Esta enciclopédia abrange, de uma forma introdutória mas desejavelmente rigorosa, uma diversidade de conceitos, temas, problemas, argumentos e teorias localizados numa área relativamente recente de estudos, os quais tem sido habitual qualificar como «estudos lógico-filosóficos». De uma forma apropriadamente genérica, e apesar de o território teórico abrangido ser extenso e de contornos por vezes difusos, podemos dizer que na área se investiga um conjunto de questões fundamentais acerca da natureza da linguagem, da mente, da cognição e do raciocínio humanos, bem (...) como questões acerca das conexões destes com a realidade não mental e extralinguística. A razão daquela qualificação é a seguinte: por um lado, a investigação em questão é qualificada como filosófica em virtude do elevado grau de generalidade e abstracção das questões examinadas (entre outras coisas); por outro, a investigação é qualificada como lógica em virtude de ser uma investigação logicamente disciplinada, no sentido de nela se fazer um uso intenso de conceitos, técnicas e métodos provenientes da disciplina de lógica. O agregado de tópicos que constitui a área de estudos lógico-filosóficos é já visível, pelo menos em parte, no Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus de Ludwig Wittgenstein, uma obra publicada em 1921. E uma boa maneira de ter uma ideia sinóptica do território disciplinar abrangido por esta enciclopédia, ou pelo menos de uma porção substancial dele, é extrair do Tractatus uma lista dos tópicos mais salientes aí discutidos; a lista incluirá certamente tópicos do seguinte género, muitos dos quais se podem encontrar ao longo desta enciclopédia: factos e estados de coisas; objectos; representação; crenças e estados mentais; pensamentos; a proposição; nomes próprios; valores de verdade e bivalência; quantificação; funções de verdade; verdade lógica; identidade; tautologia; o raciocínio matemático; a natureza da inferência; o cepticismo e o solipsismo; a indução; as constantes lógicas; a negação; a forma lógica; as leis da ciência; o número. (shrink)
Purpose Codes of ethics are important instruments in journalism, as they promote transparency and self-regulation of media, in addition to monitoring the quality of information. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the perceptions that Spanish journalists have of the effectiveness of codes of ethics and to evaluate the different personal and professional variables which condition this vision. Design/methodology/approach The methodology used in the present study is based on quantitative content analysis using the survey technique. This technique makes it (...) possible to obtain empirical data on various key aspects of the profession that are determining factors in ascertaining Spanish journalists’ views of one of the instruments of accountability that is external to the media: general ethical codes. Findings The results show that Spanish journalists are largely confident in the effectiveness of ethical codes in their profession. Likewise, it was seen that variables such as age, professional experience or the media with which they work influence the perceptions that professionals have of such instruments. Originality/value If understanding journalism as a profession whose mission is to guarantee the citizens their right to information, then it is essential to be familiar with the tools provided by the profession itself to be accountable to the public regarding this professional mission. Hence the importance of instruments of accountability and the perceptions of the professionals themselves regarding their effectiveness. (shrink)
Participants acting as mock jurors made inferences about whether a person was a suspect in a murder based on an expert's testimony about the presence of objects at the crime scene and the disclosure that the testimony was true or false. Experiment 1 showed that participants made more correct inferences, and made inferences more quickly, when the truth or falsity of the expert's testimony was disclosed immediately after the testimony rather than when the disclosure was delayed. Experiment 2 showed no (...) advantage for prior disclosure over immediate disclosure. Experiment 3 showed that the pattern of inferences when there was no disclosure mirrored the pattern when it was disclosed that the expert's testimony was true rather than false. Participants made more correct inferences from true conjunctions than disjunctions, and from false disjunctions than conjunctions. We discuss the implications for theories of the mental representations and cognitive processes that underlie human reasoning. (shrink)
Rousseau has always had an uncertain relationship with the theory of constituent power. On the one hand, his distrust of political representation and support for popular sovereignty seem consistent with the idea of the people as a legally unlimited constitution-maker. On the other hand, if, from those views about representation and sovereignty, it follows that Rousseau is a proponent of direct democracy, then there seems to be no place in his thought for a theory that presupposes, above all, a separation (...) between those who exercise a delegated authority and those who possess an original constitution-making power. In a legal order in which all laws must be directly made by the people, such a separation is absent: the constituent and the legislative body are one and the same. It is therefore not surprising that Rousseau’s name is largely absent from contemporary literature on constituent power. In this article, however, I will show that once Rousseau’s particular conception of law, as well as his distinction between sovereignty and government, are properly understood, one finds in his work not only the first major formulation of the theory of constituent power, but also a careful exploration of its implications for actual constitutional practice. (shrink)
