Results for 'Deduction'

998 found
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  1.  85
    Natural Deduction: A Proof-Theoretical Study.Dag Prawitz - 1965 - Dover Publications.
    This volume examines the notion of an analytic proof as a natural deduction, suggesting that the proof's value may be understood as its normal form--a concept with significant implications to proof-theoretic semantics.
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  2.  51
    Relevant Deduction.Gerhard Schurz - 1991 - Erkenntnis 35 (1-3):391 - 437.
    This paper presents an outline of a new theory of relevant deduction which arose from the purpose of solving paradoxes in various fields of analytic philosophy. In distinction to relevance logics, this approach does not replace classical logic by a new one, but distinguishes between relevance and validity. It is argued that irrelevant arguments are, although formally valid, nonsensical and even harmful in practical applications. The basic idea is this: a valid deduction is relevant iff no subformula of (...)
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  3. Deduction.P. N. Johnson-Laird & Ruth M. J. Byrne - 1991
     
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  4.  34
    Natural Deduction with General Elimination Rules.Jan von Plato - 2001 - Archive for Mathematical Logic 40 (7):541-567.
    The structure of derivations in natural deduction is analyzed through isomorphism with a suitable sequent calculus, with twelve hidden convertibilities revealed in usual natural deduction. A general formulation of conjunction and implication elimination rules is given, analogous to disjunction elimination. Normalization through permutative conversions now applies in all cases. Derivations in normal form have all major premisses of elimination rules as assumptions. Conversion in any order terminates.Through the condition that in a cut-free derivation of the sequent Γ⇒C, no (...)
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  5.  44
    A Deduction From Apperception?Andrew Stephenson - 2014 - Studi Kantiani 27:77-86.
    I discuss three elements of Dennis Schulting’s new book on the transcendental deduction of the pure concepts of the understanding, or categories. First, that Schulting gives a detailed account of the role of each individual category. Second, Schulting’s insistence that the categories nevertheless apply ‘en bloc’. Third, Schulting’s defence of Kant’s so-called reciprocity thesis that subjective unity of consciousness and objectivity in the sense of cognition’s objective purport are necessary conditions for the possibility of one another. I endorse these (...)
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  6.  22
    Malachi Hacohen Historicizing Deduction: Scientific Method, Critical Debate, and the Historian.Historicizing Deduction - 2004 - In Friedrich Stadler (ed.), Induction and Deduction in the Sciences. Springer. pp. 11--17.
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  7. Natural Deduction for the Sheffer Stroke and Peirce’s Arrow (and Any Other Truth-Functional Connective).Richard Zach - 2016 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 45 (2):183-197.
    Methods available for the axiomatization of arbitrary finite-valued logics can be applied to obtain sound and complete intelim rules for all truth-functional connectives of classical logic including the Sheffer stroke and Peirce’s arrow. The restriction to a single conclusion in standard systems of natural deduction requires the introduction of additional rules to make the resulting systems complete; these rules are nevertheless still simple and correspond straightforwardly to the classical absurdity rule. Omitting these rules results in systems for intuitionistic versions (...)
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  8. Kant’s Deduction From Apperception: An Essay on the Transcendental Deduction of the Categories.Dennis Schulting - 2019 - Berlin, Germany: De Gruyter.
    In focusing on the systematic deduction of the categories from a principle, Schulting takes up anew the controversial project of the eminent German Kant scholar Klaus Reich, whose monograph “The Completeness of Kant's Table of Judgments” made the case that the logical functions of judgement can all be derived from the objective unity of apperception and can be shown to link up with one another systematically. -/- Common opinion among Kantians today has it that Kant did not mean to (...)
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  9.  65
    Natural Deduction for Dual-Intuitionistic Logic.Luca Tranchini - 2012 - Studia Logica 100 (3):631-648.
    We present a natural deduction system for dual-intuitionistic logic. Its distinctive feature is that it is a single-premise multiple-conclusions system. Its relationships with the natural deduction systems for intuitionistic and classical logic are discussed.
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  10.  97
    Natural Deduction and Curry's Paradox.Susan Rogerson - 2007 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 36 (2):155 - 179.
    Curry's paradox, sometimes described as a general version of the better known Russell's paradox, has intrigued logicians for some time. This paper examines the paradox in a natural deduction setting and critically examines some proposed restrictions to the logic by Fitch and Prawitz. We then offer a tentative counterexample to a conjecture by Tennant proposing a criterion for what is to count as a genuine paradox.
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  11.  61
    From Deduction to Deed: Kant's Grounding of the Moral Law.David Sussman - 2008 - Kantian Review 13 (1):52-81.
