Results for 'Decision-making skills'

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  1.  3
    Meaningful Shared DecisionMaking: Complex Process Demanding Cognitive and Emotional Skills.Ruth Stalnikowicz & Mayer Brezis - 2020 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 26 (2):431-438.
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  2.  16
    A Structured Approach to Teaching Decision-Making Skills in Biomedical Ethics.Robert T. Francoeur - 1984 - Journal of Bioethics 5 (2):145-154.
    The prevailing case study approach to teaching biomedical ethics is compared with a new methodology using short written exercises designed to develop decision making skills. Course content of this new approach and its adaptability to computer assisted instruction with student-faculty interactive software are outlined.
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  3.  9
    Who Wants to Sharpen Their Ethical Decision-Making Skills?: Ethical Issues in Sport, Performance and Exercise Psychology. Edward F. Etzel and Jack C. Watson . Morgantown, WV: FiT Publishing, 2014, 240 Pages, $47.00. [REVIEW]Jeffrey L. Brown - 2014 - Ethics and Behavior 24 (6):523-524.
  4. Ethical Decision-Making in Academic Administration: A Qualitative Inquiry of Filipino College Deans' Ethical Frameworks.Maria Rosario G. Catacutan & Allan de Guzman - 2015 - Australian Educational Researcher 42 (4):483-514.
    Ethical decision-making in school administration has received considerable attention in educational leadership literature. However, most research has focused on principals working in secondary school settings while studies that explore ethical reasoning processes of academic deans have been significantly few. This qualitative study aims to describe the ethical decision-making processes employed by a select group of Filipino college deans in solving ethical dilemmas using the ethical paradigms proposed in the works of Starratt (Educ Adm Q 27:185–202, 1991) (...)
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  5.  19
    Ethical Decision Making in the Conduct of Research: Role of Individual, Contextual and Organizational Factors: Commentary on “Science, Human Nature, and a New Paradigm for Ethics Education”.Philip J. Langlais - 2012 - Science and Engineering Ethics 18 (3):551-555.
    Despite the importance of scientific integrity to the well-being of society, recent findings suggest that training and mentoring in the responsible conduct of research are not very reliable or effective inhibitors of research misbehavior. Understanding how and why individual scientists decide to behave in ways that conform to or violate norms and standards of research is essential to the development of more effective training programs and the creation of more supportive environments. Scholars in business management, psychology, and other disciplines have (...)
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  6.  13
    Approximate Number Processing Skills Contribute to Decision Making Under Objective Risk: Interactions With Executive Functions and Objective Numeracy.Silke M. Mueller & Matthias Brand - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
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  7.  35
    Resource Effects of Training General Practitioners in Risk Communication Skills and Shared Decision Making Competences.David Cohen, M. F. Longo, Kerenza Hood, Adrian Edwards & Glyn Elwyn - 2004 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 10 (3):439-445.
  8.  25
    Shared Decision Making Observed in Clinical Practice: Visual Displays of Communication Sequence and Patterns.Glyn Elwyn, Adrian Edwards, Michel Wensing, Richard Hibbs, Clare Wilkinson & Richard Grol - 2001 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 7 (2):211-221.
  9.  3
    Medical Decision Making: A Physician's Guide.Alan Schwartz - 2008 - Cambridge University Press.
    Decision making is a key activity, perhaps the most important activity, in the practice of healthcare. Although physicians acquire a great deal of knowledge and specialised skills during their training and through their practice, it is in the exercise of clinical judgement and its application to individual patients that the outstanding physician is distinguished. This has become even more relevant as patients become increasingly welcomed as partners in a shared decision making process. This book translates (...)
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  10.  44
    Parent–Child Roles in Decision Making About Medical Research.Victoria A. Miller, William W. Reynolds & Robert M. Nelson - 2008 - Ethics and Behavior 18 (2-3):161 – 181.
    Our objective is to understand how parents and children perceive their roles in decision making about research participation. Forty-five children (ages 4-15 years) with or without a chronic condition and 21 parents were the participants. A semistructured interview assessed perceptions of up to 4 hypothetical research scenarios with varying levels of risk, benefit, and complexity. Children were also administered the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Third Edition, to assess verbal ability, as a proxy for the child's cognitive development. The (...)
