We present a theoretical account of implicit and explicit learning in terms of ACT-R, an integrated architecture of human cognition as a computational supplement to Dienes & Perner's conceptual analysis of knowledge. Explicit learning is explained in ACT-R by the acquisition of new symbolic knowledge, whereas implicit learning amounts to statistically adjusting subsymbolic quantities associated with that knowledge. We discuss the common foundation of a set of models that are able to explain data gathered in several signature paradigms of implicit (...) learning. (shrink)
Dieter Henrich is one of the most respected and frequently cited philosophers in Germany today. His extensive and highly innovative studies of German Idealism and his systematic analyses of subjectivity have significantly impacted on advanced German philosophical and theological debates. Dieter Henrich and Contemporary Philosophy presents a comprehensive analysis of Henrich's work on subjectivity, evaluating it in the context of contemporary debates in both continental and analytic traditions. Familiarising the non-German reader with an important development in contemporary German (...) philosophy, this book explains the significance of subjectivity for any philosophy that attempts to offer existential orientation and contrasts competing conceptions in analytic philosophy and in the social philosophy of Juergen Habermas. Presenting Henrich's philosophy of subjectivity as a credible alternative to analytic philosophy of mind and a radical challenge to Heideggerian, Habermasian, neo-pragmatist, and postmodern positions, Freundlieb argues that a philosophy of the kind developed by Henrich can regain the cultural significance philosophical thinking once possessed. Dieter Freundlieb is Senior Lecturer in the School of Humanities, Griffith University, Australia. (shrink)
Dieter Birnbacher is professor of philosophy at the University of Düsseldorf and a member of the Foundation for the Rights of Future Generations’ scientific board. In 1988 he published the book Verantwortung für zukünftige Generationen ; which was translated into French and Polish. Hanna Schudy is an ethicist and environmentalist interested in questions of intergenerational responsibility concerning the natural environment. She is a doctoral student at the University of Wroclaw and a DAAD scholarship holder. The interview was conducted in (...) December 2011 at the Heinrich Heine Universität; Duesseldorf. It is part of Ms. Schudy’s current research into “The principle of responsibility in Hans Jonas’ and Dieter Birnbacher’s environmental ethics”. (shrink)
This volume pays tribute to the remarkable scholarship of Hans Dieter Betz, which has combined amazing range with consistency of vision. Defying the traditional boundaries of the academy, Hans Dieter Betz, Shailer Mathews Professor emeritus at the University of Chicago Divinity School, has made significant contributions in the fields of New Testament, classics, church history, theology, and history of religions. This Festschrift brings together the work of major scholars of ancient religion and philosophy who are part of Betz's (...) international circle of conversation. The volume also contains a complete bibliography of Hans Dieter Betz's publications from 1959 to 2000. (shrink)
Computers are already approving financial transactions, controlling electrical supplies, and driving trains. Soon, service robots will be taking care of the elderly in their homes, and military robots will have their own targeting and firing protocols. Colin Allen and Wendell Wallach argue that as robots take on more and more responsibility, they must be programmed with moral decision-making abilities, for our own safety. Taking a fast paced tour through the latest thinking about philosophical ethics and artificial intelligence, the authors (...) argue that even if full moral agency for machines is a long way off, it is already necessary to start building a kind of functional morality, in which artificial moral agents have some basic ethical sensitivity. But the standard ethical theories don't seem adequate, and more socially engaged and engaging robots will be needed. As the authors show, the quest to build machines that are capable of telling right from wrong has begun. -/- Moral Machines is the first book to examine the challenge of building artificial moral agents, probing deeply into the nature of human decision making and ethics. (shrink)
A principal goal of the discipline of artificial morality is to design artificial agents to act as if they are moral agents. Intermediate goals of artificial morality are directed at building into AI systems sensitivity to the values, ethics, and legality of activities. The development of an effective foundation for the field of artificial morality involves exploring the technological and philosophical issues involved in making computers into explicit moral reasoners. The goal of this paper is to discuss strategies for implementing (...) artificial morality and the differing criteria for success that are appropriate to different strategies. (shrink)
