Results for 'Defining Knowledge'

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  1.  12
    Defining knowledge in terms of belief: The modal logic perspective: Defining knowledge in terms of belief.Joseph Y. Halpern - 2009 - Review of Symbolic Logic 2 (3):469-487.
    The question of whether knowledge is definable in terms of belief, which has played an important role in epistemology for the last 50 years, is studied here in the framework of epistemic and doxastic logics. Three notions of definability are considered: explicit definability, implicit definability, and reducibility, where explicit definability is equivalent to the combination of implicit definability and reducibility. It is shown that if knowledge satisfies any set of axioms contained in S5, then it cannot be explicitly (...)
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  2. Defining knowledge in terms of belief: The modal logic perspective.Joseph Y. Halpern, Dov Samet & Ella Segev - 2009 - Review of Symbolic Logic 2 (3):469-487.
    The question of whether knowledge is definable in terms of belief, which has played an important role in epistemology for the last 50 years, is studied here in the framework of epistemic and doxastic logics. Three notions of definability are considered: explicit definability, implicit definability, and reducibility, where explicit definability is equivalent to the combination of implicit definability and reducibility. It is shown that if knowledge satisfies any set of axioms contained in S5, then it cannot be explicitly (...)
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  3. Defining Knowledge.Sally Haslanger - 2000 - The Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 8:41-55.
    With some notable exceptions, feminist epistemologists have not focused (like many contemporary analytic epistemologists) on the the semantics of claims to know: What are the truth conditions of claims of the form S knows that p? My goal in this paper is to suggest a way of approaching the task of specifying the truth conditions for knowledge while (hopefully) making clear how a broad range of feminist work that is often deemed irrelevant to the philosophical inquiry into knowledge (...)
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  4. Defining Knowledge.Stephen Hetherington - 2022 - Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Post-Gettier epistemology is increasingly modalized epistemology – proposing and debating modally explicable conditionals with suitably epistemic content (an approach initially inspired by Robert Nozick's 1981 account of knowledge), as needing to be added to 'true belief' in order to define or understand knowing's nature. This Element asks whether such modalized attempts – construed as responding to what the author calls Knowing's Further Features question (bequeathed to us by the Meno and the Theaetetus) – can succeed. The answer is that (...)
     
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  5. Edible insects – defining knowledge gaps in biological and ethical considerations of entomophagy.Isabella Pali-Schöll, Regina Binder, Yves Moens, Friedrich Polesny & Susana Monsó - 2019 - Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 17 (59):2760-2771.
    While seeking novel food sources to feed the increasing population of the globe, several alternatives have been discussed, including algae, fungi or in vitro meat. The increasingly propagated usage of farmed insects for human nutrition raises issues regarding food safety, consumer information and animal protection. In line with law, insects like any other animals must not be reared or manipulated in a way that inflicts unnecessary pain, distress or harm on them. Currently, there is a great need for research in (...)
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  6. Defining Science.William Whewell & Natural Knowledge - 1994 - History of Science 32 (3):345.
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  7.  31
    Williamson on Defining Knowledge.Manuel Pérez Otero - 2022 - Episteme 19 (2):286-302.
    In his outstanding book Knowledge and its Limits, Williamson claims that we have inductive evidence for some negative theses concerning the prospects of defining knowledge, like this: knowing cannot be defined in accordance with a determinate traditional conjunctive scheme; defends a theory of mental states, mental concepts and the relations between the two, from which we would obtain additional, not merely inductive, evidence for this negative thesis; and presents an alternative definition of knowledge. Here I consider (...)
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  8. The folly of trying to define knowledge.Michael Blome-Tillmann - 2007 - Analysis 67 (3):214-219.
    The paper gives an a priori argument for the view that knowledge is unanalysable. To establish this conclusion I argue that warrant, i.e. the property, whatever precisely it is, which makes the difference between knowledge and mere true belief, entails both truth and belief and thus does not exist as a property distinct from knowledge: all and only knowledge can turn a true belief into knowledge. The paper concludes that the project of trying to find (...)
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  9.  4
    Higher Education as a Field of Study in China: Defining Knowledge and Curriculum Structure.Xin Wang - 2010 - Lexington Books.
    Higher Education as a Field of Study in China concerns higher education as an academic field—the evolving nature of the field in light of the overall development of higher education in China. Xin Wang illustrates how higher education is becoming an interdisciplinary field rather than a subfield under the discipline of education, especially when higher education has become an enterprise with such a broad scope in China.
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  10. Defining Science. William Whewell, Natural Knowledge, and Public Debate in Early Victorian Britain.R. Yeo & G. Cantor - 1995 - Annals of Science 52 (1):88-89.