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  11.  60
    Rational Diagnosis and Treatment: Evidence-Based Clinical Decision-Making.Peter C. Gøtzsche - 2007 - J. Wiley.
    Now in its fourth edition, Rational Diagnosis and Treatment: Evidence-Based Clinical Decision - Making is a unique book to look at evidence-based medicine and the difficulty of applying evidence from group studies to individual patients._ The book analyses the successive stages of the decision process and deals with topics such as the examination of the patient,_the reliability of clinical data, the logic of diagnosis, the fallacies of uncontrolled therapeutic experience and the need for randomised clinical trials and (...)
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  12.  81
    Developing Expertise in Decision Making.Gary Klein - 1997 - Thinking and Reasoning 3 (4):337 – 352.
    How can we help people develop judgement and decision skills? One approach is to teach formal methods such as decision analyses, but these are difficult to apply in ill-structured settings, and the methods are unworkable when one is under time pressure and uncertain conditions. If we regard these skills as types of expertise that can be developed, then in a given domain we may attempt to define the cues, patterns, and strategies used by experts, and develop (...)
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  13. The Development and Trials of a Decision-Making Model.Robert Keith Shaw, Michael A. Peters & James D. Marshall - 1986 - Evaluation Review, 10 (1):5-27.
    We describe an evaluation undertaken on contract for the New Zealand State Services Commission of a major project (the Administrative Decision-Making Skills Project) designed to produce a model of administrative decision making and an associated teaching/learning packagefor use by government officers. It describes the evaluation of a philosophical model of decision making and the associated teaching/learning package in the setting of the New Zealand Public Service, where a deliberate attempt has been initiated to (...)
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  14.  32
    An Ethical Decision-Making Model for Operational Psychology.James A. Stephenson & Mark A. Staal - 2007 - Ethics and Behavior 17 (1):61 – 82.
    Operational psychology is an emerging subdiscipline that has enhanced the U.S. military's combat capabilities during the Global War on Terrorism. What makes this subdiscipline unique is its use of psychological principles and skills to improve a commander's decision making as it pertains to conducting combat (or related operations). Due to psychology's expanding role in combat support, psychologists are being confronted with challenges that require the application of their professional ethics in areas in which little if any guidance (...)
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  15.  43
    Medical Decision-Making: An Argument for Narrative and Metaphor.Katherine Hall - 2002 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 23 (1):55-73.
    This study examines the processes ofdecision-making used by intensive care(critical care) specialists. Ninety-ninespecialists completed a questionnaire involvingthree clinical cases, using a novel methodologyinvestigating the role of uncertainty andtemporal-related factors, and exploring a rangeof ethical issues. Validation and triangulationof the results was done via a comparison studywith a medically lay, but highly informed groupof 37 law students. For both study groups,constructing reasons for a decision was largelyan interpretative and imaginative exercise thatwent beyond the data (as presented), commonlyresulting in different (...)
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  16.  36
    Survey on the Experience in Ethical Decision-Making and Attitude of Pleven University Hospital Physicians Towards Ethics Consultation.Silviya Aleksandrova - 2008 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 11 (1):35-42.
    BackgroundContemporary medical practice is complicated by many dilemmas requiring ethical sensitivity and moral reasoning.ObjectiveTo investigate physicians’ experience in ethical decision-making and their attitude towards ethics consultation.MethodsIn a cross-sectional survey 126 physicians representing the main clinics of Pleven University hospital were investigated by a self-administered questionnaire. The following variables were measured: occurrence, nature and ways of resolving ethical problems; physicians’ attitudes towards ethics consultation; physicians’ opinions on qualities and skills of an ethics consultant, and socio-demographic characteristics. Data analysis (...)
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  17.  11
    Numerical Representation, Math Skills, Memory, and Decision-Making.Ellen Peters & Alan Castel - 2009 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 32 (3-4):347-348.