    In the Critique of Practical Reason, Kant presents the moral law as the sole ‘fact of pure reason’ that neither needs nor admits of a deduction to establish its authority. This claim may come as a surprise to many readers of his earlier Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals. In the last section of the Groundwork, Kant seemed to offer a sketch of just such a ‘deduction of the supreme principle of morality’ . Although notoriously obscure, this sketch (...)
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  12.  9
    Deduction From Uncertain Premises.Rosemary J. Stevenson & David E. Over - 1995 - Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology Section A 48 (3):613-643.
    We investigate how the perceived uncertainty of a conditional affects a person's choice of conclusion. We use a novel procedure to introduce uncertainty by manipulating the conditional probability of the consequent given the antecedent. In Experiment 1, we show first that subjects reduce their choice of valid conclusions when a conditional is followed by an additional premise that makes the major premise uncertain. In this we replicate Byrne. These subjects choose, instead, a qualified conclusion expressing uncertainty. If subjects are given (...)
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  13.  10
    Natural Deduction System in Paraconsistent Setting: Proof Search for PCont.Vasilyi Shangin & Alexander Bolotov - 2012 - Journal of Intelligent Systems 21 (1):1-24.
    . This paper continues a systematic approach to build natural deduction calculi and corresponding proof procedures for non-classical logics. Our attention is now paid to the framework of paraconsistent logics. These logics are used, in particular, for reasoning about systems where paradoxes do not lead to the `deductive explosion', i.e., where formulae of the type `A follows from false', for any A, are not valid. We formulate the natural deduction system for the logic PCont, explain its main concepts, (...)
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  14.  91
    Fichte's Deduction of the Moral Law.Owen Ware - 2019 - In Steven Hoeltzel (ed.), Palgrave Fichte Handbook. Palgrave. pp. 239-256.
    It is often assumed that Fichte's aim in Part I of the System of Ethics is to provide a deduction of the moral law, the very thing that Kant – after years of unsuccessful attempts – deemed impossible. On this familiar reading, what Kant eventually viewed as an underivable 'fact' (Factum), the authority of the moral law, is what Fichte traces to its highest ground in what he calls the principle of the 'I'. However, scholars have largely overlooked a (...)
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  15.  18
    Deduction and Reduction Theorems for Inferential Erotetic Logic.Andrzej Wiśniewski - 2018 - Studia Logica 106 (2):295-309.
    The concepts of question evocation and erotetic implication play central role in Inferential Erotetic Logic. In this paper, deduction theorems for question evocation and erotetic implication are proven. Moreover, it is shown how question evocation by a finite non-empty set of declaratives can be reduced to question evocation by the empty set, and how erotetic implication based on a finite non-empty set of declaratives can be reduced to a relation between questions only.
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  16.  38
    Defining Deduction, Induction, and Validity.Jan J. Wilbanks - 2010 - Argumentation 24 (1):107-124.
    In this paper I focus on two contrasting concepts of deduction and induction that have appeared in introductory (formal) logic texts over the past 75 years or so. According to the one, deductive and inductive arguments are defined solely by reference to what arguers claim about the relation between the premises and the conclusions. According to the other, they are defined solely by reference to that relation itself. Arguing that these definitions have defects that are due to their simplicity, (...)
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  17. Natural Deduction for Diagonal Operators.Fabio Lampert - 2017 - In Maria Zack & Dirk Schlimm (eds.), Research in History and Philosophy of Mathematics: The CSHPM 2016 Annual Meeting in Calgary, Alberta. Cham: Birkhäuser. pp. 39-51.
    We present a sound and complete Fitch-style natural deduction system for an S5 modal logic containing an actuality operator, a diagonal necessity operator, and a diagonal possibility operator. The logic is two-dimensional, where we evaluate sentences with respect to both an actual world (first dimension) and a world of evaluation (second dimension). The diagonal necessity operator behaves as a quantifier over every point on the diagonal between actual worlds and worlds of evaluation, while the diagonal possibility quantifies over some (...)
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  18.  76
    Inference, Deduction, Logic.Ian Rumfitt - 2011 - In John Bengson & Marc A. Moffett (eds.), Knowing How: Essays on Knowledge, Mind, and Action. Oxford University Press, Usa. pp. 334.
  19.  22
    Deduction, Induction, Conduction. An Attempt at Unifying Natural Language Argument Structures.Frank Zenker - unknown
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  20.  8
    Natural Deduction: A Proof-Theoretical Study.Richmond Thomason - 1965 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 32 (2):255-256.
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  21.  16
    Deduction Theorems for RM and its Extensions.Marek Tokarz - 1979 - Studia Logica 38 (2):105 - 111.