  11. Defining and refining nursing knowledge.J. C. McCloskey & H. K. Grace - 1990 - In Joanne McCloskey Dochterman & Helen K. Grace (eds.), Current Issues in Nursing. Mosby. pp. 42--44.
     
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  12.  15
    Defining “Cosmology” in the Early Modern System of Knowledge, 1530–1621.Dario Tessicini - 2022 - Perspectives on Science 30 (5):826-850.
    This article seeks to revise the common scholarly assumption that in early modern Europe there was no single word for the study of the universe as a whole until the word “cosmology” appeared in Christian Wolff’s Cosmologia generalis methodo scientifica pertractata (1731). In fact, the term “cosmology” had circulated in both Latin and European languages since at least the 1530s in the context of critical appraisals of the largely dominant Aristotelian and scholastic frameworks. The aim of this study is to (...)
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  13.  19
    Ideal knowledge defines reality: What was true in "idealism".Charles Hartshorne - 1946 - Journal of Philosophy 43 (21):573-582.
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  14.  8
    Defining science: William whewell, natural knowledge, and public debate in early Victorian Britain.Thomas William Heyck - 1996 - History of European Ideas 22 (2):177-178.
  15.  9
    Is knowledge definable?Oliver A. Johnson - 1971 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 9 (3):277-286.
  16.  2
    Is Knowledge Definable?Oliver A. Johnson - 1971 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 9 (3):277-286.
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  17.  5
    Defining Science: William Whewell, Natural Knowledge, and Public Debate in Early Victorian Britain. Richard Yeo.Menachem Fisch - 1994 - Isis 85 (4):706-707.
  18.  13
    Skeptical arguments and defining the topic of theory of knowledge.Svetlana Knjazeva-Adamović - 1994 - Theoria 37 (2):7-18.
  19.  4
    Defining Science: William Whewell, Natural Knowledge, and Public Debate in Early Victorian Britain by Richard Yeo. [REVIEW]Menachem Fisch - 1994 - Isis 85:706-707.
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  20.  11
    How to define 'best practice' for use in Knowledge Translation research: a practical, stepped and interactive process.Marije Bosch, Emma Tavender, Peter Bragge, Russell Gruen & Sally Green - 2012 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 19 (5):763-768.
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  21. Knowledge and the Flow of Information.Fred I. Dretske - 1981 - Stanford, CA: MIT Press.
    This book presents an attempt to develop a theory of knowledge and a philosophy of mind using ideas derived from the mathematical theory of communication developed by Claude Shannon. Information is seen as an objective commodity defined by the dependency relations between distinct events. Knowledge is then analyzed as information caused belief. Perception is the delivery of information in analog form for conceptual utilization by cognitive mechanisms. The final chapters attempt to develop a theory of meaning by viewing (...)
  22. Locke and Sensitive Knowledge.Keith Allen - 2013 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 51 (2):249-266.
    Locke Defines Knowledge at the beginning of Book IV of the Essay concerning Human Understanding as “the perception of the connexion and agreement, or disagreement and repugnancy of any of our Ideas” (E IV.i.2).1 So defined, knowledge varies along two dimensions. On the one hand, there are four “sorts” of knowledge: of identity or diversity; relation; co-existence or necessary connection; and real existence. On the other hand, there are three “degrees” of knowledge: intuitive knowledge, which (...)
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  23. Knowledge and cognitive integration.Spyridon Orestis Palermos - 2014 - Synthese 191 (8):1931-1951.
    Cognitive integration is a defining yet overlooked feature of our intellect that may nevertheless have substantial effects on the process of knowledge-acquisition. To bring those effects to the fore, I explore the topic of cognitive integration both from the perspective of virtue reliabilism within externalist epistemology and the perspective of extended cognition within externalist philosophy of mind and cognitive science. On the basis of this interdisciplinary focus, I argue that cognitive integration can provide a minimalist yet adequate epistemic (...)
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  24. Knowledge and Legal Proof.Sarah Moss - forthcoming - Oxford Studies in Epistemology.
    Existing discussions of legal proof address a host of apparently disparate questions: What does it take to prove a fact beyond a reasonable doubt? Why is the reasonable doubt standard notoriously elusive, sometimes considered by courts to be impossible to define? Can the standard of proof by a preponderance of the evidence be defined in terms of probability thresholds? Why is statistical evidence often insufficient to meet the burden of proof? -/- This paper defends an account of proof that addresses (...)
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  25.  83
    Knowledge, Virtue, and Action: Putting Epistemic Virtues to Work.Tim Henning & David P. Schweikard (eds.) - 2013 - New York: Routledge.