    The consideration of deliberate versus automatic processing of numeric representations is important to math education, memory for numbers, and decision-making. In this commentary, we address the possible roles for numeric representations in such higher-level cognitive processes. Current evidence is consistent with important roles for both automatic and deliberative processing of the representations.
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  18.  94
    Is Specialization Desirable in Committee Decision Making?Ruth Ben-Yashar, Winston T. H. Koh & Shmuel Nitzan - 2012 - Theory and Decision 72 (3):341-357.
    Committee decision making is examined in this study focusing on the role assigned to the committee members. In particular, we are concerned about the comparison between committee performance under specialization and non-specialization of the decision makers. Specialization (in the context of project or public policy selection) means that the decision of each committee member is based on a narrow area, which typically results in the acquirement and use of relatively high expertise in that area. When the (...)
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  19.  36
    Teaching Ethical Decision Making: Designing a Personal Value Portrait to Ignite Creativity and Promote Personal Engagement in Case Method Analysis.Pamela A. Gibson - 2008 - Ethics and Behavior 18 (4):340 – 352.
    The case method approach to introducing ethical issues is a traditional tool for applying critical thinking skills to a specific dilemma. It allows for personal reflection and clarification of an individual's conceptual framework for deciding what is and is not ethical behavior. However, it also affords the student distance from the story line and may, through providing a retrospective critique, prevent sufficient challenge to the student to articulate and defend personal value assessments in addressing the ethical dynamics reflected in (...)
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  20.  86
    The Attitudes of Neonatal Professionals Towards End-of-Life Decision-Making for Dying Infants in Taiwan.Li-Chi Huang, Chao-Huei Chen, Hsin-Li Liu, Ho-Yu Lee, Niang-Huei Peng, Teh-Ming Wang & Yue-Cune Chang - 2013 - Journal of Medical Ethics 39 (6):382-386.
    The purposes of research were to describe the neonatal clinicians' personal views and attitudes on neonatal ethical decision-making, to identify factors that might affect these attitudes and to compare the attitudes between neonatal physicians and neonatal nurses in Taiwan. Research was a cross-sectional design and a questionnaire was used to reach different research purposes. A convenient sample was used to recruit 24 physicians and 80 neonatal nurses from four neonatal intensive care units in Taiwan. Most participants agreed with (...)
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  21.  22
    Interrogating Feature Learning Models to Discover Insights Into the Development of Human Expertise in a Real‐Time, Dynamic DecisionMaking Task.Catherine Sibert, Wayne D. Gray & John K. Lindstedt - 2017 - Topics in Cognitive Science 9 (2):374-394.
    Tetris provides a difficult, dynamic task environment within which some people are novices and others, after years of work and practice, become extreme experts. Here we study two core skills; namely, choosing the goal or objective function that will maximize performance and a feature-based analysis of the current game board to determine where to place the currently falling zoid so as to maximize the goal. In Study 1, we build cross-entropy reinforcement learning models to determine whether different goals result (...)
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  22. Ethical Decision-Making In An Emergency Department: Findings On Nursing Advocacy.Emma Phillips & Pam McGrath - 2009 - Monash Bioethics Review 28 (2):38-53.
    The purpose of this article is to share with the reader the specific findings on the role of nurse as consumer advocate from a study on ethical decision-making in an emergency department. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 11 health professionals working in the ED of a hospital. The interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and thematically analysed.In ED, where the decision-making is described as medico-centric, advocacy ipso facto necessitates a challenge to doctor decision-making. The findings (...)
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  23.  26
    Interrogating Feature Learning Models to Discover Insights Into the Development of Human Expertise in a Real‐Time, Dynamic DecisionMaking Task.Catherine Sibert, Wayne D. Gray & John K. Lindstedt - 2016 - Topics in Cognitive Science 8 (4).
    Tetris provides a difficult, dynamic task environment within which some people are novices and others, after years of work and practice, become extreme experts. Here we study two core skills; namely, choosing the goal or objective function that will maximize performance and a feature-based analysis of the current game board to determine where to place the currently falling zoid so as to maximize the goal. In Study 1, we build cross-entropy reinforcement learning models to determine whether different goals result (...)