The political crises and upheavals of our age often originate from the periphery rather than the center of power. Figures like Edward Snowden, Julian Assange, and Chelsea Manning acted in ways that disrupted power, revealing truths that those in power wanted to keep hidden. They are thorns in the side of power, troublemakers in the eyes of the powerful, though their actions may be valuable and lead to positive changes. In this important new book, Dieter Thomä examines the crucial (...) but often overlooked function of these figures on the margins of society, developing a philosophy of troublemakers from the seventeenth century to the present day. Thomä takes as his starting point Hobbes’s idea of the puer robustus, meaning a figure who rebels against order and authority. While Hobbes saw the puer robustus as a threat, he also recognized the potential, in the right conditions, for figures to rise up and become agents of positive change. Building on this notion, Thomä provides a rich survey of intellectuals who have been inspired by this idea over the past 300 years, from Rousseau, Diderot, Schiller, Victor Hugo, Marx, and Freud to Carl Schmitt, Leo Strauss, and Horkheimer, right up to the recent work of Badiou and Agamben. In doing so, he develops a typology of the puer robustus and a means by which we can evaluate and assess the troublemakers of our own times. Thomä shows that troublemakers are an inescapable part of modernity, for as soon as social and political boundaries are defined, there will always be figures challenging them from the margins. This book will be of great interest not only to students and scholars in the humanities and social sciences but to anyone seeking to understand the crucial impact of these liminal figures on our world today. (shrink)
Constitutionalism: Past, Present, and Future will offer a definitive collection of Professor Dieter Grimm's most important scholarly writings on constitutional thought and interpretation. The essays included in this volume explore the conditions under which the modern constitution could emerge; they treat the characteristics that must be given if the constitution may be called an achievement, the appropriate way to understand and interpret constitutional law under current conditions, the function of judicial review, the remaining role of national constitutions in a (...) changing world, as well as the possibility of supra-national constitutionalism.Many of these essays have influenced the German and European discussion on constitutionalism and for the first time, much of the work of one of German's leading scholars of public law will be available in the English language. (shrink)
The use of "theory" in feminist analysis has been said to threaten feminism as a political force. This collection of work by leading feminist scholars engages with the question of the political status of poststructuralism theory within feminism. Against the view that the use of post-structuralism necessarily weakens feminism, 'Feminists Theorize the Political' affirms the contemporary debate over theory as politically rich and consequential. In laying the theoretical groundwork for the volume, Butler and Scott posed a number of questions to (...) prominent legal scholars, literary critics, philosophers, political theorists, historians, and cultural theorists. The essays do not settle the questions but generate new and productive directions for them. The volume as a whole valorizes the unsettling power and politics of theory. The essays in 'Feminists Theorize the Political' speak to the questions that emerge from the convergence of feminism and poststructuralism: What happens to feminist critique when traditional foundations--experience, history, universal norms--are called into question? Can feminist theory problematize the notion of the subject without losing its political effectivity? Which version of the subject is to questioned, and how does that questioning open up possibilities for reformulating agency, power, and sites of political resistance? What are the consequences of a specifically feminist reformulation of difference? What are the uses and limits of a poststructuralist critique of binary logic for the theorization of racial and class differences, the position of the subaltern? This anthology represents a diverse array of theoretical work within feminist theory with strong political stakes. Although not all of the authors subscribe to poststructuralism, (and few would concede post-structuralism is a monolithic enterprise), each offers an innovative feminist analysis that is in some way motivated in and by the poststructuralist challenge. 'Feminists Theorize The Political' addresses a range of feminist concerns, including productive freedom, anti-discrimination law, rape, and formulating power in terms of exclusion, difference and hierarchy. (shrink)
Review text: "... ist diese Einführung als solche uneingeschränkt zu empfehlen, da sie ihrem "analytischen? Charakter im besten Sinne des Wortes gerecht wird."Werner Wolbert in: Salzburger Theologische Zeitschrift 2/2008.
