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David Shaw [84]David Gary Shaw [22]David M. Shaw [12]Davidmartin Shaw [1]
David Martin Shaw [1]
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Profile: David M. Shaw (University of Basel)
  1. Lessons From the German Organ Scandal.David Shaw - 2013 - Journal of the Intensive Care Society 14 (3):200-1.
    Doctors at four German hospitals have been suspended from their posts following internal investigations which alleged that they had been manipulating the organ transplant allocation system in order to help their patients get donor livers more quickly. It is alleged that doctors exaggerated the severity of their patients’ conditions so that they would be accorded higher priority for receiving organs, but there may also have been manipulation of medical records, deception of patients and potential harm to patients both within Germany (...)
     
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  2.  3
    Protecting Participants in Thought Experiments: The Role of the Research Ethics Committee.David Shaw - 2018 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 15 (1):5-6.
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  3.  19
    The Right to Participate in High-Risk Research.David Shaw - 2014 - The Lancet 38:1009 – 1011.
    Institutional review boards (IRBs) have a reputation for impeding research. This reputation is understandable inasmuch as many studies are poorly designed, exploit participants, or do not ask a relevant question , and it is entirely proper that IRBs should reject such proposals. However, IRBs also frequently reject or tamper with perfectly sound and relevant studies in the name of protecting participants from harm, in accordance with the widely accepted message that “clinical research is justified only when participants are protected from (...)
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  4.  37
    CRISPR and the Rebirth of Synthetic Biology.Raheleh Heidari, David Martin Shaw & Bernice Simone Elger - 2017 - Science and Engineering Ethics 23 (2):351-363.
    Emergence of novel genome engineering technologies such as clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat has refocused attention on unresolved ethical complications of synthetic biology. Biosecurity concerns, deontological issues and human right aspects of genome editing have been the subject of in-depth debate; however, a lack of transparent regulatory guidelines, outdated governance codes, inefficient time-consuming clinical trial pathways and frequent misunderstanding of the scientific potential of cutting-edge technologies have created substantial obstacles to translational research in this area. While a precautionary principle (...)
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  5. The Body as Unwarranted Life Support: A New Perspective on Euthanasia.David Shaw - 2007 - Journal of Medical Ethics 33 (9):519-521.
    It is widely accepted in clinical ethics that removing a patient from a ventilator at the patient’s request is ethically permissible. This constitutes voluntary passive euthanasia. However, voluntary active euthanasia, such as giving a patient a lethal overdose with the intention of ending that patient’s life, is ethically proscribed, as is assisted suicide, such as providing a patient with lethal pills or a lethal infusion. Proponents of voluntary active euthanasia and assisted suicide have argued that the distinction between killing and (...)
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  6. A Response to Penders: The Disvalue of Vagueness in Authorship.David Shaw - 2017 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 14 (1):17-17.
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  7.  11
    Increasing Organ Donation Rates by Revealing Recipient Details to Families of Potential Donors.David Shaw & Dale Gardiner - 2018 - Journal of Medical Ethics 44 (2):101-103.
    Many families refuse to consent to donation from their deceased relatives or over-rule the consent given before death by the patient, but giving families more information about the potential recipients of organs could reduce refusal rates. In this paper, we analyse arguments for and against doing so, and conclude that this strategy should be attempted. While it would be impractical and possibly unethical to give details of actual potential recipients, generic, realistic information about the people who could benefit from organs (...)
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  8.  14
    Creating Chimeras for Organs is Legal in Switzerland.David Shaw - 2014 - Bioethica Forum 14 (1).
    Switzerland has very detailed laws regulating the use of animals in agriculture, entertainment and science. There are also many Swiss laws governing the genetic modification of animals, protecting human embryos, and criminalising the creation of human/animal chimeras or hybrids. Despite all these regulations, the creation of an animal embryo that will develop a human organ using induced pluripotent stem cells and the subsequent birth of the resulting chimera would actually be permitted by current legislation. While this might appear to be (...)
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  9. Cryoethics: Seeking Life After Death.David Shaw - 2009 - Bioethics 23 (9):515-521.
    Cryonic suspension is a relatively new technology that offers those who can afford it the chance to be 'frozen' for future revival when they reach the ends of their lives. This paper will examine the ethical status of this technology and whether its use can be justified. Among the arguments against using this technology are: it is 'against nature', and would change the very concept of death; no friends or family of the 'freezee' will be left alive when he is (...)