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  24.  17
    Philosophy for Teachers – Developing New Teachers’ Applied Ethical Decision-Making.Janet Orchard, Ruth Heilbronn & Carrie Winstanley - 2016 - Ethics and Education 11 (1):42-54.
    Teaching, irrespective of its geographical location, is fundamentally a relational practice in which unique ethically complex situations arise to which teachers need to respond at different levels of ethical decision-making. These range from ‘big’ abstract questions about whether or not what they teach is inherently good, through to seemingly trivial questions about everyday issues, for example whether or not it is right to silence children in classrooms. Hence, alongside a wide range of pedagogical skills, new teachers also (...)
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  25.  55
    Teaching Ethics to Engineers: Ethical Decision Making Parallels the Engineering Design Process.Bridget Bero & Alana Kuhlman - 2011 - Science and Engineering Ethics 17 (3):597-605.
    In order to fulfill ABET requirements, Northern Arizona University’s Civil and Environmental engineering programs incorporate professional ethics in several of its engineering courses. This paper discusses an ethics module in a 3rd year engineering design course that focuses on the design process and technical writing. Engineering students early in their student careers generally possess good black/white critical thinking skills on technical issues. Engineering design is the first time students are exposed to “grey” or multiple possible solution technical problems. To (...)
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  26.  77
    The Importance of Time in Ethical Decision Making.Settimio Monteverde - 2009 - Nursing Ethics 16 (5):613-624.
    Departing from a contemporary novel about a boy who is going to die from leukaemia, this article shows how the dimension of time can be seen as a morally relevant category that bridges both ‘dramatic’ issues, which constitute the dominant focus of bioethical decision making, and ‘undramatic’ issues, which characterize the lived experience of patients, relatives and health care workers. The moral task of comparing the various time dimensions of a given situation is explained as an act of (...)
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  27.  12
    The Development and Implications of a Case-Based Computer Program to Train Ethical Decision-Making.Eun-Jun Park - 2013 - Nursing Ethics 20 (8):943-956.
    To effectively train ethical decision-making of nursing students, a case-based computer program was developed using Flash animation. Seven ethical cases collected from practicing registered nurses’ actual clinical experiences and a six-step Integrated Ethical Decision-Making Model developed by the author were employed in the program. In total, 251 undergraduate students from three nursing schools used the program in their nursing ethics course. The usability of the program and its usefulness in improving 11 abilities needed in ethical (...)-making were measured; it scored higher than 4 on a 5-point scale. Of the students, 82% recommended the program as a valuable complementary tool in the teaching of a nursing ethics course. A variety of encouraging and positive experiences were reported by the students. The computer program is likely to be usefully practical in the training of abstract skills to nursing students, though certain challenges remain, such as the precise understanding of cognitive or affective responses to ethical issues. (shrink)
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  28.  42
    The Legal and Ethical Components of Executive Decision-Making: A Course for Business Managers. [REVIEW]S. Andrew Ostapski, John Oliver & Gaston T. Gonzalez - 1996 - Journal of Business Ethics 15 (5):571 - 579.
    The debate on whether and how to teach business ethics in graduate business programs continues. The authors of this article suggest specific content and processes for a course aimed at giving MBA candidates the awareness, tools, and mental processes necessary to recognize and address ethical issues in decision making. The inclusion of labor law, discrimination issues, consumer protection legislation, securities laws, and an overview of the U.S. Constitution and the Bill of Rights coupled with the development of utilitarian, (...)
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  29.  6
    Engaging students in ethical decision-making: a case study from an undergraduate geoscience course.Carl-Georg Bank & Anne Marie Ryan - 2020 - International Journal of Ethics Education 5 (1):51-65.
    The teaching of ethics in science within the disciplines provides an avenue to deepen students’ scientific understanding and to develop their critical thinking skills. This study showcases a module which connects ethics to science within a large introductory geoscience course. The module components, a tutorial plus homework assignment and an exam question, require students to decide on ethical issues using a 5-step approach that mirrors the scientific decision-making process. The assignment is graded using a developed rubric. An (...)
