Results for 'Default logic'

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  1.  48
    Advances in Contemporary Logic and Computer Science Proceedings of the Eleventh Brazilian Conference on Mathematical Logic, May 6-10, 1996, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. [REVIEW]Walter A. Carnielli, Itala M. L. D'ottaviano & Brazilian Conference on Mathematical Logic - 1999
    This volume presents the proceedings from the Eleventh Brazilian Logic Conference on Mathematical Logic held by the Brazilian Logic Society (co-sponsored by the Centre for Logic, Epistemology and the History of Science, State University of Campinas, Sao Paulo) in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. The conference and the volume are dedicated to the memory of professor Mario Tourasse Teixeira, an educator and researcher who contributed to the formation of several generations of Brazilian logicians. Contributions were made from leading (...)
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  2.  76
    An Interpretation of Default Logic in Minimal Temporal Epistemic Logic.Joeri Engelfriet & Jan Treur - 1998 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 7 (3):369-388.
    When reasoning about complex domains, where information available is usually only partial, nonmonotonic reasoning can be an important tool. One of the formalisms introduced in this area is Reiter's Default Logic (1980). A characteristic of this formalism is that the applicability of default (inference) rules can only be verified in the future of the reasoning process. We describe an interpretation of default logic in temporal epistemic logic which makes this characteristic explicit. It is shown (...)
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  3.  38
    Proof Complexity of Propositional Default Logic.Olaf Beyersdorff, Arne Meier, Sebastian Müller, Michael Thomas & Heribert Vollmer - 2011 - Archive for Mathematical Logic 50 (7-8):727-742.
    Default logic is one of the most popular and successful formalisms for non-monotonic reasoning. In 2002, Bonatti and Olivetti introduced several sequent calculi for credulous and skeptical reasoning in propositional default logic. In this paper we examine these calculi from a proof-complexity perspective. In particular, we show that the calculus for credulous reasoning obeys almost the same bounds on the proof size as Gentzen’s system LK. Hence proving lower bounds for credulous reasoning will be as hard (...)
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  4.  42
    A Resource-Bounded Default Logic.Gregory Wheeler - 2004 - In J. Delgrande & T. Schaub (eds.), Proceedings of NMR 2004. AAAI.
    This paper presents statistical default logic, an expansion of classical (i.e., Reiter) default logic that allows us to model common inference patterns found in standard inferential statistics, including hypothesis testing and the estimation of a populations mean, variance and proportions. The logic replaces classical defaults with ordered pairs consisting of a Reiter default in the first coordinate and a real number within the unit interval in the second coordinate. This real number represents an upper-bound (...)
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  5.  41
    An Implementation of Statistical Default Logic.Gregory Wheeler & Carlos Damasio - 2004 - In Jose Alferes & Joao Leite (eds.), Logics in Artificial Intelligence (JELIA 2004). Springer.
    Statistical Default Logic (SDL) is an expansion of classical (i.e., Reiter) default logic that allows us to model common inference patterns found in standard inferential statistics, e.g., hypothesis testing and the estimation of a population‘s mean, variance and proportions. This paper presents an embedding of an important subset of SDL theories, called literal statistical default theories, into stable model semantics. The embedding is designed to compute the signature set of literals that uniquely distinguishes each extension (...)
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  6.  27
    Default Logic and Hafta.Anthony Gillies - manuscript
    This is a note from an AMC session on Jeff Horty's (2012) book *Reasons as Defaults*.
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  7.  23
    Temporalizing Epistemic Default Logic.Wiebe van der Hoek, John-Jules Meyer & Jan Treur - 1998 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 7 (3):341-367.
    We present an epistemic default logic, based on the metaphore of a meta-level architecture. Upward reflection is formalized by a nonmonotonic entailment relation, based on the objective facts that are either known or unknown at the object level. Then, the meta (monotonic) reasoning process generates a number of default-beliefs of object-level formulas. We extend this framework by proposing a mechanism to reflect these defaults down. Such a reflection is seen as essentially having a temporal flavour: defaults derived (...)