    In this paper logics defined by finite Sugihara matrices, as well as RM itself, are discussed both in their matrix (semantical) and in syntactical version. For each such a logic a deduction theorem is proved, and a few applications are given.
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  22.  32
    Beyond Deduction: Ampliative Aspects of Philosophical Reflection.Frederick L. WILL - 1988 - Routledge.
    Introduction The central aim of this book is to focus attention upon and illuminate the character of a certain phase of philosophical reflection: namely, ...
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  23. Kant's Deduction and Apperception. Explaining the Categories.Dennis Schulting - 2012 - Palgrave-Macmillan.
  24. Natural Deduction in Connectionist Systems.William Bechtel - 1994 - Synthese 101 (3):433-463.
    The relation between logic and thought has long been controversial, but has recently influenced theorizing about the nature of mental processes in cognitive science. One prominent tradition argues that to explain the systematicity of thought we must posit syntactically structured representations inside the cognitive system which can be operated upon by structure sensitive rules similar to those employed in systems of natural deduction. I have argued elsewhere that the systematicity of human thought might better be explained as resulting from (...)
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  25.  63
    Natural Deduction for First-Order Hybrid Logic.Torben BraÜner - 2005 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 14 (2):173-198.
    This is a companion paper to Braüner where a natural deduction system for propositional hybrid logic is given. In the present paper we generalize the system to the first-order case. Our natural deduction system for first-order hybrid logic can be extended with additional inference rules corresponding to conditions on the accessibility relations and the quantifier domains expressed by so-called geometric theories. We prove soundness and completeness and we prove a normalisation theorem. Moreover, we give an axiom system first-order (...)
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  26.  10
    Natural Deduction for Post’s Logics and Their Duals.Yaroslav Petrukhin - 2018 - Logica Universalis 12 (1-2):83-100.
    In this paper, we introduce the notion of dual Post’s negation and an infinite class of Dual Post’s finitely-valued logics which differ from Post’s ones with respect to the definitions of negation and the sets of designated truth values. We present adequate natural deduction systems for all Post’s k-valued ) logics as well as for all Dual Post’s k-valued logics.
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  27. Natural Deduction and Sequent Calculus for Intuitionistic Relevant Logic.Neil Tennant - 1987 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 52 (3):665-680.
  28.  32
    Uncertain Deduction and Conditional Reasoning.Jonathan St B. T. Evans, Valerie A. Thompson & David E. Over - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
  29.  15
    Natural Deduction for Fitting’s Four-Valued Generalizations of Kleene’s Logics.Yaroslav I. Petrukhin - 2017 - Logica Universalis 11 (4):525-532.
    In this paper, we present sound and complete natural deduction systems for Fitting’s four-valued generalizations of Kleene’s three-valued regular logics.
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  30. Does the Deduction Theorem Fail for Modal Logic?Raul Hakli & Sara Negri - 2012 - Synthese 187 (3):849-867.
    Various sources in the literature claim that the deduction theorem does not hold for normal modal or epistemic logic, whereas others present versions of the deduction theorem for several normal modal systems. It is shown here that the apparent problem arises from an objectionable notion of derivability from assumptions in an axiomatic system. When a traditional Hilbert-type system of axiomatic logic is generalized into a system for derivations from assumptions, the necessitation rule has to be modified in a (...)
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  31. Is Kant’s Transcendental Deduction of the Categories Fit for Purpose?Anil Gomes - 2010 - Kantian Review 15 (2):118-137.
    James Van Cleve has argued that Kant’s Transcendental Deduction of the categories shows, at most, that we must apply the categories to experience. And this falls short of Kant’s aim, which is to show that they must so apply. In this discussion I argue that once we have noted the differences between the first and second editions of the Deduction, this objection is less telling. But Van Cleve’s objection can help illuminate the structure of the B Deduction, (...)
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  32.  41
    Relevant Deduction and Hypothetico-Deductivism: A Reply to Gemes. [REVIEW]Gerhard Schurz - 1994 - Erkenntnis 41 (2):183 - 188.
  33. Deduction and Novelty Again.Danny Frederick - 2014 - The Reasoner 8 (5):51-52.
    It is commonly claimed that the conclusion of a valid deductive argument is contained in its premises and says nothing new. In 'Deduction and Novelty,' in The Reasoner 5 (4), pp. 56-57, I refuted that claim. In The Reasoner, 8 (3), pp. 24-25, David McBride criticised my refutation. I show that McBride’s arguments are unsound.