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  30. Mental Capacity in Relationship: Decision-Making, Dialogue, and Autonomy.Camillia Kong - 2017 - Cambridge University Press.
    Recent legal developments challenge how valid the concept of mental capacity is in determining whether individuals with impairments can make decisions about their care and treatment. Kong defends a concept of mental capacity but argues that such assessments must consider how relationships and dialogue can enable or disable the decision-making abilities of these individuals. This is thoroughly investigated using an interdisciplinary approach that combines philosophy and legal analysis of the law in England and Wales, the European Court of (...)
     
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  31.  52
    Progress Towards Wise Decision Making.Tim LeBon & David Arnaud - 2004 - Philosophy of Management 4 (2):53-71.
    The management literature is not short of tools for helping people to make wiser decisions. This paper outlines another tool so it must be asked how can it justify itself given the substantial work that is already done. We suggest that many tools either fail to properly integrate, or simply lack an analysis of (i) showinghow emotions help or hinder solving the problem, (ii) the role of creative and critical thinking and (Hi), working out what values are at issue in (...)
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  32.  13
    Does Mentalising Ability Influence Cooperative Decision-Making in a Social Dilemma? Introspective Evidence From a Study of Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder.Elisabeth Hill, David Sally & Uta Frith - 2004 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 11 (7-8):7-8.
    The choice to cooperate or compete with others confronts us on a daily basis, and it is plausible that we use our mentalising skills to aid decision-making in such situations. We investigated the relationship between mentalising and decision-making in the prisoner's dilemma in adults with autism spectrum disorders , who show impaired mentalising, and normal adults. After completion of three versions of the prisoner's dilemma, we conducted a semi-structured interview. This interview attempted to elicit a (...)
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  33.  23
    Developing Practical Wisdom in Ethical Decision Making: A Flight Simulator Program for 21st Century Business Students.Dennis Wittmer - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics Education 10:169-183.
    I began teaching business ethics over 20 years ago in the hope that I would be out of business in 10 years. Scandals and poor decision making have only continued, most recently with the financial crisis of 2008. The context for ethics and morality is decision making. Those who teach business ethics in this challenging century will be well served to consider the purpose and pedagogy of ethics in a business curriculum. I assess and discuss the (...)
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  34.  16
    Best Interests: A Concept Analysis and Its Implications for Ethical Decision-Making in Nursing.Pat Rose - 1995 - Nursing Ethics 2 (2):149-160.
    The purpose of this paper is to analyse the concept of 'best interest' in order to give nurses, who use it to justify their actions, a clear picture of what this means, and to identify the skills needed for doing so. The process for concept analysis developed by Walker and Avant was used in the analysis of data generated from the literature. Themes were identified from which the defining attributes, antecedents and consequences emerged. The congruence of the findings with (...)
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  35.  17
    An Investigation of the Relationships Among Volunteer Income Tax Assistance (VITA) Participation and Ethical Judgment and Decision Making.Anne L. Christensen & Angela Woodland - 2018 - Journal of Business Ethics 147 (3):529-543.
    The Pathways Commission calls on accounting educators to develop students’ skills in ethical judgment and decision making, but there is uncertainty about how best to accomplish this task. We test if participation in Volunteer Income Tax Assistance programs is positively associated with students’ ethical judgment and decision making. Using a questionnaire administered to students participating in VITA and students not participating in VITA at seven universities, we form multiple measures of students’ ethical judgment and students’ (...)
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  36.  27
    The Effect of Completing a Surrogacy Information and Decision-Making Tool Upon Admission to an Intensive Care Unit on Length of Stay and Charges.Carol W. Hatler, Charlene Grove, Stephanie Strickland, Starr Barron & Bruce D. White - 2012 - Journal of Clinical Ethics 23 (2):129-138.
    Background and PurposeMany critically ill patients in intensive care units are unable to communicate their wishes about goals of care, particularly about the use of life-sustaining treatments. Surrogates and clinicians struggle with medical decisions because of a lack of clarity regarding patients’ preferences, leading to prolonged hospitalizations and increased costs. This project focused on the development and implementation of a tool to facilitate a better communication process by assuring the early identification of a surrogate if indicated on admission and clarifying (...)
