Results for 'Dempster-Shafer theory'

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  1. A Betting Interpretation for Probabilities and Dempster-Shafer Degrees of Belief.Glenn Shafer - 2010 - International Journal of Approximate Reasoning.
  2. Modeling Partially Reliable Information Sources: A General Approach Based on Dempster-Shafer Theory.Stephan Hartmann & Rolf Haenni - 2006 - Information Fusion 7:361-379.
    Combining testimonial reports from independent and partially reliable information sources is an important epistemological problem of uncertain reasoning. Within the framework of Dempster–Shafer theory, we propose a general model of partially reliable sources, which includes several previously known results as special cases. The paper reproduces these results on the basis of a comprehensive model taxonomy. This gives a number of new insights and thereby contributes to a better understanding of this important application of reasoning with uncertain and incomplete information.
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  3.  6
    Handwritten Indic Script Recognition Based on the Dempster–Shafer Theory of Evidence.Anirban Mukhopadhyay, Pawan Kumar Singh, Ram Sarkar & Mita Nasipuri - 2019 - Journal of Intelligent Systems 29 (1):264-282.
    In a multilingual country like India, script recognition is an important pre-processing footstep necessary for feeding any document to an optical character recognition engine, which is, in general, script specific. The present work evaluates the performance of an ensemble of two MLP classifiers, each trained on different feature sets. Here, two complementary sets of features, namely, gray-level co-occurrence matrix and Gabor wavelets transform coefficients are extracted from each of the handwritten text-line and word images written in 12 official scripts used (...)
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  4.  77
    Dempster-Shafer Theory.Jonathan Weisberg - 2010
    An introduction to Dempster-Shafter Theory, from a lecture at the Northern Institute of Philosophy in 2010.
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  5.  73
    Jeffrey's Rule of Conditioning.Glenn Shafer - 1981 - Philosophy of Science 48 (3):337-362.
    Richard Jeffrey's generalization of Bayes' rule of conditioning follows, within the theory of belief functions, from Dempster's rule of combination and the rule of minimal extension. Both Jeffrey's rule and the theory of belief functions can and should be construed constructively, rather than normatively or descriptively. The theory of belief functions gives a more thorough analysis of how beliefs might be constructed than Jeffrey's rule does. The inadequacy of Bayesian conditioning is much more general than Jeffrey's examples (...)
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  6.  9
    Fast Algorithms for Dempster-Shafer Theory.Robert Kennes & Philippe Smets - 1991 - In B. Bouchon-Meunier, R. R. Yager & L. A. Zadeh (eds.), Uncertainty in Knowledge Bases. Springer. pp. 14--23.
  7. A Mathematical Theory of Evidence.Glenn Shafer - 1976 - Princeton University Press.
  8. A Mathematical Theory of Evidence.Glenn Shafer - 1976 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 29 (4):375-387.
     
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  9.  9
    I. J. Bienayme: Statistical Theory Anticipated By C. C. Heyde; E. Seneta. [REVIEW]Glenn Shafer - 1979 - Isis: A Journal of the History of Science 70:329-329.
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  10.  8
    A Theory of Probability Should Tutor Our Intuitions.Glenn Shafer - 1983 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 6 (3):508.
  11. Some Connections Between Epistemic Logic and the Theory of Nonadditive Probability.Philippe Mongin - 1992 - In Paul Humphreys (ed.), Patrick Suppes: Scientific Philosopher. Dordrecht: Kluwer. pp. 135-171.
    This paper is concerned with representations of belief by means of nonadditive probabilities of the Dempster-Shafer (DS) type. After surveying some foundational issues and results in the D.S. theory, including Suppes's related contributions, the paper proceeds to analyze the connection of the D.S. theory with some of the work currently pursued in epistemic logic. A preliminary investigation of the modal logic of belief functions à la Shafer is made. There it is shown that the Alchourrron-Gärdenfors-Makinson (A.G.M.) logic (...)
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  12.  63
    Connecting Dempster–Shafer Belief Functions with Likelihood-Based Inference.Mikel Aickin - 2000 - Synthese 123 (3):347-364.
    The Dempster–Shafer approach to expressing beliefabout a parameter in a statistical model is notconsistent with the likelihood principle. Thisinconsistency has been recognized for some time, andmanifests itself as a non-commutativity, in which theorder of operations (combining belief, combininglikelihood) makes a difference. It is proposed herethat requiring the expression of belief to be committed to the model (and to certain of itssubmodels) makes likelihood inference very nearly aspecial case of the Dempster–Shafer theory.
