In the philosophical literature, self-deception is mainly approached through the analysis of paradoxes. Yet, it is agreed that self-deception is motivated by protection from distress. In this paper, we argue, with the help of findings from cognitive neuroscience and psychology, that self-deception is a type of affective coping. First, we criticize the main solutions to the paradoxes of self-deception. We then present a new approach to self-deception. Self-deception, we argue, involves three appraisals of the distressing evidence: (a) appraisal of the (...) strength of evidence as uncertain, (b) low coping potential and (c) negative anticipation along the lines of Damasio’s somatic marker hypothesis. At the same time, desire impacts the treatment of flattering evidence via dopamine. Our main proposal is that self-deception involves emotional mechanisms provoking a preference for immediate reward despite possible long-term negative repercussions. In the last part, we use this emotional model to revisit the philosophical paradoxes. (shrink)
Intuitively, affect plays an indispensable role in self-deception’s dynamic. Call this view “affectivism.” Investigating affectivism matters, as affectivists argue that this conception favours the non-intentionalist approach to self-deception and offers a unified account of straight and twisted self-deception. However, this line of argument has not been scrutinized in detail, and there are reasons to doubt it. Does affectivism fulfill its promises of non-intentionalism and unity? We argue that it does, as long as affect’s role in self-deception lies in affective filters—that (...) is, in evaluation of information in light of one’s concerns. We develop this conception by taking into consideration the underlying mechanisms governing self-deception, particularly the neurobiological mechanisms of somatic markers and dopamine regulation. Shifting the discussion to this level can fulfill the affectivist aspirations, as this approach clearly favours non-intentionalism and offers a unified account of self-deception. We support this claim by criticizing the main alternative affectivist account—namely, the views that self-deception functions to reduce anxiety or is motivated by anxiety. Describing self-deception’s dynamic does not require intention; affect is sufficient if we use the insights of neuroscience and the psychology of affective bias to examine this issue. In this way, affectivism can fulfill its promises. (shrink)
To test whether mental activities collected from non-REM sleep are influenced by REM sleep, we suppressed REM sleep using clomipramine 50 mg or placebo in the evening, in a double blind cross-over design, in 11 healthy young men. Subjects were awakened every hour and asked about their mental activity. The marked REM-sleep suppression induced by clomipramine did not substantially affect any aspects of dream recall . Since long, complex and bizarre dreams persist even after suppressing REM sleep either partially or (...) totally, it suggests that the generation of mental activity during sleep is independent of sleep stage. (shrink)
Rendant compte des travaux récents dans le champ de l’étude sociales des sciences, de la critique féministe des sciences et des cultural studies, cet article revient sur leurs apports et sur la façon dont ils lisent l’histoire des transformations biomédicales contemporaines, notamment dans les domaines de la reproduction et de la sexualité. Les SSK, en particulier, proposent une lecture complexe et riche des relations humains/techniques et de la façon dont les relations sociales et de genre s’y trouvent engagées. S’interrogeant sur (...) la coïncidence de certaines de ces approches avec des transformations économiques et sociales plus vastes, l’article propose de mettre en évidence ce qu’un renouveau de l’approche historienne pourrait apporter en propre : redonner à voir l’épaisseur des contextes scientifiques et sociaux de production de certaines technologies, dire l’historicité des enjeux sociaux et de genre, produire de nouveaux récits attentifs aux enjeux normatifs, politiques et économiques. (shrink)
Spiritualism designates a philosophy that lays claim to the separation of mind and body and the ontological and epistemological primacy of the former. In France, it is associated with the names of Victor Cousin and René Descartes, or more precisely with what Cousin made of Descartes as the founding father of a brittle rational psychology, closed off from the positive sciences, and as a critic in respect to the empiricist legacy of the idéologues. Moreover, by considering merely the end result, (...) severed from its polemical genesis, we are prevented from understanding how the category of experience constituted a crucial question for spiritualism itself. Through returning to the origin of these discussions in the 1826 preface to Cousin’s Fragments philosophiques, this essay pursues a threefold path: to show that the public birth of Cousinian spiritualism coincides with the affirmation of applying the experimental method, issuing from Bacon, to the study of facts of consciousness; that Cousin’s later evolution follows a process of radicalization—that is, in this context, of ontologization and of reduction; and that by recovering this genesis, we can distinguish many forms of spiritualisms committed to the experimental method, both in alliance with the early Cousin and against the later Cousin. In this way, we can rediscover the interwoven philosophical links, lost in the process of institutionalization, between metaphysical demands and empiricist concerns, or between “French” philosophy and the legacy of Condillac. (shrink)