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  37.  9
    Difference as a Resource for Thinking: An Online Dialogue Showing the Role Played by Difference in Problem Solving and Decision Making.Susanna Saracco - 2016 - Metaphilosophy 47 (3):467-476.
    Contemporary societies require citizens and workers to face unexpected challenges. This calls for a shift of emphasis from individualistic competence to the importance of collective intelligence. This article describes a plan for a project in which students who are eight to twelve years old will not only realize that difference is a crucial resource in problem solving and decision making but also live out their personal value as thinking, active beings. They will participate in an online dialogue that (...)
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  38.  6
    ICT and Sustainability: Skills and Methods for Dialogue and Policy Making.Iordanis Kavathatzopoulos - 2015 - Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society 13 (1):13-18.
    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present an overview and to discuss the following issues: most often, discussions about Information and communication technology sustainability focus on environmental issues; however, there are other aspects referring to ICT internal sustainability and to its role as a tool in managing general sustainability issues. The way to handle ICT sustainability issues is also significant. Design/methodology/approach – The paper discusses and investigates various aspects of ICT sustainability, and of methods to handle these (...)
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  39. An Introduction to Decision Theory.Martin Peterson - 2009 - Cambridge University Press.
    This up-to-date introduction to decision theory offers comprehensive and accessible discussions of decision-making under ignorance and risk, the foundations of utility theory, the debate over subjective and objective probability, Bayesianism, causal decision theory, game theory, and social choice theory. No mathematical skills are assumed, and all concepts and results are explained in non-technical and intuitive as well as more formal ways. There are over 100 exercises with solutions, and a glossary of key terms and concepts. (...)
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  40.  37
    Making Codes of Ethics 'Real'.Peter J. Dean - 1992 - Journal of Business Ethics 11 (4):285 - 290.
    This article outlines a training activity that can enable both business and governmental professionals to translate the principles in a code of ethics to a specific list of company-related behaviors ranging from highly ethical to highly unethical. It also explores how this list can become a concrete model to follow in making ethical decisions. The article begins with a discussion as to what will improve ethical decision making in business and government. This leads us to explore the (...)
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  41.  24
    Enhancing Humanistic Skills: An Experiential Approach to Learning About Ethical Issues in Health Care.B. Sofaer - 1995 - Journal of Medical Ethics 21 (1):31-34.
    An outstanding feature of the study of nursing ethics is that it raises questions concerning moral virtue, conscience, consistency and character. A considerable section of the literature is devoted to ideas of how best to teach ethics to health professionals. It has been shown that when faced with ethical dilemmas nurses tended to rely on intuition and instinct to resolve them, with little systematic analysis to help the process. Nurses who have been in practice for a number of years may (...)
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  42.  29
    Changes in How ICU Nurses Perceive the DNR Decision and Their Nursing Activity After Implementing It.Y. -R. Park, J. -A. Kim & K. Kim - 2011 - Nursing Ethics 18 (6):802-813.
    This study investigated the perceptions and attitudes of ICU nurses towards the ‘do not resuscitate’ (DNR) decision and changes in their nursing activities after implementation of the DNR decision in South Korea. A data survey was conducted in South Korea between August and October 2008, with a convenience sample of 252 ICU nurses who had more than one year of clinical experience. The data were collected via a self-administered questionnaire. Most of the nurses perceived the necessity of the (...)
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  43.  93
    Habituality and Undecidability: A Comparison of Merleau-Ponty and Derrida on the Decision.Jack Reynolds - 2002 - International Journal of Philosophical Studies 10 (4):449 – 466.
    This essay examines the relationship that obtains between Merleau-Ponty and Derrida through exploring an interesting point of dissension in their respective accounts of decision-making. Merleau-Ponty's early philosophy emphasizes the body-subject's tendency to seek an equilibrium with the world (by acquiring skills and establishing what he refers to as 'intentional arcs'), and towards deciding in an embodied and habitual manner that minimizes any confrontation with what might be termed a decision-making aporia. On the other hand, in (...)