    This volume brings together recent work by leading and up-and-coming philosophers on the topic of virtue epistemology. The prospects of virtue-theoretic analyses of knowledge depend crucially on our ability to give some independent account of what epistemic virtues are and what they are _for_. The contributions here ask how epistemic virtues matter apart from any narrow concern with defining knowledge; they show how epistemic virtues figure in accounts of various aspects of our lives, with a special emphasis (...)
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  26.  19
    Richard Yeo, Defining Science: William Whewell, Natural Knowledge and Public Debate in Early Victorian Britain. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993. Pp. xiii + 280. ISBN 0-521-43182-4. £35.00, $54.95. [REVIEW]Brian Dolan - 1994 - British Journal for the History of Science 27 (3):374-375.
  27.  33
    Neuroethics: Defining the Issues in Theory, Practice, and Policy.Judy Illes (ed.) - 2005 - Oxford University Press.
    Recent advances in the brain sciences have dramatically improved our understanding of brain function. As we find out more and more about what makes us tick, we must stop and consider the ethical implications of this new found knowledge. This ground-breaking book on the emerging field of neuroethics answers many pertinent questions, such as: What makes monitoring and manipulating the human brain so ethically challenging? Will having a new biology of the brain through imaging make us less responsible for (...)
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  28.  13
    Neuroethics: Defining the Issues in Theory, Practice, and Policy.Judy Illes (ed.) - 2005 - Oxford University Press UK.
    Recent advances in the brain sciences have dramatically improved our understanding of brain function. As we find out more and more about what makes us tick, we must stop and consider the ethical implications of this new found knowledge. Will having a new biology of the brain through imaging make us less responsible for our behavior and lose our free will? Should certain brain scan studies be disallowed on the basis of moral grounds? Why is the media so interested (...)
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  29. Knowledge.Peter Millican - manuscript
    LOCKE famously defines knowledge as “the perception of the connexion and agreement, or disagreement and repugnancy of any of our Ideas” (Essay IV i 2), but his subsequent discussion significantly extends this somewhat vague and unclear definition. He starts by suggesting that knowledge always concerns one of four types of agreement or disagreement, namely “Identity, or Diversity”, “Relation”, “Co-existence, or necessary connexion”, and “real Existence”--his examples of the first two of these (perceiving the self-identity and distinctness of ideas, (...)
     
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  30. Self‐Knowledge and Rational Agency: A Defense of Empiricism.Brie Gertler - 2018 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 96 (1):91-109.
    How does one know one's own beliefs, intentions, and other attitudes? Many responses to this question are broadly empiricist, in that they take self-knowledge to be epistemically based in empirical justification or warrant. Empiricism about self-knowledge faces an influential objection: that it portrays us as mere observers of a passing cognitive show, and neglects the fact that believing and intending are things we do, for reasons. According to the competing, agentialist conception of self-knowledge, our capacity for self- (...) derives from our rational agency—our ability to conform our attitudes to our reasons, and to commit ourselves to those attitudes through avowals. This paper has two goals. The first is exegetical: to identify agentialism's defining thesis and precisely formulate the agentialist challenge to empiricism. The second goal is to defend empiricism from the agentialist challenge. I propose a way to understand the role of agency in reasoning and avowals, one that does justice to what is distinctive about these phenomena yet is compatible with empiricism about self-knowledge. (shrink)
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  31.  9
    Knowledge in Modern Philosophy.Stephen Gaukroger (ed.) - 2018 - Great Britain: Bloomsbury.
    The Philosophy of Knowledge: A History presents the history of one of Western philosophy's greatest challenges: understanding the nature of knowledge. Divided chronologically into four volumes, it follows conceptions of knowledge that have been proposed, defended, replaced, and proposed anew by ancient, medieval, modern and contemporary philosophers. This volume covers questions of science and religion in the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries and the work of Descartes, Hobbes, Kant and Leibniz. With original insights into the vast sweep (...)
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  32.  51
    Strange Standpoints: Or, How to Define the Situation for Situated Knowledge.D. Pels - 1996 - Télos 1996 (108):65-91.
  33. On Defining Climate and Climate Change.Charlotte Werndl - 2016 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 67 (2):337-364.
    The aim of the article is to provide a clear and thorough conceptual analysis of the main candidates for a definition of climate and climate change. Five desiderata on a definition of climate are presented: it should be empirically applicable; it should correctly classify different climates; it should not depend on our knowledge; it should be applicable to the past, present, and future; and it should be mathematically well-defined. Then five definitions are discussed: climate as distribution over time for (...)