Dieses Buch zeigt die konkrete Ausformung und die Arbeitsprozesse des nicht-sprachlichen Denkens. Es untersucht die Funktionen des szenisch-phantasmatischen Systems in seinen grundlegenden Arten und Komponenten sowie dessen konkretes Arbeiten anhand zentraler Themen. Methodische Grundlage ist die deskriptive Phänomenologie Husserls. Als normale und entwickelte Menschen denken wir zwar für gewöhnlich im Modus der Sprache, aber das ist nicht unsere einzige Weise zu denken. Es gibt nicht nur prinzipiell, sondern auch faktisch funktionierende Alternativen: Ein System der nicht-sprachlichen Repräsentation kognitiver Inhalte im menschlichen (...) Bewusstsein. Dieses System kann zur Darstellung und Manipulation vorgestellter Sachverhalte eingesetzt werden, sodass Folgerungen, Handlungsalternativen und die Planung der Zukunft auf der Grundlage vorangegangener Erfahrung möglich werden. Für dieses nicht-sprachliche Denken ist das szenisch-phantasmatische System zentral, das auf der Grundlage von kurzfristigen Phantasmen arbeitet, die uns wie wirklich gesehene Tatsachen, Situationen und Szenen erscheinen, obwohl sie aus der Imagination stammen. Das nicht-sprachliche System lässt sich als ein noch funktionierendes Überbleibsel eines Systems interpretieren, das wir mit den Hominiden und vielen Tieren gemeinsam haben. Diese Hypothese, bestärkt durch viele eindrucksvolle Beispiele intelligenten Verhaltens bei Tieren, wird in einigen Aspekten bereits von der neurologischen Forschung bestätigt. Das Buch bietet eine systematische und umfassende Behandlung des Themas, indem es die eidetische Phänomenologie des Denkens mit der empirischen und vergleichenden Psychologie, mit Neurologie, Evolutionstheorie, Primatologie und auch einigen herausfordernden Einsichten angewandter Disziplinen in eine fruchtbare Diskussion bringt. (shrink)
Alvin Plantinga s Warranted Christian Belief has very quickly become one of the most influential books in philosophy of religion. In this collection of essays, German philosophers, theologians and a mathematician deal critically with several aspects of Plantinga s seminal work. In a long essay, Plantinga answers these critics.".
Past entities, events, and circumstances are neither observable nor manipulatable. Several philosophers argued that this inaccessibility precludes a realistic conception of the past.I survey versions of antirealism and agnosticism about the past formulated by Michael Dummett, Leon Goldstein, and Derek Turner. These accounts differ in their motivations and reasoning, but they share the opinion that the reality of at least large swathes of the past is unknowable. Consequently, they consider statements about them as referring, at most, to present constructs.These antirealists (...) about the past are not, however, antirealists or skeptics about time or chronology. They accept, among other things, that present traces can be dated and statements about their temporal provenances are referring and truth-apt.I posit that an antirealist who accepts that at least some of the present traces can be truth-aptly dated while holding that these traces do not support knowledge about past events and circumstances commits herself to a radically skeptic stance. Otherwise, she would be diluting her position so that it will be hardly distinguishable from realism.This problem could be avoided if antirealists about the past would extend their antirealism to estimates of the age of present traces. Such a position, however, would imply a very drastic form of scientific antirealism.I conclude that the past’s inaccessibility is insufficient to support antirealism about the past, either as a part of moderate scientific antirealism or as a stand-alone position. (shrink)
In everyday morality, "naturalness" is a positively charged term. It plays a significant role wherever technical progress opens up natural processes to human control. This book enquires into the motives for the privileged position of the natural over the artificial and seeks out its roots in the history of ideas.
Citizens, political leaders, and scholars invoke the term 'democracy' to describe present-day states without grasping its roots or prospects in theory or practice. This book clarifies the political discourse about democracy by identifying that its primary focus is human activity, not consent. It points out how democracy is neither self-legitimating nor self-justifying and so requires critical, ethical discourse to address its ongoing problems, such as inequality and exclusion. Wallach pinpoints how democracy has historically depended on notions of goodness to (...) ratify its power. The book analyses pivotal concepts of democratic ethics such as 'virtue', 'representation', 'civil rightness', 'legitimacy', and 'human rights' and looks at them as practical versions of goodness that have adapted democracy to new constellations of power in history. Wallach notes how democratic ethics should never be reduced to power or moral ideals. Historical understanding needs to come first to highlight the potentials and prospects of democratic citizenship. (shrink)
Diese folgenden Texte betreffen allesamt die Theorieversuche über Selbstverhältnisse, welche die klassische deutsche Philosophie entwickelt hat. Sie gehen auch allesamt darauf aus, diese Theorieversuche aus ihren Prämissen neu aufzubauen und ihre Begründungen nicht allein von den Argumenten abhängig sein zu lassen, die sich in den Werken der klassischen Philosophie finden.