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  44. Decision-Making Under Indeterminacy.J. Robert G. Williams - 2014 - Philosophers' Imprint 14.
    Decisions are made under uncertainty when there are distinct outcomes of a given action, and one is uncertain to which the act will lead. Decisions are made under indeterminacy when there are distinct outcomes of a given action, and it is indeterminate to which the act will lead. This paper develops a theory of (synchronic and diachronic) decision-making under indeterminacy that portrays the rational response to such situations as inconstant. Rational agents have to capriciously and randomly choose how (...)
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  45. What Can Philosophers Learn From Psychopathy?Heidi L. Maibom - 2018 - European Journal of Analytic Philosophy 14 (1):63-78.
    Many spectacular claims about psychopaths are circulated. This contribution aims at providing the reader with the more complex reality of the phenomenon (or phenomena), and to point to issues of particular interest to philosophers working in moral psychology and moral theory. I first discuss the current evidence regarding psychopaths’ deficient empathy and decision-making skills. I then explore what difference it makes to our thinking whether we regard their deficit dimensionally (as involving abilities that are on or off) (...)
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  46. Ethical Decision-Making Theory: An Integrated Approach.Mark S. Schwartz - 2016 - Journal of Business Ethics 139 (4):755-776.
    Ethical decision-making descriptive theoretical models often conflict with each other and typically lack comprehensiveness. To address this deficiency, a revised EDM model is proposed that consolidates and attempts to bridge together the varying and sometimes directly conflicting propositions and perspectives that have been advanced. To do so, the paper is organized as follows. First, a review of the various theoretical models of EDM is provided. These models can generally be divided into rationalist-based ; and non-rationalist-based. Second, the proposed (...)
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  47. Ethical Decision Making: A Review of the Empirical Literature. [REVIEW]Robert C. Ford & Woodrow D. Richardson - 1994 - Journal of Business Ethics 13 (3):205 - 221.
    The authors review the empirical literature in order to assess which variables are postulated as influencing ethical beliefs and decision making. The variables are divided into those unique to the individual decision maker and those considered situational in nature. Variables related to an individual decision maker examined in this review are nationality, religion, sex, age, education, employment, and personality. Situation specific variables examined in this review are referent groups, rewards and sanctions, codes of conduct, type of (...)
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  48. Ethical Decision Making in Organizations: The Role of Leadership Stress.Marcus Selart & Svein Tvedt Johansen - 2011 - Journal of Business Ethics 99 (2):129 - 143.
    Across two studies the hypotheses were tested that stressful situations affect both leadership ethical acting and leaders' recognition of ethical dilemmas. In the studies, decision makers recruited from 3 sites of a Swedish multinational civil engineering company provided personal data on stressful situations, made ethical decisions, and answered to stress-outcome questions. Stressful situations were observed to have a greater impact on ethical acting than on the recognition of ethical dilemmas. This was particularly true for situations involving punishment and lack (...)
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    Shared DecisionMaking and Maternity Care in the Deep Learning Age: Acknowledging and Overcoming Inherited Defeaters.Keith Begley, Cecily Begley & Valerie Smith - 2021 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 27 (3):497–503.
    In recent years there has been an explosion of interest in Artificial Intelligence (AI) both in health care and academic philosophy. This has been due mainly to the rise of effective machine learning and deep learning algorithms, together with increases in data collection and processing power, which have made rapid progress in many areas. However, use of this technology has brought with it philosophical issues and practical problems, in particular, epistemic and ethical. In this paper the authors, with backgrounds in (...)
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    Algorithmic Decision-Making Based on Machine Learning From Big Data: Can Transparency Restore Accountability?Paul B. de Laat - 2018 - Philosophy and Technology 31 (4):525-541.
    Decision-making assisted by algorithms developed by machine learning is increasingly determining our lives. Unfortunately, full opacity about the process is the norm. Would transparency contribute to restoring accountability for such systems as is often maintained? Several objections to full transparency are examined: the loss of privacy when datasets become public, the perverse effects of disclosure of the very algorithms themselves, the potential loss of companies’ competitive edge, and the limited gains in answerability to be expected since sophisticated algorithms (...)
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