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  8.  65
    Default Logic as Dynamic Doxastic Logic.Krister Segerberg - 1999 - Erkenntnis 50 (2-3):333-352.
    Dynamic doxastic logic (DDL) is used in connexion with theories of belief revision. Here we try to show that languages of DDL are suitable also for discussing aspects of default logic. One ingredient of our analysis is a concept of coherence-as-ratifiability.
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  9.  34
    Embedding Modal Nonmonotonic Logics Into Default Logic.Robert Milnikel - 2003 - Studia Logica 75 (3):377 - 382.
    We present a straightforward embedding of modal nonmonotonic logics into default logic.
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  10.  36
    Is Default Logic a Reinvention of Inductive-Statistical Reasoning?Yao-Hua Tan - 1997 - Synthese 110 (3):357-379.
    Currently there is hardly any connection between philosophy of science and Artificial Intelligence research. We argue that both fields can benefit from each other. As an example of this mutual benefit we discuss the relation between Inductive-Statistical Reasoning and Default Logic. One of the main topics in AI research is the study of common-sense reasoning with incomplete information. Default logic is especially developed to formalise this type of reasoning. We show that there is a striking resemblance (...)
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  11.  6
    A Structural Property On Modal Frames Characterizing Default Logic.Gianni Amati, Luigia Aiello, Dov Gabbay & Fiora Pirri - 1996 - Logic Journal of the IGPL 4 (1):7-22.
    We show that modal logics characterized by a class of frames satisfying the insertion property are suitable for Reiter's default logic. We refine the canonical fix point construction defined by Marek, Schwarz and Truszczyński for Reiter's default logic and thus we addrress a new paradigm for nonmonotonic logic. In fact, differently from the construction defined by these authors. we show that suitable modal logics for such a construction must indeed contain K D4. When reflexivity is (...)
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  12. A Directly Cautious Theory of Defeasible Consequence for Default Logic Via the Notion of General Extension.G. Aldo Antonelli - 1999 - Artificial Intelligence 109 (1-2):71-109.
    This paper introduces a generalization of Reiter’s notion of “extension” for default logic. The main difference from the original version mainly lies in the way conflicts among defaults are handled: in particular, this notion of “general extension” allows defaults not explicitly triggered to pre-empt other defaults. A consequence of the adoption of such a notion of extension is that the collection of all the general extensions of a default theory turns out to have a nontrivial algebraic structure. (...)
     
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  13.  22
    Default Logic: Towards a Common Logical Semantics for Presuppositions and Entailments.Robert E. Mercer - 1992 - Journal of Semantics 9 (3):223-250.
    Presuppositions and entailments play an important role in determining the meaning of a natural language utterance. Considered as inferences, presuppositions and entailments can be derived from appropriate logical representations of the uttered sentence, the background real world knowledge, and knowledge concerning conversational principles. Presuppositions are conjectural or defeasible in nature, and entailments are deductive. In this paper we describe the application of Default Logic proof theory (which includes First Order Logic proof theory) to the generation of presuppositions (...)
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  14.  6
    The Complexity of Predicate Default Logic Over a Countable Domain.Robert Saxon Milnikel - 2003 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 120 (1-3):151-163.
    Lifschitz introduced the notion of defining extensions of predicate default theories not as absolute, but relative to a specified domain. We look specifically at default theories over a countable domain and show the set of default theories which possess an ω -extension is Σ 2 1 -complete. That the set is in Σ 2 1 is shown by writing a nearly circumscriptive formula whose ω -models correspond to the ω -extensions of a given default theory; similarly, (...)
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  15.  22
    Probabilistic Logic Under Coherence, Model-Theoretic Probabilistic Logic, and Default Reasoning in System P.Veronica Biazzo, Angelo Gilio, Thomas Lukasiewicz & Giuseppe Sanfilippo - 2002 - Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics 12 (2):189-213.