This paper concerns the normative status of coherence of desires, in the context of moral rationalism. I argue that 'desiderative coherence' is not tied to rationality, but is rather of pragmatic, instrumental, and sometimes moral value. This means that desire-based views cannot rely on coherence to support non-agent-relative accounts of moral reasons. For example, on Michael Smith's neo-rationalist view, you have 'normative reason' to do whatever your maximally coherent and fully informed self would want you to do, whether you want (...) to do it or not. For these reasons to be non-agent-relative, coherence would have to be grounded in rationality, but I argue that it is not. I analyze, and reject, various strategies for establishing a coherence-rationality connection, considering in detail a purported analogy between desires and a priori beliefs, with particular attention to the case of mathematics. (shrink)
Euthanasia has become the subject of ethical and political debate in many countries including Mexico. Since many physicians are deeply concerned about euthanasia, due to their crucial participation in its decision and implementation, it is important to know the psychological meaning that the term ‘euthanasia’ has for them, as well as their attitudes toward this practice. This study explores psychological meaning and attitudes toward euthanasia in 546 Mexican subjects, either medical students or physicians, who were divided into three groups: a) (...) beginning students, b) advanced students, and c) physicians. We used the semantic networks technique, which analyzed the words the participants associated with the term ‘euthanasia’. Positive psychological meaning, as well as positive attitudes, prevailed among advanced students and physicians when defining euthanasia, whereas both positive and negative psychological meaning together with more ambivalent attitudes toward euthanasia predominated in beginning students. The findings are discussed in the context of a current debate on a bill proposing active euthanasia in Mexico City. (shrink)
Este artículo propone una lectura de Antígona como heroína trágica a partir de la confluencia de dos perspectivas: la realidad social de la mujer ateniense durante el siglo V a. C. y el carácter simbólico de lo femenino/masculino. En primer lugar, se muestra que en la tragedia griega la alteridad representada por la mujer aparece transfigurada, pero no irreconocible. A continuación, se caracteriza el concepto de lo trágico propuesto por Vernant y Vidal-Naquet y por Lesky, el concepto de operador femenino (...) de Loraux y aspectos puntuales de la situación social de las mujeres atenienses para elaborar, en un tercer momento, una revisión de diálogos de Antígona con la finalidad de mostrar cómo las acciones de esta heroína corresponden no solo al conflicto trágico de la obra, sino también a su condición femenina y social. Se concluye que es posible pensar un conflicto trágico sexuado, al menos en Antígona de Sófocles, a partir del reconocimiento de la alteridad femenina en la tragedia griega. (shrink)
Mining companies have long had a questionable reputation for social responsibility, especially in developing countries. In recent years, mining companies operating in developing countries have come under increased pressure as opponents have placed them under greater public scrutiny. Mining companies have responded by developing global corporate social responsibility strategies as part of their larger global business strategies. In these strategies, a prominent place is given to their relationship with local communities. For business ethics, one basic issue is whether such an (...) approach to corporate responsibility is likely to effectively address the development concerns of local communities in developing countries. This paper addresses this question by investigating how the corporate social responsibility agenda of a major minor company has been implemented by one of its subsidiaries in South Africa. (shrink)
Tal como sucede con nociones como la de la guerra o la muerte, através del error se cuenta el envés de la historia del hombre, el ladooculto de su pensamiento. Una visión parcializada de esa historia se enfoca en la contemplación de una superficie armónica de los sucesos, desligandolas transformaciones que se gestan en lo profundo. Pero cuando lospolos que aparecen como opuestos revelan su vínculo, ambos se conviertenen causas y consecuencias: así como a través de la guerra los hombres (...) hanconsolidado sociedades organizadas que no obstante siguen siendo propensasa la lucha, y la vida de un organismo no puede ser otra cosa que un desarrollopaulatino que culmina y a la vez alcanza su máximo potencial en la muerte,a través del error se puede llegar a la construcción del conocimiento tenidocomo cierto y al mismo tiempo cuestionarlo para crear uno nuevo. (shrink)
The relationship between democracy and constitutions is a long and fractious one. Those who lean towards the constitutionalist side have tended to perceive democracy as a threat to political order and the preservation of important values, whereas those who take a more democratist stance tend to treat constitutions as elite hindrances to popular rule as much as anything else. In this paper, we will give the constitutionalist thesis a broader theoretical and political scrutiny. By way of explanation, we will address (...) and recommend the possibilities and problems for putting into practical operation such an anti-constitutionalist stance; the recent experience of the U.S. State of California offers itself as a good forcing-ground for these ideas. In short, from a democratic standpoint, the challenge for the citizenry is not so much about defining the values of constitutions, but constitutions whose change is outside the scope of popular decision making, supposed to exclusively take place through judicial interpretation or through an amendment formula designed precisely to make change difficult and unlikely. Too often, constitutions place checks and limits on democratic participation in the name of some other set of vaunted truths or elite-favouring values. For the strong democrat, it is formal constitutions and their institutional paraphernalia that do more to inhibit and dull democracy's emancipatory potential than to nurture and fulfil it. (shrink)
The International Investment Law system is the result of a colonial project within a capitalist system that has been influenced by developmentalism discourse and neoliberal ideology. This book shows how it has become an instrument that facilitates forms of systemic violence against so called “Third World” countries.