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  13.  67
    Conditioning and Interpretation Shifts.Jan-Willem Romeijn - 2012 - Studia Logica 100 (3):583-606.
    This paper develops a probabilistic model of belief change under interpretation shifts, in the context of a problem case from dynamic epistemic logic. Van Benthem [4] has shown that a particular kind of belief change, typical for dynamic epistemic logic, cannot be modelled by standard Bayesian conditioning. I argue that the problems described by van Benthem come about because the belief change alters the semantics in which the change is supposed to be modelled: the new information induces a shift in (...)
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  14.  40
    Consensus for Belief Functions and Related Uncertainty Measures.Carl G. Wagner - 1989 - Theory and Decision 26 (3):295-304.
  15.  41
    Limit Theorems for Dempster's Rule of Combination.John Norton - 1988 - Theory and Decision 25 (3):287-313.
    I show that Dempster's Rule of combination can be represented in the theory of Markov chains and use this representation to derive limit theorems concerning the long term effect of updating belief with Dempster's rule.
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  16.  45
    Dempster-Shafer Functions as Metalinguistic Probability Functions.Branden Fitelson - manuscript
    Let Ln be a sentential language with n atomic sentences {A1, . . . , An}. Let Sn = {s1, . . . , s2n} be the set of 2n state descriptions of Ln, in the following, canonical lexicographical truth-table order: State Description A1 A2 · · · An−1 An T T T T T s1 = A1 & A2 & · · · &An−1 & An T T T T F s1 = A1 & A2 & · · · (...)
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  17.  13
    A Dempster–Shafer Model of Imprecise Assertion Strategies.Henrietta Eyre & Jonathan Lawry - 2015 - Journal of Applied Logic 13 (4):458-479.
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  18. House Architecture Judgments-Bayesian, Dempster-Shafer, or Rule-Based Reasoning.Pw Frey - 1986 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 24 (5):351-351.
     
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  19. A General Non-Probabilistic Theory of Inductive Reasoning.Wolfgang Spohn - 1990 - In R. D. Shachter, T. S. Levitt, J. Lemmer & L. N. Kanal (eds.), Uncertainty in Artificial Intelligence 4. Elsevier.
    Probability theory, epistemically interpreted, provides an excellent, if not the best available account of inductive reasoning. This is so because there are general and definite rules for the change of subjective probabilities through information or experience; induction and belief change are one and same topic, after all. The most basic of these rules is simply to conditionalize with respect to the information received; and there are similar and more general rules. 1 Hence, a fundamental reason for the epistemological success (...)
     
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  20.  27
    Evidence Theory in Multivalued Models of Modal Logic.Elena Tsiporkova, Bernard De Baets & Veselka Boeva - 2000 - Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics 10 (1):55-81.
    ABSTRACT A modal logic interpretation of Dempster-Shafer theory is developed in the framework of multivalued models of modal logic, i.e. models in which in any possible world an arbitrary number (possibly zero) of atomic propositions can be true. Several approaches to conditioning in multivalued models of modal logic are presented.
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  21.  10
    An Accuracy Argument in Favor of Ranking Theory.Eric Raidl & Wolfgang Spohn - forthcoming - Journal of Philosophical Logic:1-31.
    Fitelson and McCarthy have proposed an accuracy measure for confidence orders which favors probability measures and Dempster-Shafer belief functions as accounts of degrees of belief and excludes ranking functions. Their accuracy measure only penalizes mistakes in confidence comparisons. We propose an alternative accuracy measure that also rewards correct confidence comparisons. Thus we conform to both of William James’ maxims: “Believe truth! Shun error!” We combine the two maxims, penalties and rewards, into one criterion that we call prioritized accuracy optimization. (...)
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  22.  32
    The Theory of Random Propositions.John D. Norton - 1994 - Erkenntnis 41 (3):325 - 352.
    The theory of random propositions is a theory of confirmation that contains the Bayesian and Shafer—Dempster theories as special cases, while extending both in ways that resolve many of their outstanding problems. The theory resolves the Bayesian problem of the priors and provides an extension of Dempster's rule of combination for partially dependent evidence. The standard probability calculus can be generated from the calculus of frequencies among infinite sequences of outcomes. The theory of random propositions is (...)