For quite some time now, there have been discussions and debates in North America in the field of ethics concerning professionalization . From a talk given to graduate and undergraduate university students, the author tells the personal journey of an ethicist in the province of Quebec, Canada, and offers a narrative to illustrate some of the issues she faced since starting her work in the field of ethics at the end of the 1990s. Instead of taking the usual “for” and (...) “against” positions, the author addresses the issue of professionalization of healthcare ethics from her own point of view. Referring to her experience with ethics committees and research ethics boards and to the works of George A. Legault in Crise d’identité professionnelle et Professionnalisme (Presses de l’Université du Québec, Sainte-Foy, 2003 ), she pleads for the development of practice standards and the creation of a deliberative process (see Kirby and Simpson in this issue of HEC Forum 2012 ), a dialogical space for assuring professionalism in healthcare ethics interventions, not solely the act of becoming a profession. (shrink)
ABSTRACTAccumulating evidence suggests that emotional information is often recognised faster than neutral information. Several studies examined the effects of valence and arousal on word recognition, but yielded partially diverging results. Here, we used two alternative versions of a constructive recognition paradigm in which a target word is hidden by a visual mask that gradually disappears, to investigate whether the emotional properties of words influence their speed of recognition. Participants were instructed either to classify the incrementally appearing word as emotional or (...) non-emotional or to decide whether the appearing letter string is an existing word or not. Results from both tasks revealed faster recognition times for high- compared to low-arousing words, and for positive compared to negative or neutral words. These findings indicate a recognition advantage for emotionally positive and highly arousing stimuli that persists even when visua... (shrink)
In this introduction, we explain our choice to approach the topic of space from a cosmological perspective, that is, by studying the conceptions of space that were implicitly or explicitly entailed by ancient, medieval and early modern representations of the cosmos, and the role that imagination played in those conceptions. We compare our approach with those of Alexandre Koyré and Edward Grant, and we present the two important issues this book intends to shed light on, namely the continuity and discontinuity (...) between ancient, medieval, and early modern conceptions of space and the cosmos; and the role that metaphysical, cosmological, and theological considerations played in the elaboration of new theories of space in the course of history. This chapter also presents the main, recurring themes of this book: the relation between place and space; the notion of imaginary spaces; the role played by thought experiments in discussions concerning the nature of space and the structure of the cosmos; the impact of the condemnation of 1277 on subsequent theories of space; and the relation between God’s immensity and the infinity of space. (shrink)
Although complex hallucinations are extremely vivid, painful symptoms in schizophrenia, little is known about the underlying mechanisms of multisensory integration in such a phenomenon. We investigated the neural basis of these altered states of consciousness in a patient with schizophrenia, by combining state of the art neuroscientific exploratory methods like functional MRI, diffusion tensor imaging, cortical thickness analysis, electrical source reconstruction and trans-cranial magnetic stimulation. The results shed light on the functional architecture of the hallucinatory processes, in which unimodal information (...) from different modalities is strongly functionally connected to higher-order integrative areas. (shrink)
:No ancient source indicates when the agōnothesia, attested for the first time in 307/6 BC, was introduced in Athens. Scholars have long attributed its creation, along with the abolition of the liturgical chorēgia, to the government of Demetrius of Phalerum, motivated by oligarchic ideology and a desire to preserve the wealth of rich citizens. This traditional thesis has recently been challenged, with some scholars attributing the creation of the agōnothesia to the restored democratic government of 307 BC and others to (...) the government of Phocion. A new look at epigraphical and literary documents hitherto neglected or imperfectly understood allows the authors to establish that the liturgical chorēgia disappeared at the beginning of the government of Demetrius of Phalerum, around 316 BC. The institution of the agōnothesia had a precedent in Lycurgan Athens with the new festival of the Amphiaraia of 331 BC. Both measures were in fact consensual and must not be interpreted as strictly oligarchic in inspiration. The creation of the agōnothesia was above all a pragmatic response on Athens’ part to the major changes that occurred in the agonistic world in the late fourth century. (shrink)
« Je suis Norvégien, dit le Norvégien, et quand je dis que je suis Norvégien, je pense en avoir assez dit. Je suis aussi solide sur mes fondations que les antiques montagnes de la Norvège. Ce pays a une Constitution, comme l’Amérique libre. Penser à ce que je suis me fait trembler jusqu’aux moelles et donne à mes pensées la sonorité de paroles de granit. »À l’extrême ouest du..