Las relaciones entre las diferentes tradiciones religiosas y de pensamiento en la península coreana han pasado por periodos de convivencia armoniosa y otros más conflictivos a lo largo de su historia. Un momento importante de cambio entre una sociedad pluralista a una sociedad cada vez más centrada en el pensamiento confuciano fue durante la dinastía Goryeo. El propósito de este artículo es mostrar cómo los cambios sociales influyen en el reconocimiento social de las prácticas y practicantes del chamanismo en Corea, (...) especialmente en relación con los funcionarios confucianos. Para ilustrar estos cambios sociales y su influencia en el reconocimiento social del practicante religioso, analizaré un texto de esta época que los refleja. El texto, que no se ha traducido previamente al castellano, es un poema del letrado confuciano Yi Gyubo, Nomupyeon, donde podemos ver bien reflejada la relación entre los chamanes y los funcionarios confucianos durante la segunda mitad de la dinastía Goryeo. Este poema muestra los cambios sociales y políticos que tienen lugar en la sociedad de esta época y cómo las prácticas religiosas juegan un papel importante en los conflictos de poder. La posición de los chamanes en la sociedad fue cambiando a medida que las nuevas ideas sociales, filosóficas y religiosas del neo-confucianismo se fueron estableciendo y difundiendo a través de la península coreana. En un proceso paralelo el chamanismo se convertirá en una práctica asociada a las mujeres, con lo que esto implica en términos de valores de género. Estos cambios influirán en la posición de los chamanes y en su reconocimiento por parte de la sociedad desde entonces hasta nuestros días en Corea. (shrink)
Suárez, talvez o principal expoente da Escolástica do século XVI, em suas Disputationes metaphysicae, trabalha, entre outros temas, o do conceito objetivo. Atendo-se principalmente à disputação 2, secção n• 1, procura-se mostrar a fecundidade de tal noção, desenvolvendo, para tanto, os temas: o conceito formal enquanto ato mental e enquanto imago, a doutrina da denominação extrínseca: a denominação extrínseca e os entia rationis, a denominação extrínseca e os possíveis.
Institutions receiving federal funding for research from the U.S.Public Health Service need to have policies and procedures to both prevent research misconduct and to adjudicate it when it occurs. The person who is designated to handle research misconduct is typically referred to as the research integrity officer (RIO). In this interview study we report on 79 RIOs who describe how they would handle allegations of research misconduct. Their responses were compared to two expert RIOs. The responses to the allegations in (...) the scenarios demonstrated that RIOs are not uniformly well prepared to handle activities associated with reported allegations of research misconduct. We recommend greater preparation through directed training, use of check lists of possible behaviors necessary to consider when situations arise, being involved in a network of RIOs so one can discuss options, and the possible need to certify RIOs. (shrink)
This article examines the relationship between Puerto Rico's export-oriented development program and the demand for women workers in the manufacturing sector from 1952 to 1980. Its central proposition is that the consistently high proportion of women in the manufacturing sector was the result of an employment structure characterized by specialization in assembly-type activities and low wages. Although the Puerto Rican government pursued a development strategy designed to increase job opportunities for men, the manufacturing industries attracted to the island by its (...) export-oriented industrialization policies generated a strong demand for women workers. The apparent contradiction between the employment practices of manufacturing establishments and government policies is due to the restructuring of the global economy and the emergence of a new international division of labor that brought increasing numbers of women into the labor market. (shrink)