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  10. A Defence of a New Perspective on Euthanasia.David Shaw - 2011 - Journal of Medical Ethics 37 (2):123-125.
    In two recent papers, Hugh McLachlan, Jacob Busch and Raffaele Rodogno have criticised my new perspective on euthanasia. Each paper analyses my argument and suggests two flaws. McLachlan identifies what he sees as important points regarding the justification of legal distinctions in the absence of corresponding moral differences and the professional role of the doctor. Busch and Rodogno target my criterion of brain life, arguing that it is a necessary but not sufficient condition and that it is not generalisable. In (...)
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  11.  4
    The Beneficence of Hope: Findings From a Qualitative Study with Gout and Diabetes Patients.Isabelle Wienand, Milenko Rakic, David Shaw & Bernice Elger - forthcoming - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry:1-8.
    This paper explores the importance of hope as a determining factor for patients to participate in first-in-human trials for synthetic biology therapies. This paper focuses on different aspects of hope in the context of human health and well-being and explores the varieties of hope expressed by patients. The research findings are based on interview data collected from stable gout and diabetes patients. Three concepts of hope have emerged from the interviews: hope as certainty ; hope as reflective uncertainty ; hope (...)
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  12.  60
    We Should Not Let Relatives Veto Organ Donation From Their Dead Relatives.David Shaw - 2012 - British Medical Journal 34:e5275.
    This article highlights the often overlooked fact that doctors who respect a bereaved family's veto of a deceased patient's organ donation are complicit in the deaths of those who would have benefited from the organs in question. Respecting the veto violates the dying wish of the patient, is against the spirit of the law and contributes to the deaths of other patients.
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  13.  82
    A Direct Advance on Advance Directives.David Shaw - 2012 - Bioethics 26 (5):267-274.
    Advance directives (ADs), which are also sometimes referred to as ‘living wills’, are statements made by a person that indicate what treatment she should not be given in the event that she is not competent to consent or refuse at the future moment in question. As such, ADs provide a way for patients to make decisions in advance about what treatments they do not want to receive, without doctors having to find proxy decision-makers or having recourse to the doctrine of (...)
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  14.  95
    Communicating About Communicable Diseases on Facebook: Whisper, Don't Shout.David Shaw - 2013 - Public Health Ethics (1):pht031.
    Mandeville and colleagues describe a fascinating case where Facebook was used to warn potential contacts that their acquaintance had a communicable disease (Mandeville et al., 2013). They are correct that this case raises important issues about social media, confidentiality and the prevention of harm. However, they underestimate both the dangers of overcommunication via Wall and Timeline postings (and Twitter) and the potential utility of Facebook in cases like this one. Increased awareness of Facebook functionality will allow more accurate targeting of (...)
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  15.  17
    A Strong Remedy to a Weak Ethical Defence of Homeopathy.David Shaw - 2015 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 12 (4):549-553.
    In this article, I indicate and illustrate several flaws in a recent “ethical defence” of homeopathy. It transpires that the authors’ arguments have several features in common with homeopathic remedies, including strong claims, a lack of logic or evidence, and no actual effect.
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  16.  8
    Defining Nano, Nanotechnology and Nanomedicine: Why Should It Matter?Priya Satalkar, Bernice Simone Elger & David M. Shaw - 2016 - Science and Engineering Ethics 22 (5):1255-1276.
    Nanotechnology, which involves manipulation of matter on a ‘nano’ scale, is considered to be a key enabling technology. Medical applications of nanotechnology are expected to significantly improve disease diagnostic and therapeutic modalities and subsequently reduce health care costs. However, there is no consensus on the definition of nanotechnology or nanomedicine, and this stems from the underlying debate on defining ‘nano’. This paper aims to present the diversity in the definition of nanomedicine and its impact on the translation of basic science (...)
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  17.  6
    Protecting Prisoners’ Autonomy with Advance Directives: Ethical Dilemmas and Policy Issues.Roberto Andorno, David M. Shaw & Bernice Elger - 2015 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 18 (1):33-39.
  18.  11
    Prioritising Healthcare Workers for Ebola Treatment: Treating Those at Greatest Risk to Confer Greatest Benefit.Priya Satalkar, Bernice E. Elger & David M. Shaw - 2015 - Developing World Bioethics 15 (2):59-67.
