the organ procurement process across different jurisdictions and consent systems. First, families can inform or update healthcare professionals about a person’s donation wishes. Second, families (...)
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  16. A Direct Advance on Advance Directives.David Shaw - 2012 - Bioethics 26 (5):267-274.
    Advance directives (ADs), which are also sometimes referred to as ‘living wills’, are statements made by a person that indicate what treatment she should not be given in the event that she is not competent to consent or refuse at the future moment in question. As such, ADs provide a way for patients to make decisions in advance about what treatments they do not want to receive, without doctors having to find proxy decision-makers or having recourse to the doctrine of (...)
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  17. Justice and the Fetus: Rawls, Children, and Abortion.David M. Shaw - 2011 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 20 (1):93-101.
    In a footnote to the first edition of Political Liberalism, John Rawls introduced an example of how public reason could deal with controversial issues. He intended this example to show that his system of political liberalism could deal with such problems by considering only political values, without the introduction of comprehensive moral doctrines. Unfortunately, Rawls chose “the troubled question of abortion” as the issue that would illustrate this. In the case of abortion, Rawls argued, “the equality of women as equal (...)
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  18.  27
    Autonomy and Fear of Synthetic Biology: How Can Patients’ Autonomy Be Enhanced in the Field of Synthetic Biology? A Qualitative Study with Stable Patients.Milenko Rakic, Isabelle Wienand, David Shaw, Rebecca Nast & Bernice S. Elger - 2017 - Science and Engineering Ethics 23 (2):375-388.
    We analyzed stable patients’ views regarding synthetic biology in general, the medical application of synthetic biology, and their potential participation in trials of synthetic biology in particular. The aim of the study was to find out whether patients’ views and preferences change after receiving more detailed information about synthetic biology and its clinical applications. The qualitative study was carried out with a purposive sample of 36 stable patients, who suffered from diabetes or gout. Interviews were transcribed verbatim, translated and fully (...)
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  19.  9
    The Consent Form in the Chinese CRISPR Study: In Search of Ethical Gene Editing.David Shaw - 2020 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 17 (1):5-10.
    This editorial provides an ethical analysis of the consent materials and other documents relating to the recent creation and birth of twin girls who had their genes edited using CRISPR-cas9 in a controversial Chinese research study. It also examines the “draft ethical principles” published by the leader of the research study. The results of the analysis further intensify serious ethical concerns about the conduct of this study.
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  20. Evidence-Based Persuasion: An Ethical Imperative.David Shaw & Bernice Elger - 2013 - Journal of the American Medical Association 309 (16):1689-90.
    The primacy in modern medical ethics of the principle of respect for autonomy has led to the widespread assumption that it is unethical to change someone’s beliefs, because doing so would constitute coercion or paternalism., In this Viewpoint we suggest that persuasion is not necessarily paternalistic and is an essential component of modern medical practice.
     
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  21.  97
    Deaf by Design: Disability and Impartiality.David Shaw - 2008 - Bioethics 22 (8):407-413.
    In 'Benefit, Disability and the Non-Identity Problem', Hallvard Lillehammer uses the case of a couple who chose to have deaf children to argue against the view that impartial perspectives can provide an exhaustive account of the rightness and wrongness of particular reproductive choices. His conclusion is that the traditional approach to the non-identity problem leads to erroneous conclusions about the morality of creating disabled children. This paper will show that Lillehammer underestimates the power of impartial perspectives and exaggerates the ethical (...)
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  22.  8
    Neuroenhancing Public Health.David Shaw - 2014 - Journal of Medical Ethics 40 (6):389-391.
    One of the most fascinating issues in the emerging field of neuroethics is pharmaceutical cognitive enhancement. The three main ethical concerns around CE were identified in a Nature commentary in 2008 as safety, coercion and fairness; debate has largely focused on the potential to help those who are cognitively disabled, and on the issue of ‘cosmetic neurology’, where people enhance not because of a medical need, but because they want to. However, the potential for CE to improve public health has (...)
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  23.  19
    Writers Blocked: On the Wrongs of Research Co-Authorship and Some Possible Strategies for Improvement.Daniela Cutas & David Shaw - 2015 - Science and Engineering Ethics 21 (5):1315-1329.