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  23.  3
    Natural Properties in Ethics with an Emphasis on Shafer-Landau’s Theory.Hassan Heshmati, Muhammad Legenhausen & Hassan Miandari - 2018 - Journal of Philosophical Theological Research 20 (77):23-44.
    Various criteria for the natural/non-natural distinction have been suggested in metaethics. Shafer-Landau first claimed that natural properties are properties that are used in scientific disciplines. But firstly, this definition is not comprehensive, and secondly it is ambiguous; according to the second criterion, two lists must be prepared; the first list includes terms that most people consider to be natural. The terms that are not included in the first list, are transferred to the list of non-natural terms. I argue, however, that (...)
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  24.  44
    Ethical Theory: An Anthology, 2nd Edition, Edited by Russ Shafer-Landau. [REVIEW]Elizabeth Foreman - 2016 - Teaching Philosophy 39 (2):233-235.
  25. Comments on Shafer's``Perspectives on the Theory and Practice of Belief Functions''.Larry Wasserman - 1992 - International Journal of Approximate Reasoning 6 (2):367--375.
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  26.  72
    For True Conditionalizers Weisberg’s Paradox is a False Alarm.Franz Huber - 2014 - Symposion: Theoretical and Applied Inquiries in Philosophy and Social Sciences 1 (1):111-119.
    Weisberg introduces a phenomenon he terms perceptual undermining. He argues that it poses a problem for Jeffrey conditionalization, and Bayesian epistemology in general. This is Weisberg’s paradox. Weisberg argues that perceptual undermining also poses a problem for ranking theory and for Dempster-Shafer theory. In this note I argue that perceptual undermining does not pose a problem for any of these theories: for true conditionalizers Weisberg’s paradox is a false alarm.
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  27. Updating, Undermining, and Independence.Jonathan Weisberg - 2015 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 66 (1):121-159.
    Sometimes appearances provide epistemic support that gets undercut later. In an earlier paper I argued that standard Bayesian update rules are at odds with this phenomenon because they are ‘rigid’. Here I generalize and bolster that argument. I first show that the update rules of Dempster–Shafer theory and ranking theory are rigid too, hence also at odds with the defeasibility of appearances. I then rebut three Bayesian attempts to solve the problem. I conclude that defeasible appearances pose a (...)
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  28.  43
    Capacity Updating Rules and Rational Belief Change.Matthew J. Ryan - 2001 - Theory and Decision 51 (1):73-87.
  29.  44
    Uncertainty, Credal Sets and Second Order Probability.Jonas Clausen Mork - 2013 - Synthese 190 (3):353-378.
    The last 20 years or so has seen an intense search carried out within Dempster–Shafer theory, with the aim of finding a generalization of the Shannon entropy for belief functions. In that time, there has also been much progress made in credal set theory—another generalization of the traditional Bayesian epistemic representation—albeit not in this particular area. In credal set theory, sets of probability functions are utilized to represent the epistemic state of rational agents instead of the single (...)
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  30.  33
    Towards a Rough Mereology-Based Logic for Approximate Solution Synthesis. Part.Jan Komorowski, Lech T. Polkowski & Andrzej Skowron - 1997 - Studia Logica 58 (1):143-184.
    We are concerned with formal models of reasoning under uncertainty. Many approaches to this problem are known in the literature e.g. Dempster-Shafer theory [29], [42], bayesian-based reasoning [21], [29], belief networks [29], many-valued logics and fuzzy logics [6], non-monotonic logics [29], neural network logics [14]. We propose rough mereology developed by the last two authors [22-25] as a foundation for approximate reasoning about complex objects. Our notion of a complex object includes, among others, proofs understood as schemes constructed (...)
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  31. Shafer-Landau and Moral Realism.Christian Miller - 2006 - Social Theory and Practice 32 (2):311-331.
    In 1903 G.E. Moore celebrated a robust nonnaturalistic form of moral realism with the publication of his Principia Ethica. Subsequent years have witnessed the development and refinement of a number of views motivated at least in part by a deep resistance to the metaphysical and epistemological commitments of nonnaturalism. Over time, Moore’s view arguably has become the position of last resort for philosophers working in metaethics. Exactly one hundred years later, analytic metaethics has come full circle with the publication of (...)
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  32. Ethical Theory: An Anthology.Russ Shafer-Landau (ed.) - 2007 - Wiley-Blackwell.