    We study probabilistic logic under the viewpoint of the coherence principle of de Finetti. In detail, we explore how probabilistic reasoning under coherence is related to model- theoretic probabilistic reasoning and to default reasoning in System . In particular, we show that the notions of g-coherence and of g-coherent entailment can be expressed by combining notions in model-theoretic probabilistic logic with concepts from default reasoning. Moreover, we show that probabilistic reasoning under coherence is a generalization of (...)
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  16.  62
    Probabilistic Logic Under Coherence, Conditional Interpretations, and Default Reasoning.Angelo Gilio - 2005 - Synthese 146 (1-2):139-152.
    We study a probabilistic logic based on the coherence principle of de Finetti and a related notion of generalized coherence (g-coherence). We examine probabilistic conditional knowledge bases associated with imprecise probability assessments defined on arbitrary families of conditional events. We introduce a notion of conditional interpretation defined directly in terms of precise probability assessments. We also examine a property of strong satisfiability which is related to the notion of toleration well known in default reasoning. In our framework we (...)
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  17.  4
    Philippe Besnard. An Introduction to Default Logic. Symbolic Computation, Artificial Intelligence Series. Springer-Verlag, Berlin Etc. 1989, Xi + 208 Pp. [REVIEW]V. Wiktor Marek - 1998 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 63 (4):1608-1610.
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  18.  33
    A Base Logic for Default Reasoning.Beihai Zhou & Yi Mao - 2006 - Frontiers of Philosophy in China 1 (4):688-709.
    Based on a close study of benchmark examples in default reasoning, such as Nixon Diamond, Penguin Principle, etc., this paper provides an in depth analysis of the basic features of default reasoning. We formalize default inferences based on Modus Ponens for Default Implication, and mark the distinction between "local inferences"(to infer a conclusion from a subset of given premises) and "global inferences"(to infer a conclusion from the entire set of given premises). These conceptual analyses are captured (...)
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  19.  8
    Review: Philippe Besnard, An Introduction to Default Logic[REVIEW]V. Wiktor Marek - 1998 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 63 (4):1608-1610.
  20.  15
    A Three-Valued Approach to Default Logic.Anna Radzikowska - 1996 - Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics 6 (2):149-190.
  21. QML: A Paraconsistent Default Logic.Johan van den Akker & Yao Hua TANt - 1993 - Logique Et Analyse 143 (143-144):311-328.
     
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  22.  38
    An Introduction to Default Logic.César Gárate - 1991 - Theoria 6 (1):287-289.
  23.  7
    Nonmonotonic Reasoning and Modal Logic, From Negation as Failure to Default Logic.Philippe Balbiani - 1991 - In B. Bouchon-Meunier, R. R. Yager & L. A. Zadeh (eds.), Uncertainty in Knowledge Bases. Springer. pp. 223--231.
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  24. Default Logic and Presuppositition'.R. Mercer - 1992 - Journal of Semantics 9 (3).
     
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  25. Inheritance in Semantic Networks and Default Logic.C. Froidevaux & D. Kayser - 1988 - In Philippe Smets (ed.), Non-Standard Logics for Automated Reasoning. Academic Press. pp. 179--212.
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  26. Philippe BESNARD, "An Introduction to Default Logic". [REVIEW]Paul Gochet - 1990 - Revue Internationale de Philosophie 44 (1):145.
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  27.  39
    Notions of Sameness by Default and Their Application to Anaphora, Vagueness, and Uncertain Reasoning.Ariel Cohen, Michael Kaminski & Johann A. Makowsky - 2008 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 17 (3):285-306.
    We motivate and formalize the idea of sameness by default: two objects are considered the same if they cannot be proved to be different. This idea turns out to be useful for a number of widely different applications, including natural language processing, reasoning with incomplete information, and even philosophical paradoxes. We consider two formalizations of this notion, both of which are based on Reiter’s Default Logic. The first formalization is a new relation of indistinguishability that is introduced (...)
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  28. First-Order Conditional Logic for Default Reasoning Revisited.Nir Friedman, Joseph Halpern, Koller Y. & Daphne - 2000 - Acm Trans. Comput. Logic 1 (2):175--207.