    The various problems associated with co-authorship of research articles have attracted much attention in recent years. We believe that this growing awareness is a very welcome development. However, we will argue that the particular and increasing importance of authorship and the harmful implications of current practices of research authorship for junior researchers have not been emphasised enough. We will use the case of our own research area to illustrate some of the pitfalls of current publishing practices—in particular, the impact on (...)
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  24.  30
    Creating Chimeras for Organs is Legal in Switzerland.David Shaw - 2014 - Bioethica Forum 14 (1).
    Switzerland has very detailed laws regulating the use of animals in agriculture, entertainment and science. There are also many Swiss laws governing the genetic modification of animals, protecting human embryos, and criminalising the creation of human/animal chimeras or hybrids. Despite all these regulations, the creation of an animal embryo that will develop a human organ using induced pluripotent stem cells and the subsequent birth of the resulting chimera would actually be permitted by current legislation. While this might appear to be (...)
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  25. Euthanasia and Eudaimonia.David Shaw - 2009 - Journal of Medical Ethics 35 (9):530-533.
    This paper re-evaluates euthanasia and assisted suicide from the perspective of eudaimonia, the ancient Greek conception of happiness across one’s whole life. It is argued that one cannot be said to have fully flourished or had a truly happy life if one’s death is preceded by a period of unbearable pain or suffering that one cannot avoid without assistance in ending one’s life. While death is to be accepted as part of life, it should not be left to nature to (...)
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  26.  21
    The Beneficence of Hope: Findings From a Qualitative Study with Gout and Diabetes Patients.Isabelle Wienand, Milenko Rakic, David Shaw & Bernice Elger - 2018 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 15 (2):211-218.
    This paper explores the importance of hope as a determining factor for patients to participate in first-in-human trials for synthetic biology therapies. This paper focuses on different aspects of hope in the context of human health and well-being and explores the varieties of hope expressed by patients. The research findings are based on interview data collected from stable gout and diabetes patients. Three concepts of hope have emerged from the interviews: hope as certainty ; hope as reflective uncertainty ; hope (...)
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  27. Response: A Defence of a New Perspective on Euthanasia.David Shaw - 2011 - Journal of Medical Ethics 37 (2):123-125.
    In two recent papers, Hugh McLachlan, Jacob Busch and Raffaele Rodogno have criticised my new perspective on euthanasia. Each paper analyses my argument and suggests two flaws. McLachlan identifies what he sees as important points regarding the justification of legal distinctions in the absence of corresponding moral differences and the professional role of the doctor. Busch and Rodogno target my criterion of brain life, arguing that it is a necessary but not sufficient condition and that it is not generalisable. In (...)
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  28.  56
    Neuroenhancers, Addiction and Research Ethics.David Martin Shaw - 2012 - Journal of Medical Ethics 38 (10):605-608.
    In their recent paper in this journal, Heinz and colleagues accuse proponents of cognitive enhancement of making two unjustified assumptions. The first of these is the assumption that neuroenhancing drugs will be safe; the second is that research into cognitive enhancement does not pose particular ethical problems. Heinz and colleagues argue that both these assumptions are false. Here, I argue that these assumptions are in fact correct, and that Heinz and colleagues themselves make several assumptions that undermine their argument. Neuroenhancement (...)
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  29.  25
    Neuroenhancing Public Health.David Shaw - 2013 - Journal of Medical Ethics (6):2012-101300.
    One of the most fascinating issues in the emerging field of neuroethics is pharmaceutical cognitive enhancement (CE). The three main ethical concerns around CE were identified in a Nature commentary in 2008 as safety, coercion and fairness; debate has largely focused on the potential to help those who are cognitively disabled, and on the issue of “cosmetic neurology”, where people enhance not because of a medical need, but because they want to (as many as 25% of American students already use (...)
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  30.  23
    Protecting Prisoners’ Autonomy with Advance Directives: Ethical Dilemmas and Policy Issues.Roberto Andorno, David M. Shaw & Bernice Elger - 2015 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 18 (1):33-39.
    Over the last decade, several European countries and the Council of Europe itself have strongly supported the use of advance directives as a means of protecting patients’ autonomy, and adopted specific norms to regulate this matter. However, it remains unclear under which conditions those regulations should apply to people who are placed in correctional settings. The issue is becoming more significant due to the increasing numbers of inmates of old age or at risk of suffering from mental disorders, all of (...)