    The Ebola epidemic in Western Africa has highlighted issues related to weak health systems, the politics of drug and vaccine development and the need for transparent and ethical criteria for use of scarce local and global resources during public health emergency. In this paper we explore two key themes. First, we argue that independent of any use of experimental drugs or vaccine interventions, simultaneous implementation of proven public health principles, community engagement and culturally sensitive communication are critical as these measures (...)
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  19.  16
    Unethical Framework: Red Card for the REF.David Shaw - 2012 - Times Higher Education.
    Almost all academics sigh at any mention of the REF. Preparing submissions for the Research Excellence Framework takes up a lot of effort, but is important because the REF determines a department's funding allocation from a finite pot of cash. As such, it is seen as a necessary evil by most staff. However, the REF poses ethical problems in addition to the stress it causes. As it stands, the REF is exacerbating a schism between research and teaching staff, encouraging deceptive (...)
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  20.  84
    Homeopathy Is Where the Harm Is: Five Unethical Effects of Funding Unscientific Remedies.David Shaw - 2010 - Journal of Medical Ethics 36 (3):130-131.
    Homeopathic medicine is based on the two principles that “like cures like” and that the potency of substances increases in proportion to their dilution. In November 2009 the UK Parliament’s Science and Technology Committee heard evidence on homeopathy, with several witnesses arguing that homeopathic practice is “unethical, unreliable, and pointless”. Although this increasing scepticism about the merits of homeopathy is to be welcomed, the unethical effects of funding homeopathy on the NHS are even further-reaching than has been acknowledged.
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  21. Euthanasia and Eudaimonia.David Shaw - 2009 - Journal of Medical Ethics 35 (9):530-533.
    This paper re-evaluates euthanasia and assisted suicide from the perspective of eudaimonia, the ancient Greek conception of happiness across one’s whole life. It is argued that one cannot be said to have fully flourished or had a truly happy life if one’s death is preceded by a period of unbearable pain or suffering that one cannot avoid without assistance in ending one’s life. While death is to be accepted as part of life, it should not be left to nature to (...)
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  22.  36
    Transatlantic Issues: Report From Scotland.David Shaw - 2010 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 19 (3):310-320.
    Several bioethical topics received a great deal of news coverage here in Scotland in 2009. Three important issues with transatlantic connections are the swine flu outbreak, which was handled very differently in Scotland, England and America; the US debate over healthcare reform, which drew the British NHS into the controversy; and the release to Libya of the Lockerbie bomber, which at first glance might not seem particularly bioethical, but which actually hinged on the very public discussion of the prisoner’s medical (...)
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  23.  3
    Using Non-Human Primates to Benefit Humans: Research and Organ Transplantation.David Shaw, Wybo Dondorp & Guido de Wert - 2014 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 17 (4):573-578.
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  24. Evidence-Based Persuasion: An Ethical Imperative.David Shaw & Bernice Elger - 2013 - Journal of the American Medical Association 309 (16):1689-90.
    The primacy in modern medical ethics of the principle of respect for autonomy has led to the widespread assumption that it is unethical to change someone’s beliefs, because doing so would constitute coercion or paternalism., In this Viewpoint we suggest that persuasion is not necessarily paternalistic and is an essential component of modern medical practice.
     
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  25. Preventing Human Rights Violations in Prison – the Role of Guidelines.Bernice Elger & David Shaw - forthcoming - In Bernice Elger, Catherine Ritter & Heino Stöver (eds.), Emerging Issues in Prison Health. Springer.
    It is well known that prisoners’ human rights are often violated. In this chapter we examine whether guidelines can be effective in preventing such violations and in helping physicians resolve the significant conflicts of interest that they often face in trying to protect prisoners’ rights. We begin by explaining the role of clinical and ethical guidelines outside prisons, in the context of healthcare for non-incarcerated prisoners, and then the specific role of such guidelines within prisons, where the main concerns are (...)
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  26.  2
    Sample and Data Sharing Barriers in Biobanking: Consent, Committees, and Compromises.Flora Colledge, Kirsten Persson, Bernice Elger & David Shaw - 2014 - Annals of Diagnostic Pathology 18 (2):78-81.