ZusammenfassungDas Verfahren des Sterbefastens ) hat eine lange Tradition, die, soweit wir wissen, bis in die Antike zurückreicht. Besonders in jüngster Zeit findet es Interesse bei älteren Menschen, die dem Tode nahe sind und über Zeitpunkt und Umstände ihres Todes ein gewisses Maß an Gestaltungsspielraum behalten wollen. Unter den Befürwortern dieses Verfahrens ist allerdings u. a. strittig, wieweit Sterbefasten als eine „passive“ Form von Suizid gelten kann. Auf dem Hintergrund der WHO-Definition des Suizids verteidigt der Beitrag eine affirmative Antwort und (...) diskutiert, wieweit sich daraus Konsequenzen für die ethische Beurteilung des Sterbefastens ergeben. (shrink)
Building artificial moral agents (AMAs) underscores the fragmentary character of presently available models of human ethical behavior. It is a distinctly different enterprise from either the attempt by moral philosophers to illuminate the “ought” of ethics or the research by cognitive scientists directed at revealing the mechanisms that influence moral psychology, and yet it draws on both. Philosophers and cognitive scientists have tended to stress the importance of particular cognitive mechanisms, e.g., reasoning, moral sentiments, heuristics, intuitions, or a moral grammar, (...) in the making of moral decisions. However, assembling a system from the bottom-up which is capable of accommodating moral considerations draws attention to the importance of a much wider array of mechanisms in honing moral intelligence. Moral machines need not emulate human cognitive faculties in order to function satisfactorily in responding to morally significant situations. But working through methods for building AMAs will have a profound effect in deepening an appreciation for the many mechanisms that contribute to a moral acumen, and the manner in which these mechanisms work together. Building AMAs highlights the need for a comprehensive model of how humans arrive at satisfactory moral judgments. (shrink)
Das Phänomen des Todes fordert wie kein anderes das philosophische Thaumazein heraus, das Sich-Wundern und das Stellen grundlegender Fragen. Deshalb ist er ein stets wiederkehrendes Thema der Philosophie. Es ist zugleich eines der Themen, dessen philosophische Behandlung im Zeitverlauf die radikalsten Wandlungen erfahren hat. Während viele der Aussagen über den Tod, die wir etwa in der Philosophie des Hellenismus finden, heute noch ebenso gültig sind wie vor mehr als 2000 Jahren, haben sich andere überlebt oder sind Gegenstand von Kontroversen geworden. (...) Ursächlich dafür sind sowohl der medizinische und technische Fortschritt, der es erlaubt hat, den Tod weit über seine jahrtausendealten Grenzen hinaus zeitlich zu verschieben, als auch die zunehmend naturalistischen Sichtweisen von Leben und Tod. Der Band diskutiert primär aktuelle Fragen im Umkreis des Todes, wobei anthropologische, metaphysische und ethische Fragen gleichberechtigt angesprochen werden, u. a. Todesdefinition, Möglichkeiten eines "guten Todes", ärztliches Handeln am Lebensende, Überlebenshoffnungen und die auf den Tod gerichteten Emotionen. Der historische Hintergrund wird, wo immer möglich, mitberücksichtigt. (shrink)
This paper analyzes the scenario for a post-revolutionary society as developed in Lenin’s “The State and Revolution.” Lenin heavily relies on Marx and Engels’s metaphors of waking up and falling asleep: Post-revolutionary society is marked by a grand awakening and a conversion of dreams into reality, while the State is said to fall asleep or wither away. Lenin applies these metaphors yet applies them in a strangely inverted manner. Instead of embracing agency, he argues for a new regime of “habit,” (...) which has sedating effects on humans, while the state survives its demise and returns under the title of “administration.” Lenin’s plea for “habit” and “administration” is discussed in a broader context of other philosophical accounts reaching from Kant to Hegel, Max Weber, Ludwig Wittgenstein, Hannah Arendt and beyond. These critical considerations lead to some general findings on the status of moral agency in revolutionary change. Trotsky’s account of permanent revolution with its experimentalist and theatrical implications is a case in point here. The paper concludes by discussing the intricate relation between revolution, democracy, and the state. (shrink)
The concepts of complementarity and entanglement are considered with respect to their significance in and beyond physics. A formally generalized, weak version of quantum theory, more general than ordinary quantum theory of physical systems, is outlined and tentatively applied to two examples.
Naturalness delves into a long withstanding argument of everyday life—the argument of naturalness. This book questions why what is natural has been seen in some ways as superior to what is artificial and discusses the role and validity of naturalistic arguments in domains such as politics, ethics, and reasoning.