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  34.  3
    Knowledge of Life.Georges Canguilhem - 2022 - Fordham University Press.
    As the work of thinkers such as Michel Foucault, François Jacob, Louis Althusser, and Pierre Bourdieu demonstrates, Georges Canguilhem has exerted tremendous influence on the philosophy of science and French philosophy more generally. In Knowledge of Life, a book that spans twenty years of his essays and lectures, Canguilhem offers a series of epistemological histories that seek to establish and clarify the stakes, ambiguities, and emergence of philosophical and biological concepts that defined the rise of modern biology. How do (...)
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  35.  5
    How do humans want causes to combine their effects? The role of analytically-defined causal invariance for generalizable causal knowledge.Jeffrey K. Bye, Pei-Jung Chuang & Patricia W. Cheng - 2023 - Cognition 230 (C):105303.
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  36. Knowledge of Logic.Paul Boghossian - 2000 - In Paul Boghossian & Christopher Peacocke (eds.), New Essays on the A Priori.
    Paul Boghossian defends a meaning‐based approach to the apriority of the propositions of logic. His model is based on the idea that the logical constants are implicitly defined by some of the axioms and inference rules in which they are involved, thereby offering an alternative to those theories that deny that grasp of meaning can contribute to the explanation of a thinker's entitlement to a particular type of transition or belief.
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  37. Unconscious knowledge: A survey.Luis M. Augusto - 2010 - Advances in Cognitive Psychology 6:116-141.
    The concept of unconscious knowledge is fundamental for an understanding of human thought processes and mentation in general; however, the psychological community at large is not familiar with it. This paper offers a survey of the main psychological research currently being carried out into cognitive processes, and examines pathways that can be integrated into a discipline of unconscious knowledge. It shows that the field has already a defined history and discusses some of the features that all kinds of (...)
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  38.  95
    Knowledge without Truth.Priyedarshi Jetli - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 53:97-103.
    The inclusion of the truth condition in the definition of knowledge has been responsible for a number of paradoxes. Some epistemologists claim that in the case of knowledge justification entails truth or that belief implies truth as there is a causal relation between truth and belief. Truth hence becomes redundant in the definition of knowledge. I do not drop the truth condition for this reason because this denies the autonomy of the distinct conditions for knowledge. I (...)
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  39.  29
    Essay Review: William Whewell: Rough Diamond, Defining Science: William Whewell, Natural Knowledge, and Public Debate in Early Victorian BritainDefining Science: William Whewell, Natural Knowledge, and Public Debate in Early Victorian Britain. YeoRichard . Pp. xiv + 280. £35.00.Jack Morrell - 1994 - History of Science 32 (3):345-359.
  40.  33
    Knowledge-Making Distinctions in Synthetic Biology.Maureen A. O'Malley, Alexander Powell, Jonathan F. Davies & Jane Calvert - 2008 - Bioessays 30 (1):57-65.
    Synthetic biology is an increasingly high-profile area of research that can be understood as encompassing three broad approaches towards the synthesis of living systems: DNA-based device construction, genome-driven cell engineering and protocell creation. Each approach is characterized by different aims, methods and constructs, in addition to a range of positions on intellectual property and regulatory regimes. We identify subtle but important differences between the schools in relation to their treatments of genetic determinism, cellular context and complexity. These distinctions tie into (...)
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  41. Knowledge Bases and Neural Network Synthesis.Todd R. Davies - 1991 - In Hozumi Tanaka (ed.), Artificial Intelligence in the Pacific Rim: Proceedings of the Pacific Rim International Conference on Artificial Intelligence. IOS Press. pp. 717-722.
    We describe and try to motivate our project to build systems using both a knowledge based and a neural network approach. These two approaches are used at different stages in the solution of a problem, instead of using knowledge bases exclusively on some problems, and neural nets exclusively on others. The knowledge base (KB) is defined first in a declarative, symbolic language that is easy to use. It is then compiled into an efficient neural network (NN) representation, (...)
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  42.  57
    Rethinking Knowledge.Carlo Cellucci - 2015 - Metaphilosophy 46 (2):213-234.
    The view that the subject matter of epistemology is the concept of knowledge is faced with the problem that all attempts so far to define that concept are subject to counterexamples. As an alternative, this article argues that the subject matter of epistemology is knowledge itself rather than the concept of knowledge. Moreover, knowledge is not merely a state of mind but rather a certain kind of response to the environment that is essential for survival. In (...)
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  43. Defining Communication and Language from Within a Pluralistic Evolutionary Worldview.Nathalie Gontier - 2022 - Topoi 41 (3):609-622.