    _Ethical Theory: An Anthology_ is an authoritative collection of key essays by top scholars in the field, addressing core issues including consequentialism, deontology, and virtue ethics, as well as traditionally underrepresented topics such as moral knowledge and moral responsibility. Brings together seventy-six classic and contemporary pieces by renowned philosophers, from classic writing by Hume and Kant to contemporary writing by Derek Parfit, Susan Wolf, and Judith Jarvis Thomson Guides students through key areas in the field, among them consequentialism, deontology, (...)
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  33.  19
    Review of Moral Realism: A Defence by R Shafer-Landau. [REVIEW]D. F. Cox - 2005 - Philosophical Books 46 (1):92-93.
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  34.  90
    Vegetarianism, Causation and Ethical Theory.Russ Shafer-Landau - 1994 - Public Affairs Quarterly 8 (1):85-100.
  35. Error Theory and the Possibility of Normative Ethics.Russ Shafer-Landau - 2005 - Philosophical Issues 15 (1):107-120.
  36.  29
    Book ReviewSimon Blackburn,. Ruling Passions: A Theory of Practical Reasoning. Oxford: Clarendon, 1999. Pp. Vii + 334. $29.95. [REVIEW]Russell Shafer‐Landau - 2001 - Ethics 111 (4):799-804.
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  37.  62
    Oxford Studies in Metaethics Volume 7, Edited by R. Shafer-Landau. [REVIEW]Dan Baras - 2015 - Journal of Moral Philosophy 12 (3):359-362.
    This review article focuses on David Copp's article 'Experiments, Intuitions, and Methodology in Moral and Political Theory'. Copp argues that recent developments in moral psychology challenge the common method in ethics, which infers moral truths from moral intuitions, as these intuitions are shown to likely be unreliable. Copp responds to the worry by arguing that even if moral intuitions cannot be trusted to indicate objective moral truths, the common method remains valuable for other reasons. In this article I raise (...)
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  38.  31
    Automated Search for Causal Relations - Theory and Practice.Peter Spirtes, Clark Glymour & Richard Scheines - unknown
    nature of modern data collection and storage techniques, and the increases in the speed and storage capacities of computers. Statistics books from 30 years ago often presented examples with fewer than 10 variables, in domains where some background knowledge was plausible. In contrast, in new domains, such as climate research where satellite data now provide daily quantities of data unthinkable a few decades ago, fMRI brain imaging, and microarray measurements of gene expression, the number of variables can range into the (...)
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  39. The Opacity of Mind: An Integrative Theory of Self-Knowledge.Peter Carruthers - 2011 - Oxford University Press.
    Do we have introspective access to our own thoughts? Peter Carruthers challenges the consensus that we do: he argues that access to our own thoughts is always interpretive, grounded in perceptual awareness and sensory imagery. He proposes a bold new theory of self-knowledge, with radical implications for understanding of consciousness and agency.
     
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  40. Theory of Knowledge.Keith Lehrer - 2000 - Westview Press.
    In this impressive second edition of Theory of Knowledge, Keith Lehrer introduces students to the major traditional and contemporary accounts of knowing. Beginning with the traditional definition of knowledge as justified true belief, Lehrer explores the truth, belief, and justification conditions on the way to a thorough examination of foundation theories of knowledge,the work of Platinga, externalism and naturalized epistemologies, internalism and modern coherence theories, contextualism, and recent reliabilist and causal theories. Lehrer gives all views careful examination and concludes (...)
  41. The Undivided Universe: An Ontological Interpretation of Quantum Theory.David Bohm - 1993 - Routledge.
    In the The Undivided Universe, David Bohn and Basil Hiley present a radically different approach to quantum theory.
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  42. Comparative Assessments of Justice, Political Feasibility, and Ideal Theory.Pablo Gilabert - 2012 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 15 (1):39-56.
    What should our theorizing about social justice aim at? Many political philosophers think that a crucial goal is to identify a perfectly just society. Amartya Sen disagrees. In The Idea of Justice, he argues that the proper goal of an inquiry about justice is to undertake comparative assessments of feasible social scenarios in order to identify reforms that involve justice-enhancement, or injustice-reduction, even if the results fall short of perfect justice. Sen calls this the “comparative approach” to the theory (...)
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  43. The Doctrinal Paradox, the Discursive Dilemma, and Logical Aggregation Theory.Philippe Mongin - 2012 - Theory and Decision 73 (3):315-355.