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  34. Aristotle's Natural Deduction System.John Corcoran - 1974 - In Ancient Logic and its Modern Interpretations. Boston: Reidel. pp. 85--131.
    This presentation of Aristotle's natural deduction system supplements earlier presentations and gives more historical evidence. Some fine-tunings resulted from conversations with Timothy Smiley, Charles Kahn, Josiah Gould, John Kearns,John Glanvillle, and William Parry.The criticism of Aristotle's theory of propositions found at the end of this 1974 presentation was retracted in Corcoran's 2009 HPL article "Aristotle's demonstrative logic".
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  35.  40
    Natural Deduction Calculi and Sequent Calculi for Counterfactual Logics.Francesca Poggiolesi - 2016 - Studia Logica 104 (5):1003-1036.
    In this paper we present labelled sequent calculi and labelled natural deduction calculi for the counterfactual logics CK + {ID, MP}. As for the sequent calculi we prove, in a semantic manner, that the cut-rule is admissible. As for the natural deduction calculi we prove, in a purely syntactic way, the normalization theorem. Finally, we demonstrate that both calculi are sound and complete with respect to Nute semantics [12] and that the natural deduction calculi can be effectively (...)
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  36. Natural Deduction.Andrzej Indrzejczak - 2015
    Natural Deduction Natural Deduction is a common name for the class of proof systems composed of simple and self-evident inference rules based upon methods of proof and traditional ways of reasoning that have been applied since antiquity in deductive practice. The first formal ND systems were independently constructed in the 1930s by G. Gentzen and S. Jaśkowski and … Continue reading Natural Deduction →.
     
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  37.  29
    Natural Deduction for Modal Logic of Judgment Aggregation.Tin Perkov - 2016 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 25 (3-4):335-354.
    We can formalize judgments as logical formulas. Judgment aggregation deals with judgments of several agents, which need to be aggregated to a collective judgment. There are several logical formalizations of judgment aggregation. This paper focuses on a modal formalization which nicely expresses classical properties of judgment aggregation rules and famous results of social choice theory, like Arrow’s impossibility theorem. A natural deduction system for modal logic of judgment aggregation is presented in this paper. The system is sound and complete. (...)
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  38.  30
    The Naturality of Natural Deduction.Luca Tranchini, Paolo Pistone & Mattia Petrolo - 2019 - Studia Logica 107 (1):195-231.
    Developing a suggestion by Russell, Prawitz showed how the usual natural deduction inference rules for disjunction, conjunction and absurdity can be derived using those for implication and the second order quantifier in propositional intuitionistic second order logic NI\. It is however well known that the translation does not preserve the relations of identity among derivations induced by the permutative conversions and immediate expansions for the definable connectives, at least when the equational theory of NI\ is assumed to consist only (...)
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  39.  24
    Defining Deduction.Mark Vorobej - 1992 - Informal Logic 14 (2).
    This paper defends the view that the classification of an argument as being deductive ought to rest exclusively upon psychological considerations; specifically, upon whether the argument's author holds certain beliefs. This account is justified on theoretical and pedagogical grounds, and situated within a general taxonomy of competing proposals. Epistemological difficulties involved in the application of psychological definitions are recognized but claimed to be ineliminable from the praetice of argumentation. The paper concludes by discussing embryonic arguments where the author's relevant beliefs (...)
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  40.  8
    Natural Deduction for Intuitionistic Linear Logic.A. S. Troelstra - 1995 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 73 (1):79-108.
    The paper deals with two versions of the fragment with unit, tensor, linear implication and storage operator of intuitionistic linear logic. The first version, ILL, appears in a paper by Benton, Bierman, Hyland and de Paiva; the second one, ILL+, is described in this paper. ILL has a contraction rule and an introduction rule !I for the exponential; in ILL+, instead of a contraction rule, multiple occurrences of labels for assumptions are permitted under certain conditions; moreover, there is a different (...)
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  41. Single Premise Deduction and Risk.Maria Lasonen-Aarnio - 2008 - Philosophical Studies 141 (2):157 - 173.
    It is tempting to think that multi premise closure creates a special class of paradoxes having to do with the accumulation of risks, and that these paradoxes could be escaped by rejecting the principle, while still retaining single premise closure. I argue that single premise deduction is also susceptible to risks. I show that what I take to be the strongest argument for rejecting multi premise closure is also an argument for rejecting single premise closure. Because of the symmetry (...)
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  42. The Justification of Deduction.Susan Haack - 1976 - Mind 85 (337):112-119.
    It is often taken for granted by writers who propose--and, for that matter, by writers who oppose--'justifications' of inductions, that deduction either does not need, or can readily be provided with, justification. The purpose of this paper is to argue that, contrary to this common opinion, problems analogous to those which, notoriously, arise in the attempt to justify induction, also arise in the attempt to justify deduction.