    The ability to exchange samples and data is crucial for the rapidly growth of biobanking. However, sharing is based on the assumption that the donor has given consent to a given use of her or his sample. Biobanking stakeholders, therefore, must choose 1 of 3 options: obtain general consent enabling multiple future uses before taking a sample from the donor, try to obtain consent again before sharing a previously obtained sample, or look for a legally endorsed way to share a (...)
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  27. What is a Biobank? Differing Definitions Among Biobank Stakeholders.David Shaw, Bernice Elger & Flora Colledge - 2014 - Clinical Genetics 85 (3):223-7.
    Aim: While there is widespread agreement on the broad aspects of what constitutes a biobank, there is much disagreement regarding the precise definition. This research aimed to describe and analyse the definitions of the term biobank offered by various stakeholders in biobanking. Methods: Interviews were conducted with 36 biobanking stakeholders with international experience currently working in Switzerland. Results: The results show that, in addition to the core concepts of biological samples and linked data, the planned use of samples (including sharing) (...)
     
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  28. The Relevance of Relevance in Research.David Shaw & Bernice Elger - 2013 - Swiss Medical Weekly.
    A new Swiss law requires that any research involving humans must aim to answer "a relevant research question". This paper explains the relevance of the relevance criterion in research, analyses the Swiss and British guidelines on relevance, and proposes a framework for researchers and REC members that enables a clearer conception of the role of relevance in research. We conclude that research must be either scientifically or societally beneficial in order to qualify as relevant, and RECs therefore cannot avoid reviewing (...)
     
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  29.  14
    Neuroenhancing Public Health.David Shaw - 2013 - Journal of Medical Ethics (6):2012-101300.
    One of the most fascinating issues in the emerging field of neuroethics is pharmaceutical cognitive enhancement (CE). The three main ethical concerns around CE were identified in a Nature commentary in 2008 as safety, coercion and fairness; debate has largely focused on the potential to help those who are cognitively disabled, and on the issue of “cosmetic neurology”, where people enhance not because of a medical need, but because they want to (as many as 25% of American students already use (...)
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  30.  2
    Gatekeepers of Reward: A Pilot Study on the Ethics of Editing and Competing Evaluations of Value.David M. Shaw & Bart Penders - forthcoming - Journal of Academic Ethics:1-13.
    The reward infrastructure in science centres on publication, in which journal editors play a key role. Reward distribution hinges on value assessments performed by editors, who draw from plural value systems to judge manuscripts. This conceptual paper examines the numerous biases and other factors that affect editorial decisions. Hybrid and often conflicting value systems contribute to an infrastructure in which editors manage reward through editorial review, commissioned commentaries and reviews and weighing of peer review judgments. Taken together, these systems and (...)
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  31.  19
    Ethicovigilance in Clinical Trials.David Shaw & Alex McMahon - 2013 - Bioethics 27 (9):508-513.
    This article provides an ethical critique of the Good Clinical Practice (GCP) and Declaration of Helsinki (DoH) documents. While the previous criticisms of GCP are entirely correct, there is much more wrong with the document than has previously been acknowledged, including a circular definition and an astonishing vagueness about ethical principles. In addition to its failure to provide adequate ethical protection of participants, the procedurally dense nature of GCP lends itself to a box-ticking culture where important ethical issues are overlooked (...)
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  32.  4
    The Torturer's Horse: Agency and Animals in History.David Gary Shaw - 2013 - History and Theory 52 (4):146-167.
    Historians need to understand the nature of historical agency and how animals relate to this central if contested historiographical concern. Focusing on the specific context of the Napoleonic Wars and in particular the Duke of Wellington and his horse Copenhagen, I show why agency is a continuum, not limited to the complex and intentional acts of a rational man, for instance a field marshal, but extending to basic actions, group actions, and less self-conscious actors, for instance a horse. Therefore, agency (...)
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  33.  49
    Homeopathy and Medical Ethics.David Shaw - 2011 - Focus on Alternative and Complementary Therapies 16 (1):17-21.
    Homeopathy has been the subject of intense academic, media and public debate in recent months. Those opposed to the practice, which treats like with like by using ultra-dilute remedies, argue that it is an ineffective non-treatment that is not supported by evidence and should not be funded on the National Health Service. Its proponents claim that it is effective (although they disagree about whether it is more effective than placebo) and argue its use is appropriate for certain conditions. This paper (...)
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  34.  5
    Homeopaths Without Borders Engages in Exploitative ‘Humanitarianism’.David Shaw - 2013 - British Medical Journal 347:f5448.