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  29.  7
    Splitting Finite Default Theories: A Comparison of Two Approaches. [REVIEW]Grigoris Antoniou - 1999 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 8 (2):205-216.
    Default logic is computationally expensive. One of the most promising ways of easing this problem and developing powerful implementations is to split a default theory into smaller parts and compute extensions in a modular, local way. This paper compares two recent approaches, Turner's splitting and Cholewinski's stratification. It shows that the approaches are closely related – in fact the former can be viewed as a special case of the latter.
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  30.  26
    The Dramatic True Story of the Frame Default.Vladimir Lifschitz - 2015 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 44 (2):163-176.
    This is an expository article about the solution to the frame problem proposed in 1980 by Raymond Reiter. For years, his “frame default” remained untested and suspect. But developments in some seemingly unrelated areas of computer science—logic programming and satisfiability solvers—eventually exonerated the frame default and turned it into a basis for important applications.
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  31.  56
    A Structuralist Theory of Belief Revision.Holger Andreas - 2011 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 20 (2):205-232.
    The present paper aims at a synthesis of belief revision theory with the Sneed formalism known as the structuralist theory of science. This synthesis is brought about by a dynamisation of classical structuralism, with an abductive inference rule and base generated revisions in the style of Rott (2001). The formalism of prioritised default logic (PDL) serves as the medium of the synthesis. Why seek to integrate the Sneed formalism into belief revision theory? With the hybrid system of the (...)
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  32.  18
    Defaults as Restrictions on Classical Hilbert-Style Proofs.Gianni Amati, Luigia Carlucci Aiello & Fiora Pirri - 1994 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 3 (4):303-326.
    Since the earliest formalisation of default logic by Reiter many contributions to this appealing approach to nonmonotonic reasoning have been given. The different formalisations are here presented in a general framework that gathers the basic notions, concepts and constructions underlying default logic. Our view is to interpret defaults as special rules that impose a restriction on the juxtaposition of monotonic Hubert-style proofs of a given logicL. We propose to describe default logic as a (...) where the juxtaposition of default proofs is subordinate to a restriction condition . Hence a default logic is a pair (L, ) where properties of the logic , like compactness, can be interpreted through the restriction condition . Different default systems are then given a common characterization through a specific condition on the logicL. We also prove cumulativity for any default logic (L, ) by slightly modifying the notion of default proof. We extend, in fact, the language ofL in a way close to that followed by Brewka in the formulation of his cumulative default system. Finally we show the existence of infinitely many intermediary default logics, depending on and called linear logics, which lie between Reiter's and ukaszewicz' versions of default logic. (shrink)
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  33. Bridges From Classical to Nonmonotonic Logic.David Makinson - 2005 - King's College Publications.
    An graduate level introduction to nonmonotonic reasoning, emphasizing structures and spirit common to different formulations, with exercises.
     
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  34.  27
    Monotonicity in Practical Reasoning.Kenneth G. Ferguson - 2003 - Argumentation 17 (3):335-346.
    Classic deductive logic entails that once a conclusion is sustained by a valid argument, the argument can never be invalidated, no matter how many new premises are added. This derived property of deductive reasoning is known as monotonicity. Monotonicity is thought to conflict with the defeasibility of reasoning in natural language, where the discovery of new information often leads us to reject conclusions that we once accepted. This perceived failure of monotonic reasoning to observe the defeasibility of natural-language arguments (...)
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  35.  52
    Constraints for Input/Output Logics.David Makinson & Leendert van der Torre - 2001 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 30 (2):155 - 185.
    In a previous paper we developed a general theory of input/output logics. These are operations resembling inference, but where inputs need not be included among outputs, and outputs need not be reusable as inputs. In the present paper we study what happens when they are constrained to render output consistent with input. This is of interest for deontic logic, where it provides a manner of handling contrary-to-duty obligations. Our procedure is to constrain the set of generators of the input/output (...)
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  36. Bridges From Classical to Nonmonotonic Logic.David Makinson - 2006 - London: College Publications.