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  31. Homeopathy Is Where the Harm Is: Five Unethical Effects of Funding Unscientific Remedies.David Shaw - 2010 - Journal of Medical Ethics 36 (3):130-131.
    Homeopathic medicine is based on the two principles that “like cures like” and that the potency of substances increases in proportion to their dilution. In November 2009 the UK Parliament’s Science and Technology Committee heard evidence on homeopathy, with several witnesses arguing that homeopathic practice is “unethical, unreliable, and pointless”. Although this increasing scepticism about the merits of homeopathy is to be welcomed, the unethical effects of funding homeopathy on the NHS are even further-reaching than has been acknowledged.
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  32.  12
    Protecting Participants in Thought Experiments: The Role of the Research Ethics Committee.David Shaw - 2018 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 15 (1):5-6.
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  33. Prescribing Placebos Ethically: The Appeal of Negatively Informed Consent.David Shaw - 2009 - Journal of Medical Ethics 35 (2):97-99.
    Kihlbom has recently argued that a system of seeking negatively informed consent might be preferable in some cases to the ubiquitous informed consent model. Although this theory is perhaps not powerful enough to supplant informed consent in most settings, it lends strength to Evans’ and Hungin’s proposal that it can be ethical to prescribe placebos rather than "active" drugs. This paper presents an argument for using negatively informed consent for the specific purpose of authorising the use of placebos in clinical (...)
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  34. Ethics, Professionalism and Fitness to Practice: Three Concepts, Not One.David Shaw - 2009 - British Dental Journal 207 (2):59-62.
    The GDC’s recent third edition (interim) of The First Five Years places renewed emphasis on the place of professionalism in the undergraduate dental curriculum. This paper provides a brief analysis of the concepts of ethics, professionalism and fitness to practice, and an examination of the GDC’s First Five Years and Standards for Dental Professionals guidance, as well as providing an insight into the innovative ethics strand of the BDS course at the University of Glasgow. It emerges that GDC guidance is (...)
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  35.  27
    Modernity Between Us and Them: The Place of Religion Within History.David Gary Shaw - 2006 - History and Theory 45 (4):1–9.
  36. The Relevance of Relevance in Research.David Shaw & Bernice Elger - 2013 - Swiss Medical Weekly.
    A new Swiss law requires that any research involving humans must aim to answer "a relevant research question". This paper explains the relevance of the relevance criterion in research, analyses the Swiss and British guidelines on relevance, and proposes a framework for researchers and REC members that enables a clearer conception of the role of relevance in research. We conclude that research must be either scientifically or societally beneficial in order to qualify as relevant, and RECs therefore cannot avoid reviewing (...)
     
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  37.  26
    Ethicovigilance in Clinical Trials.David Shaw & Alex Mcmahon - 2013 - Bioethics 27 (9):508-513.
    This article provides an ethical critique of the Good Clinical Practice (GCP) and Declaration of Helsinki (DoH) documents. While the previous criticisms of GCP are entirely correct, there is much more wrong with the document than has previously been acknowledged, including a circular definition and an astonishing vagueness about ethical principles. In addition to its failure to provide adequate ethical protection of participants, the procedurally dense nature of GCP lends itself to a box-ticking culture where important ethical issues are overlooked (...)
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  38.  25
    Using Non-Human Primates to Benefit Humans: Research and Organ Transplantation—Response to César Palacios-González.Wybo Dondorp, David Shaw & Guido de Wert - 2016 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 19 (2):227-228.
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  39.  28
    Unethical Framework: Red Card for the REF.David Shaw - 2012 - Times Higher Education.
    Almost all academics sigh at any mention of the REF. Preparing submissions for the Research Excellence Framework takes up a lot of effort, but is important because the REF determines a department's funding allocation from a finite pot of cash. As such, it is seen as a necessary evil by most staff. However, the REF poses ethical problems in addition to the stress it causes. As it stands, the REF is exacerbating a schism between research and teaching staff, encouraging deceptive (...)
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  40.  26
    Defining Nano, Nanotechnology and Nanomedicine: Why Should It Matter?Priya Satalkar, Bernice Simone Elger & David M. Shaw - 2016 - Science and Engineering Ethics 22 (5):1255-1276.