    Judgment aggregation theory, or rather, as we conceive of it here, logical aggregation theory generalizes social choice theory by having the aggregation rule bear on judgments of all kinds instead of merely preference judgments. It derives from Kornhauser and Sager’s doctrinal paradox and List and Pettit’s discursive dilemma, two problems that we distinguish emphatically here. The current theory has developed from the discursive dilemma, rather than the doctrinal paradox, and the final objective of the paper is (...)
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  44.  26
    Temporal, Numerical and Meta-Level Dynamics in Argumentation Networks.H. Barringer, D. M. Gabbay & J. Woods - 2012 - Argument and Computation 3 (2-3):143 - 202.
    This paper studies general numerical networks with support and attack. Our starting point is argumentation networks with the Caminada labelling of three values 1=in, 0=out and ½=undecided. This is generalised to arbitrary values in [01], which enables us to compare with other numerical networks such as predator?prey ecological networks, flow networks, logical modal networks and more. This new point of view allows us to see the place of argumentation networks in the overall landscape of networks and import and export ideas (...)
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  45. Fault-Tolerant Reasoning.Raymundo Morado - 1994 - Dissertation, Indiana University
    This thesis analyzes from a philosophical perspective different models for nonmonotonic inference, belief revision and the handling of inconsistencies. ;The first chapter serves as an introduction to the subject, giving examples and analyzing the main concepts. As a result of these discussions, this thesis tries to: produce a refined map of the main notions related to this subject, maintain that there can be a fault tolerant logic that stands in support of fault tolerant reasoning, and defend the use of deductive (...)
     
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  46. Kant, the Transcendental Designation of I, and the Direct Reference Theory.Luca Forgione - 2019 - Theoria : An International Journal for Theory, History and Fundations of Science 34 (1): 31-49.
    The aim of this paper is to address the semantic issue of the nature of the representation I and of the transcendental designation, i.e., the self-referential apparatus involved in transcendental apperception. The I think, the bare or empty representation I, is the representational vehicle of the concept of transcendental subject; as such, it is a simple representation. The awareness of oneself as thinking is only expressed by the I: the intellectual representation which performs a referential function of the spontaneity of (...)
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  47. On the People's Terms: A Republican Theory and Model of Democracy.Philip Pettit - 2012 - Cambridge University Press.
    According to republican theory, we are free persons to the extent that we are protected and secured in the same fundamental choices, on the same public basis, as one another. But there is no public protection or security without a coercive state. Does this mean that any freedom we enjoy is a superficial good that presupposes a deeper, political form of subjection? Philip Pettit addresses this crucial question in On the People's Terms. He argues that state coercion will not (...)
  48. Gestalt Theory: An Essay in Philosophy.Barry Smith - 1988 - In Foundations of Gestalt Theory. Vienna: Philosophia Verlag. pp. 11-81.
    The Austrian philosopher Christian von Ehrenfels published his essay "On 'Gestalt Qualities'" in 1890. The essay initiated a current of thought which enjoyed a powerful position in the philosophy and psychology of the first half of this century and has more recently enjoyed a minor resurgence of interest in the area of cognitive science, above all in criticisms of the so-called 'strong programme' in artificial intelligence. The theory of Gestalt is of course associated most specifically with psychologists of the (...)
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  49. Utility Theory and Ethics.Mongin Philippe & D'Aspremont Claude - 1998 - In Salvador Barbera, Paul Hammond & Christian Seidl (eds.), Handbook of Utility Theory Volume1: Principles. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 371-481.
    This chapter of the Handbook of Utility Theory aims at covering the connections between utility theory and social ethics. The chapter first discusses the philosophical interpretations of utility functions, then explains how social choice theory uses them to represent interpersonal comparisons of welfare in either utilitarian or non-utilitarian representations of social preferences. The chapter also contains an extensive account of John Harsanyi's formal reconstruction of utilitarianism and its developments in the later literature, especially when society faces uncertainty (...)
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  50. Cultural Attractor Theory and Explanation.Andrew Buskell - 2017 - Philosophy, Theory, and Practice in Biology 9 (13).
    Cultural attractor theory (CAT) is a highly visible and audacious approach to studying human cultural evolution. However, the explanatory aims and some central explanatory concepts of CAT remain unclear. Here I remedy these problems. I provide a reconstruction of CAT that recasts it as a theory of forces. I then demonstrate how this reinterpretation of CAT has the resources to generate both cultural distribution and evolvability explanations. I conclude by examining the potential benefits and drawbacks of this reconstruction.
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