    Although homeopathy has received a great deal of criticism in recent years for unethical practices, Homeopaths without Borders (HWB) has gone almost entirely unmentioned in the medical literature. This is somewhat surprising, given that HWB are engaged in activity even more dubious than that of most homeopaths. HWB has quite a long history, and several different national associations; here, I focus on HWB Germany (HWBG) and HWB North America (HWBNA) and briefly describe some of their activities and their harmful effects.
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  35. “Conferring Authorship”: Biobank Stakeholders’ Experiences with Publication Credit in Collaborative Research.Flora Colledge, Bernice Elger & David Shaw - 2013 - PLoS ONE 8:e76686.
    Background: Multi-collaborator research is increasingly becoming the norm in the field of biomedicine. With this trend comes the imperative to award recognition to all those who contribute to a study; however, there is a gap in the current “gold standard” in authorship guidelines with regards to the efforts of those who provide high quality biosamples and data, yet do not play a role in the intellectual development of the final publication. -/- Methods and findings: We carried out interviews with 36 (...)
     
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  36. Peer Reviewers Can Meet Journals’ Criteria for Authorship.Thomas Erren, Michael Erren & David Shaw - 2013 - British Medical Journal 346:f166.
    This article argues that some reviewers contribute more to research than many authors, and suggests that reviewers meet the ICMJE criteria for authorship in many cases.
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  37.  77
    Deaf by Design: Disability and Impartiality.David Shaw - 2008 - Bioethics 22 (8):407-413.
    In 'Benefit, Disability and the Non-Identity Problem', Hallvard Lillehammer uses the case of a couple who chose to have deaf children to argue against the view that impartial perspectives can provide an exhaustive account of the rightness and wrongness of particular reproductive choices. His conclusion is that the traditional approach to the non-identity problem leads to erroneous conclusions about the morality of creating disabled children. This paper will show that Lillehammer underestimates the power of impartial perspectives and exaggerates the ethical (...)
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  38.  22
    The Authorless Paper: The ICMJE’s Definition of Authorship is Illogical and Unethical.David Shaw - 2011 - British Medical Journal 343 (7831):999.
    In recent years there have been many revelations about ghost authors, who contribute to publications but are not credited, and guest authors, who do not contribute but are credited. Most medical and many other journals adhere to the authorship standards set by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE), which were designed in part to combat the phenomena of ghost and guest authorship. However, the current criteria set for authorship by the ICMJE have their own problems. This brief paper (...)
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  39.  21
    The Ethics Committee as Ghost Author.David Shaw - 2011 - Journal of Medical Ethics 37 (12):706-706.
    Ethics committees have a bad reputation for impeding, rather than facilitating research. Here, I argue that many committees actually improve the quality of the research proposal to such an extent that they deserve credit as authors in any resulting publications, or at least an acknowledgement of the contribution made.
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  40. Evidence and Ethics in Occupational Therapy.Justine Shaw & David Shaw - 2011 - British Journal of Occupational Therapy 74 (5):254-256.
    Reagon, Bellin and Boniface argue that traditional models of evidence-based practice focus too much on randomised controlled trials and neglect 'the multiple truths of occupational therapy'. This opinion piece points out several flaws in their argument, and suggests that it is unethical to rely on weaker evidence sources when higher quality evidence exists. Ironically, the evidence that they provide to support their argument regarding different types of evidence is itself very weak.
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  41. Cryoethics.David Shaw - 2013 - In Hugh LaFollette (ed.), International Encyclopaedia of Ethics. Blackwell.
    Cryoethics is a new theme within bioethics (see bioethics) concerned with the ethics of cryonic storage. Cryonics, which is also erroneously referred to as “cryogenic” technology, offers people the option of having their bodies or brain-stems preserved at very low temperatures after death in order to be revived at some point in the future when technology is sufficiently advanced to enable reanimation, and possibly immortality. The main issues in cryoethics center around whether it is ethical to use this technology, and (...)
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  42.  4
    Modernity Between Us and Them: The Place of Religion Within History.David Gary Shaw - 2006 - History and Theory 45 (4):1–9.
  43. The Swiss Report on Homeopathy: A Case Study of Research Misconduct.David Shaw - 2012 - Swiss Medical Weekly 142:w13594.