    A textbook for graduate students of philosophy, computer science, and mathematics, on various approaches to nonmonotonic logic, with emphasis on they way in which they fall into an overall pattern.
     
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  37.  52
    Moral Particularism in the Light of Deontic Logic.Xavier Parent - 2011 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 19 (2-3):75-98.
    The aim of this paper is to strengthen the point made by Horty about the relationship between reason holism and moral particularism. In the literature prima facie obligations have been considered as the only source of reason holism. I strengthen Horty’s point in two ways. First, I show that contrary-to-duties provide another independent support for reason holism. Next I outline a formal theory that is able to capture these two sources of holism. While in simple settings the proposed account coincides (...)
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  38.  12
    High-Probabilities, Model-Preference and Default Arguments.Hector Geffner - 1992 - Minds and Machines 2 (1):51-70.
    In this paper we analyze two recent conditional interpretations of defaults, one based on probabilities, and the other, on models. We study what makes them equivalent, explore their limitations and develop suitable extensions. The resulting framework ties together a number of important notions in default reasoning, like high-probabilities and model-preference, default priorities and argument systems, and independence assumptions and minimality considerations.
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  39.  23
    Reasoning Processes as Epistemic Dynamics.Fernando Velázquez-Quesada - 2015 - Axiomathes 25 (1):41-60.
    This work proposes an understanding of deductive, default and abductive reasoning as different instances of the same phenomenon: epistemic dynamics. It discusses the main intuitions behind each one of these reasoning processes, and suggest how they can be understood as different epistemic actions that modify an agent’s knowledge and/or beliefs in a different way, making formal the discussion with the use of the dynamic epistemic logic framework. The ideas in this paper put the studied processes under the same (...)
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  40.  30
    Compositional Verification of Multi-Agent Systems in Temporal Multi-Epistemic Logic.Joeri Engelfriet, Catholijn M. Jonker & Jan Treur - 2002 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 11 (2):195-225.
    Compositional verification aims at managing the complexity of theverification process by exploiting compositionality of the systemarchitecture. In this paper we explore the use of a temporal epistemiclogic to formalize the process of verification of compositionalmulti-agent systems. The specification of a system, its properties andtheir proofs are of a compositional nature, and are formalized within acompositional temporal logic: Temporal Multi-Epistemic Logic. It isshown that compositional proofs are valid under certain conditions.Moreover, the possibility of incorporating default persistence ofinformation in (...)
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  41.  40
    Well-Founded Semantics for Defeasible Logic.Frederick Maier & Donald Nute - 2010 - Synthese 176 (2):243 - 274.
    Fixpoint semantics are provided for ambiguity blocking and propagating variants of Nute's defeasible logic. The semantics are based upon the well-founded semantics for logic programs. It is shown that the logics are sound with respect to their counterpart semantics and complete for locally finite theories. Unlike some other nonmonotonic reasoning formalisms such as Reiter's default logic, the two defeasible logics are directly skeptical and so reject floating conclusions. For defeasible theories with transitive priorities on defeasible rules, (...)
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  42.  52
    The Logic of Knowledge Based Obligation.Eric Pacuit, Rohit Parikh & Eva Cogan - 2006 - Synthese 149 (2):311-341.
    Deontic Logic goes back to Ernst Mally’s 1926 work, Grundgesetze des Sollens: Elemente der Logik des Willens [Mally. E.: 1926, Grundgesetze des Sollens: Elemente der Logik des Willens, Leuschner & Lubensky, Graz], where he presented axioms for the notion ‘p ought to be the case’. Some difficulties were found in Mally’s axioms, and the field has much developed. Logic of Knowledge goes back to Hintikka’s work Knowledge and Belief [Hintikka, J.: 1962, Knowledge and Belief: An Introduction to the (...)
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  43.  29
    Modelling Ethical Rules of Lying with Answer Set Programming.Jean-Gabriel Ganascia - 2007 - Ethics and Information Technology 9 (1):39-47.