    Nanotechnology, which involves manipulation of matter on a ‘nano’ scale, is considered to be a key enabling technology. Medical applications of nanotechnology are expected to significantly improve disease diagnostic and therapeutic modalities and subsequently reduce health care costs. However, there is no consensus on the definition of nanotechnology or nanomedicine, and this stems from the underlying debate on defining ‘nano’. This paper aims to present the diversity in the definition of nanomedicine and its impact on the translation of basic science (...)
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  41.  18
    The Virus of Vagueness in Authorship.David Shaw - 2016 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 13 (3):361-362.
  42.  43
    Empirical Methods in Animal Ethics.Kirsten Persson & David Shaw - 2015 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 28 (5):853-866.
    In this article the predominant, purely theoretical perspectives on animal ethics are questioned and two important sources for empirical data in the context of animal ethics are discussed: methods of the social and methods of the natural sciences. Including these methods can lead to an empirical animal ethics approach that is far more adapted to the needs of humans and nonhuman animals and more appropriate in different circumstances than a purely theoretical concept solely premised on rational arguments. However, the potential (...)
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  43.  45
    Transatlantic Issues: Report From Scotland.David M. Shaw - 2010 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 19 (3):310-320.
    Several bioethical topics received a great deal of news coverage here in Scotland in 2009. Three important issues with transatlantic connections are the swine flu outbreak, which was handled very differently in Scotland, England and America; the US debate over healthcare reform, which drew the British NHS into the controversy; and the release to Libya of the Lockerbie bomber, which at first glance might not seem particularly bioethical, but which actually hinged on the very public discussion of the prisoner’s medical (...)
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  44.  29
    A Strong Remedy to a Weak Ethical Defence of Homeopathy.David Shaw - 2015 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 12 (4):549-553.
    In this article, I indicate and illustrate several flaws in a recent “ethical defence” of homeopathy. It transpires that the authors’ arguments have several features in common with homeopathic remedies, including strong claims, a lack of logic or evidence, and no actual effect.
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  45. Communicating About Communicable Diseases on Facebook: Whisper, Don't Shout.David Shaw - 2013 - Public Health Ethics (1):pht031.
    Mandeville and colleagues describe a fascinating case where Facebook was used to warn potential contacts that their acquaintance had a communicable disease (Mandeville et al., 2013). They are correct that this case raises important issues about social media, confidentiality and the prevention of harm. However, they underestimate both the dangers of overcommunication via Wall and Timeline postings (and Twitter) and the potential utility of Facebook in cases like this one. Increased awareness of Facebook functionality will allow more accurate targeting of (...)
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  46.  32
    Prioritising Healthcare Workers for Ebola Treatment: Treating Those at Greatest Risk to Confer Greatest Benefit.Priya Satalkar, Bernice E. Elger & David M. Shaw - 2015 - Developing World Bioethics 15 (2):59-67.
    The Ebola epidemic in Western Africa has highlighted issues related to weak health systems, the politics of drug and vaccine development and the need for transparent and ethical criteria for use of scarce local and global resources during public health emergency. In this paper we explore two key themes. First, we argue that independent of any use of experimental drugs or vaccine interventions, simultaneous implementation of proven public health principles, community engagement and culturally sensitive communication are critical as these measures (...)
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  47. Saving Lives with Assisted Suicide and Euthanasia: Organ Donation After Assisted Dying.David Shaw - 1st ed. 2015 - In Jukka Varelius & Michael Cholbi (eds.), New Directions in the Ethics of Assisted Suicide and Euthanasia. Springer Verlag.
     
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  48.  50
    Genetic Morality.David Shaw - 2006 - Peter Lang.
    This book will attempt to show that these and other problems are ultimately resolvable, given careful and unbiased application of established ethical principles ...
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  49.  6
    A Way with Animals.David Gary Shaw - 2013 - History and Theory 52 (4):1-12.
  50.  47
    Moral Qualms, Future Persons, and Embryo Research.David Martin Shaw - 2008 - Bioethics 22 (4):218–223.
    Many people have moral qualms about embryo research, feeling that embryos must deserve some kind of protection, if not so much as is afforded to persons. This paper will show that these qualms serve to camouflage motives that are really prudential, at the cost of also obscuring the real ethical issues at play in the debate concerning embryo research and therapeutic cloning. This in turn leads to fallacious use of the Actions/Omissions Distinction and ultimately neglects the duties that we have (...)
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