    In 2011 the Swiss government published a report on homeopathy. This report was commissioned following a 2009 referendum in which Swiss people decided that homeopathy and other alternative therapies should be covered by private medical insurance; before implementing this decision, the government wanted to establish whether homeopathy actually works. In February 2012 the report was published in English and was immediately proclaimed by proponents of homeopathy to be conclusive proof that homeopathy is effective. This paper analyses the report and concludes (...)
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  44.  44
    Tackling Socially Determined Dental Inequalities: Ethical Aspects of Childsmile, the National Child Oral Health Demonstration Programme in Scotland.David Shaw, Lorna Macpherson & David Conway - 2009 - Bioethics 23 (2):131-139.
    Many ethical issues are posed by public health interventions. Although abstract theorizing about these issues can be useful, it is the application of ethical theory to real cases which will ultimately be of benefit in decision-making. To this end, this paper will analyse the ethical issues involved in Childsmile, a national oral health demonstration programme in Scotland that aims to improve the oral health of the nation's children and reduce dental inequalities through a combination of targeted and universal interventions. With (...)
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  45. Justice and the Fetus: Rawls, Children and Abortion.David Shaw - 2011 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 20 (1):93-101.
    In a footnote to the first edition of Political Liberalism, John Rawls introduced an example of how public reason could deal with controversial issues. He intended this example to show that his system of political liberalism could deal with such problems by considering only political values, without the introduction of comprehensive moral doctrines. Unfortunately, Rawls chose “the troubled question of abortion” as the issue that would illustrate this. In the case of abortion, Rawls argued, “the equality of women as equal (...)
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  46.  1
    Response: A Defence of a New Perspective on Euthanasia.David Shaw - 2011 - Journal of Medical Ethics 37 (2):123-125.
    In two recent papers, Hugh McLachlan, Jacob Busch and Raffaele Rodogno have criticised my new perspective on euthanasia. Each paper analyses my argument and suggests two flaws. McLachlan identifies what he sees as important points regarding the justification of legal distinctions in the absence of corresponding moral differences and the professional role of the doctor. Busch and Rodogno target my criterion of brain life, arguing that it is a necessary but not sufficient condition and that it is not generalisable. In (...)
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  47.  36
    Moral Qualms, Future Persons, and Embryo Research.David Shaw - 2008 - Bioethics 22 (4):218–223.
    Many people have moral qualms about embryo research, feeling that embryos must deserve some kind of protection, if not so much as is afforded to persons. This paper will show that these qualms serve to camouflage motives that are really prudential, at the cost of also obscuring the real ethical issues at play in the debate concerning embryo research and therapeutic cloning. This in turn leads to fallacious use of the Actions/Omissions Distinction and ultimately neglects the duties that we have (...)
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  48.  26
    Crocodile Tiers.David Shaw - 2008 - Journal of Medical Ethics 34 (8):575.
    It is clearly unethical for the NHS to tell people that they will die sooner unless they pay for private treatment, and then to tell them that if they pay for private treatment they will have to pay the NHS for its insufficient service. This is all the more true if people in other parts of the country are receiving all the drugs they need for the same condition on the NHS. Patients who discover that the NHS care that they (...)
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  49. Ethics, Professionalism and Fitness to Practice: Three Concepts, Not One.David Shaw - 2009 - British Dental Journal 207 (2):59-62.
    The GDC’s recent third edition (interim) of The First Five Years places renewed emphasis on the place of professionalism in the undergraduate dental curriculum. This paper provides a brief analysis of the concepts of ethics, professionalism and fitness to practice, and an examination of the GDC’s First Five Years and Standards for Dental Professionals guidance, as well as providing an insight into the innovative ethics strand of the BDS course at the University of Glasgow. It emerges that GDC guidance is (...)
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  50. Prescribing Placebos Ethically: The Appeal of Negatively Informed Consent.David Shaw - 2009 - Journal of Medical Ethics 35 (2):97-99.
    Kihlbom has recently argued that a system of seeking negatively informed consent might be preferable in some cases to the ubiquitous informed consent model. Although this theory is perhaps not powerful enough to supplant informed consent in most settings, it lends strength to Evans’ and Hungin’s proposal that it can be ethical to prescribe placebos rather than "active" drugs. This paper presents an argument for using negatively informed consent for the specific purpose of authorising the use of placebos in clinical (...)
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