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  43.  48
    Natural Deduction Rules for a Logic of Vagueness.J. A. Burgess & I. L. Humberstone - 1987 - Erkenntnis 27 (2):197-229.
    Extant semantic theories for languages containing vague expressions violate intuition by delivering the same verdict on two principles of classical propositional logic: the law of noncontradiction and the law of excluded middle. Supervaluational treatments render both valid; many-Valued treatments, Neither. The core of this paper presents a natural deduction system, Sound and complete with respect to a 'mixed' semantics which validates the law of noncontradiction but not the law of excluded middle.
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  44. Kant's Transcendental Deduction: An Analytic-Historical Commentary.Henry E. Allison - 2015 - Oxford University Press UK.
    Henry E. Allison presents an analytical and historical commentary on Kant`s transcendental deduction of the pure concepts of the understanding in the Critique of Pure Reason. He argues that, rather than providing a new solution to an old problem, it addresses a new problem, and he traces the line of thought that led Kant to the recognition of the significance of this problem in his 'pre-critical' period. In addition to the developmental nature of the account of Kant`s views presented (...)
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  45. The Content of Deduction.Mark Jago - 2013 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 42 (2):317-334.
    For deductive reasoning to be justified, it must be guaranteed to preserve truth from premises to conclusion; and for it to be useful to us, it must be capable of informing us of something. How can we capture this notion of information content, whilst respecting the fact that the content of the premises, if true, already secures the truth of the conclusion? This is the problem I address here. I begin by considering and rejecting several accounts of informational content. I (...)
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  46.  30
    Deduction and Definability in Infinite Statistical Systems.Benjamin Feintzeig - 2017 - Synthese:1-31.
    Classical accounts of intertheoretic reduction involve two pieces: first, the new terms of the higher-level theory must be definable from the terms of the lower-level theory, and second, the claims of the higher-level theory must be deducible from the lower-level theory along with these definitions. The status of each of these pieces becomes controversial when the alleged reduction involves an infinite limit, as in statistical mechanics. Can one define features of or deduce the behavior of an infinite idealized system from (...)
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  47. Why the Transcendental Deduction is Compatible with Nonconceptualism.Sacha Golob - 2016 - In Dennis Schulting (ed.), Kantian Nonconceptualism. Palgrave-Macmillan. pp. 27-52.
    One of the strongest motivations for conceptualist readings of Kant is the belief that the Transcendental Deduction is incompatible with nonconceptualism. In this article, I argue that this belief is simply false: the Deduction and nonconceptualism are compatible at both an exegetical and a philosophical level. Placing particular emphasis on the case of non-human animals, I discuss in detail how and why my reading diverges from those of Ginsborg, Allais, Gomes and others. I suggest ultimately that it is (...)
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  48.  40
    A Deduction Theorem Schema for Deductive Systems of Propositional Logics.Janusz Czelakowski & Wies?aw Dziobiak - 1991 - Studia Logica 50 (3-4):385 - 390.
    We propose a new schema for the deduction theorem and prove that the deductive system S of a prepositional logic L fulfills the proposed schema if and only if there exists a finite set A(p, q) of propositional formulae involving only prepositional letters p and q such that A(p, p) L and p, A(p, q) s q.
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  49.  19
    Deduction Difficulties.Robert Howell - 2018 - Kantian Review 23 (1):111-121.
    I argue, contrary to Dennis Schulting inKant’s Radical Subjectivism, that the main reasoning of Kant’s transcendental deduction of the categories is progressive, not regressive. Schulting is right, however, to emphasize that the deduction takes the object cognized to be constituted in an idealism-entailing way. But his reasoning has gaps and bypasses Kant’s most explicit deduction argument, independent of the Transcendental Aesthetic, for idealism. Finally, Schulting’s claim that Kantian discursivity itself requires idealism overlooks the fact that Kantian general (...)
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  50.  30
    Translations From Natural Deduction to Sequent Calculus.Jan von Plato - 2003 - Mathematical Logic Quarterly 49 (5):435.
    Gentzen's “Untersuchungen” [1] gave a translation from natural deduction to sequent calculus with the property that normal derivations may translate into derivations with cuts. Prawitz in [8] gave a translation that instead produced cut-free derivations. It is shown that by writing all elimination rules in the manner of disjunction elimination, with an arbitrary consequence, an isomorphic translation between normal derivations and cut-free derivations is achieved. The standard elimination rules do not permit a full normal form, which explains the cuts (...)
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