    New definitions are proposed for communication and language. Communication is defined as the evolution of physical, biochemical, cellular, community, and technological information exchange. Language is defined as community communication whereby the information exchanged comprises evolving individual and group-constructed knowledge and beliefs, that are enacted, narrated, or otherwise conveyed by evolving rule-governed and meaningful symbol systems, that are grounded, interpreted, and used from within evolving embodied, cognitive, ecological, sociocultural, and technological niches. These definitions place emphasis on the evolutionary aspects of (...)
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  44. Defining democratic decision making.Gustaf Arrhenius - 2011 - In Frans Svensson & Rysiek Silwinski (eds.), Neither/Nor - Philosophical Papers Dedicated to Erik Carlson on the Occasion of His Fiftieth Birthday. Uppsala: Uppsala Philosophical Studies. pp. 13-29.
    In his Populist Democracy: A Defence (1993), Torbjörn Tännsjö suggests, roughly, the following necessary and sufficient conditions for a democratic collective choice: If the majority of a given group of voters prefer A to B, then the collective choice is A rather than B; and if the majority of voters had preferred B to A, then the collective choice would have been B rather than A. Moreover, the preference of a voter is equated with the one she is showing by (...)
     
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  45.  18
    Defining and categorizing outcomes of Moral Case Deliberation (MCD): concept mapping with experienced MCD participants.Janine C. de Snoo-Trimp, Bert Molewijk & Henrica C. W. de Vet - 2018 - BMC Medical Ethics 19 (1):1-14.
    To support healthcare professionals in dealing with ethically difficult situations, Clinical Ethics Support (CES) services like Moral Case Deliberation (MCD) are increasingly implemented. To assess the impact of CES, it is important to evaluate outcomes. Despite general claims about outcomes from MCD experts and some qualitative research, there exists no conceptual analysis of outcomes yet. Therefore, the aim of this study was to systematically define and categorize MCD outcomes. An additional aim was to compare these outcomes with the outcomes in (...)
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  46. Philosophical knowledge and knowledge of counterfactuals.Timothy Williamson - 2007 - Grazer Philosophische Studien 74 (1):89-123.
    Metaphysical modalities are definable from counterfactual conditionals, and the epistemology of the former is a special case of the epistemology of the latter. In particular, the role of conceivability and inconceivability in assessing claims of possibility and impossibility can be explained as a special case of the pervasive role of the imagination in assessing counterfactual conditionals, an account of which is sketched. Thus scepticism about metaphysical modality entails a more far-reaching scepticism about counterfactuals. The account is used to question the (...)
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  47. Unsafe Knowledge.Juan Comesaña - 2005 - Synthese 146 (3):395-404.
    Ernest Sosa has argued that if someone knows that p, then his belief that p is “safe”. and Timothy Williamson has agreed. In this paper I argue that safety, as defined by Sosa, is not a necessary condition on knowledge – that we can have unsafe knowledge. I present Sosa’s definition of safety and a counterexample to it as a necessary condition on knowledge. I also argue that Sosa’s most recent refinements to the notion of safety don’t (...)
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  48.  6
    Knowledge and postmodernism in historical perspective.Joyce Appleby (ed.) - 1996 - New York: Routledge.
    Knowledge and Postmodernism in Historical Perspective offers answers to the questions, what is postmodernism? and what exactly are the characteristics of the modernism that postmodernism supercedes? This comprehensive reader chronicles the western engagement with the nature of knowledge during the past four centuries while providing the historical context for the postmodernist thought of Jacques Derrida, Michel Foucault, Richard Rorty and Hayden White, and the challenges their ideas have posed to our conventional ways of thinking, writing and knowing. From (...)
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  49.  18
    Knowledge and religious belief.Maria Rosa Antognazza - 2021 - Think 20 (58):39-53.
    Introductions to epistemology routinely define knowledge as a kind of belief which meets certain criteria. In the first two sections of this article, I discuss this account and its application to religious epistemology by the influential movement known as Reformed Epistemology. In the last section, I argue that the controversial consequences drawn from this account by Reformed Epistemology offer one of the best illustrations of the untenability of a conception of knowledge as a kind of belief. I conclude (...)
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  50. Representation, Knowledge, and Structure in Computational Explanations in Cognitive Science.Charles Wallis - 1995 - Dissertation, University of Minnesota
    Most of this work is concerned with two theories that underlie cognitive science; theories which I call "the representational theory of intentionality" and "the computational theory of cognition" . While the representational theory of intentionality asserts that mental states are about the world in virtue of a representation relation between the world and the state, the computational theory of cognition asserts that humans and others perform cognitive tasks by computing functions on these representations. CTC draws upon a rich analogy between (...)
     
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