When phylogenetic trees constructed from morphological and molecular evidence disagree (i.e. are incongruent) it has been suggested that the differences are spurious or that the molecular results should be preferred a priori. Comparing trees can increase confidence (congruence), or demonstrate that at least one tree is incorrect (incongruence). Statistical analyses of 181 molecular and 49 morphological trees shows that incongruence is greater between than within the morphological and molecular partitions, and this difference is significant for the molecular partition. Because the (...) level of incongruence between a pair of trees gives a minimum bound on how much error is present in the two trees, our results indicate that the level of error may be underestimated by congruence within partitions. Thus comparisons between morphological and molecular trees are particularly useful for detecting this incongruence (spurious or otherwise). Molecular trees have higher average congruence than morphological trees, but the difference is not significant, and both within- and between-partition incongruence is much lower than expected by chance alone. Our results suggest that both molecular and morphological trees are, in general, useful approximations of a common underlying phylogeny and thus, when molecules and morphology clash, molecular phylogenies should not be considered more reliable a priori. (shrink)
To encourage corporations to contribute positively to the environment in which they operate, voluntary self-regulatory codes (SRC) have been enacted and refined over the past 15 years. Two of the most prominent are the United Nations Global Compact and the Global Reporting Initiative. In this paper, we explore the impact of different stakeholders' pressures on the selection of strategic choices to join SRCs. Our results show that corporations react differently to different sets of stakeholder pressures and that the SRC selection (...) depends on the type and intensiveness of the stakeholder pressures as well as the resources at hand to respond to those pressures. Our contribution offers a more specific and finely variegated analysis of firmstakeholder interactions. (shrink)
Neste artigo apresentaremos uma importante idéia formulada por Marcuse na segunda parte do livro Eros e Civilização: uma interpretação filosófica do pensamento de Freud (1955) – a hipótese da transformação não repressiva das pulsões em uma sociedade transformada. Marcuse preocupa-se com a “transformação subjetiva” necessária à passagem do capitalismo para o “comunismo”, rompendo assim com um determinado “marxismo ortodoxo”. A “utopia” desenvolvida neste livro baseia-se na reinterpretação de algumas das principais concepções da teoria freudiana e caracteriza a originalidade de seu (...) pensamento. (shrink)
In the present article is given an important idea prescribed by Marcuse in the second part of his Eros and Civilization. A Philosophical inquiry into Freud. - the non-repressive transformation of the instincts in a transformed society. The utopia developed in this book is based in the reinterpretation of some of his main conceptions of the freudian theory and characterize the singularity of his ideas and of his general thinking.Neste artigo apresentaremos uma importante idéia formulada por Marcuse na segunda parte (...) do livro Eros e Civilização: uma interpretação filosófica do pensamento de Freud - a hipótese da transformação não repressiva das pulsões em uma sociedade transformada. Marcuse preocupa-se com a "transformação subjetiva" necessária à passagem do capitalismo para o "comunismo", rompendo assim com um determinado "marxismo ortodoxo". A "utopia" desenvolvida neste livro baseia-se na reinterpretação de algumas das principais concepções da teoria freudiana e caracteriza a originalidade de seu pensamento. (shrink)
We seek to add to the Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and Sustainable Development (SD) literature through the empirical study of Latin American firm membership in the United Nations Global Compact (GC) and Global Report Initiative (GRI). Within an institutional-based framework, we explore through three filters — commercial, state-signaling, and distinguished peers - the impact of normative and mimetic pressures associated with GC/GRI membership. Our sample includes 207 public firms from six Latin American countries (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, and Peru). (...) Our results suggest Latin American firms from countries with a greater European influence (normative pressure) are twice as likely to be enrolled in the GC/GRI. Additionally, we find that Latin American firms listed on the NYSE (mimetic pressure) are also twice as likely to sign up under the GC/GRI. Hence, the normative and mimetic pillars of institutional theory are found to be significant factors for Latin American firms adopting sustainability initiatives. (shrink)
Davide Panagia, The Poetics of Political Thinking (Durham and London: Duke University Press, 2006). ISBN 0-8223-3718-5, (hbk) US$ 74.95, (pbk) US$ 21.95,166pp. and Davide Panagia, The Political Life of Sensation (Durham, NC and London: Duke University Press, 2009). ISBN 978-0-8223-4479-7, (hbk) US$ 79.95, (pbk) US$ 22.95, 213pp.