    There has been considerable discussion in the past about the assumptions and basis of different ethical rules. For instance, it is commonplace to say that ethical rules are defaults rules, which means that they tolerate exceptions. Some authors argue that morality can only be grounded in particular cases while others defend the existence of general principles related to ethical rules. Our purpose here is not to justify either position, but to try to model general ethical rules with artificial intelligence formalisms (...)
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  44.  68
    Epistemology and Artificial Intelligence.Gregory Wheeler & Luis Moniz Pereira - 2004 - Journal of Applied Logic 2 (4):469-93.
    In this essay we advance the view that analytical epistemology and artificial intelligence are complementary disciplines. Both fields study epistemic relations, but whereas artificial intelligence approaches this subject from the perspective of understanding formal and computational properties of frameworks purporting to model some epistemic relation or other, traditional epistemology approaches the subject from the perspective of understanding the properties of epistemic relations in terms of their conceptual properties. We argue that these two practices should not be conducted in isolation. We (...)
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  45.  42
    A Logical Expression of Reasoning.Arthur Buchsbaum, Tarcisio Pequeno & Marcelino Pequeno - 2007 - Synthese 154 (3):431 - 466.
    A non-monotonic logic, the Logic of Plausible Reasoning (LPR), capable of coping with the demands of what we call complex reasoning, is introduced. It is argued that creative complex reasoning is the way of reasoning required in many instances of scientific thought, professional practice and common life decision taking. For managing the simultaneous consideration of multiple scenarios inherent in these activities, two new modalities, weak and strong plausibility, are introduced as part of the Logic of Plausible Deduction (...)
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  46.  8
    Monotonicity and Reasoning with Exceptions.Frank Zenker - 2006 - Argumentation 20 (2):227-236.
    A proposal by Ferguson [2003, Argumentation 17, 335–346] for a fully monotonic argument form allowing for the expression of defeasible generalizations is critically examined and rejected as a general solution. It is argued that (i) his proposal reaches less than the default-logician’s solution allows, e.g., the monotonously derived conclusion is one-sided and itself not defeasible. (ii) when applied to a suitable example, his proposal derives the wrong conclusion. Unsuccessful remedies are discussed.
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  47.  21
    Implicit and Explicit Stances in Logic.Johan van Benthem - 2019 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 48 (3):571-601.
    We identify a pervasive contrast between implicit and explicit stances in logical analysis and system design. Implicit systems change received meanings of logical constants and sometimes also the notion of consequence, while explicit systems conservatively extend classical systems with new vocabulary. We illustrate the contrast for intuitionistic and epistemic logic, then take it further to information dynamics, default reasoning, and other areas, to show its wide scope. This gives a working understanding of the contrast, though we stop short (...)
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  48. Is Indian Logic Nonmonotonic?John A. Taber - 2004 - Philosophy East and West 54 (2):143-170.
    : Claus Oetke, in his "Ancient Indian Logic as a Theory of Non-monotonic Reasoning," presents a sweeping new interpretation of the early history of Indian logic. His main proposal is that Indian logic up until Dharmakirti was nonmonotonic in character-similar to some of the newer logics that have been explored in the field of Artificial Intelligence, such as default logic, which abandon deductive validity as a requirement for formally acceptable arguments; Dharmakirti, he suggests, was the (...)
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  49.  62
    Review of John F. Horty, Reasons as Defaults. [REVIEW]Stephen Finlay - 2015 - Philosophical Review 124 (2):286-289.
    Review of J.F. Horty, REASONS AS DEFAULTS.
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  50.  26
    Belief Revision, Conditional Logic and Nonmonotonic Reasoning.Wayne Wobcke - 1995 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 36 (1):55-103.
    We consider the connections between belief revision, conditional logic and nonmonotonic reasoning, using as a foundation the approach to theory change developed by Alchourrón, Gärdenfors and Makinson (the AGM approach). This is first generalized to allow the iteration of theory change operations to capture the dynamics of epistemic states according to a principle of minimal change of entrenchment. The iterative operations of expansion, contraction and revision are characterized both by a set of postulates and by Grove's construction based on (...)
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