This paper studies Francisque Bouillier’s contribution to cousinian Spiritualism, from his first text on the History of Cartesian Philosophy from 1839 to the publication of Du principe vital et de l’âme pensante, a work which was likewise considerably amended as a result of the polemics it gave rise to. The paper is concerned with the reception of Leibniz in a double sense. In a positive sense, Bouillier managed to reintegrate in the caricature of the Cartesian soul conceived by the Cousinians, (...) a force that was criticized by the latter. In a negative sense to the extent that, for Bouillier, the direct re-appropriation of Leibniz’s dynamic ontology was impossible without completely breaking with Cousin himself. Hence, Bouillier’s reception of Leibniz took the form of a progressive suppression of a monadological tendency in favor of a rehabilitation of a theory of minute perceptions. The primacy of the interior sense that results from this allowed him to construct a Descar.. (shrink)
George Sword an Oglala Lakota (1846–1914) learned to write in order to transcribe and preserve his people’s oral narratives. In her book Delphine Red Shirt, also Oglala Lakota and a native speaker, examines the compositional processes of George Sword and shows how his writings reflect recurring themes and story patterns of the Lakota oral tradition. Her book invites further studies in several areas including literature, translation studies and more. My review of her book suggests some ways it could be (...) used as a primary resource book in developing curricula in Indigenous philosophy . (shrink)
Au cours des années 1970, le développement de la vente directe à domicile a donné lieu à la formation de cercles de sociabilité entre femmes dans le cadre des réunions Tupperware. Ces rencontres ont contribué à diffuser par capillarité nombre d’idées et pratiques féministes. Elles n’ont pas été sans incidence sur le déroulement de certaines trajectoires de femmes des classes moyennes et populaires. Le partage d’expériences de la soumission féminine, conjugale, et la confrontation aux modèles de femmes professionnalisées, les démonstratrices, (...) ont ainsi parfois ouvert à la prise de conscience du sentiment de soi et permis d’accéder à une certaine autonomie. (shrink)
Cet article présente une étude sur corpus de patrons morpho-syntaxiques associés à des hypothèses interprétatives sur les noms déverbaux événementiels. Il confronte notamment certaines propositions de Grimshaw (1990) avec des usages attestés repérés en corpus et suggère de nouvelles hypothèses descriptives. L’extraction des usages attestés est réalisée à l’aide du concordancier « Corpus Workbench » sur 3 années du quotidien régional L’Est Républicain telles que mises à disposition sur le site du centre de ressources du CNRTL.
Cet article présente une étude sur corpus de patrons morpho-syntaxiques associés à des hypothèses interprétatives sur les noms déverbaux événementiels. Il confronte notamment certaines propositions de Grimshaw (1990) avec des usages attestés repérés en corpus et suggère de nouvelles hypothèses descriptives. L'extraction des usages attestés est réalisée à l'aide du concordancier ' Corpus Workbench ' sur 3 années du quotidien régional ' L'Est Républicain ' telles que mises.