In the last few decades, assisted reproduction has introduced new challenges to the way people conceive and build their families. While the numbers of donor-conceived individuals have increased worldwide, there are still many controversies concerning access to donor information. Is there a fundamental moral right to know one’s genetic background? What does identity in DC families mean? Is there any relationship between identity formation and disclosure of genetic origins? These questions are addressed by analysing core regulatory discourse. This analysis shows (...) that the notion of narrative identity is suitable for defining and answering these questions. This review analyses the meaning of resemblance in DC families and the way donors are selected following affinity-ties and discusses disclosure strategies and agreements. As a preliminary conclusion, it could be said that, in the field of third-party reproduction, knowing about the donor conception significantly contributes towards the development of a narrative identity and also serves as a moral basis for the child’s right to know. (shrink)
ABSTRACT The disparity in the venezuelan demographic transition is a fact known by experts. On this setting, there are four municipalities in Falcón State with a high elder population, one of them is Tocópero. This research had as general objectives to study the estimations of demographic risks and the social politics for elders, people who are 75 and more, from Tocópero Municipality, considering that specialists indicate that, once the demographic oldness has arrived, it is important to study thoroughly the elder (...) population in order to design relevant politics and programs, taking into consideration that it is a vulnerable group. It was an exploratory and descriptive study, with a field-no experimental-transectional design. The sample was intentional. Structured interviews and questionnaires were applied to elders and municipal officials. The data processing was carried out by using quantitative methods. The conclusions indicated that the elder population in Tocópero Municipality had a marked female tendency. In general terms, the adverse effects associated to the estimations of demographic risk were not present in the studied sample. There was no relation between the demographic reality of this municipality and the social politics and programs implemented. The programs concentrated the elder and suppressed the intergenerational contact; the centralism was the key element to understand the present politics of the Venezuelan state towards the oldness. The demographic oldness of this municipality was determined by the way in which the birth of the municipality was approved. (shrink)
resumo O artigo pretende revisitar a interpretação hegeliana dos Fundamentos do Direito Natural de Fichte, não propriamente seus elementos críticos, presentes na Differenzschrift e no Naturrechtaufsatz, mas antes a possibilidade de uma assimilação positiva. Em primeiro lugar, oferecemos uma interpretação da passagem entre os §3 e §4 da obra de Fichte, entre a discussão da Aufforderung e a dedução do reconhecimento jurídico, que procura articulála como interface entre educação e direito. Na segunda parte, procuramos revelar o pano de fundo “histórico-espiritual” (...) que permite considerar, no jovem Hegel, um embate entre formas inclusivas e excludentes de intersubjetividade. Na terceira parte, o objetivo é considerar a relação entre a eticidade, enquanto Einssein do universal e do singular, o direito e a educação. Finalmente, pretende-se mostrar que a assimilação positiva de Fichte por Hegel pode ser visualizada na articulação entre formas excludente e participativa de intersubjetividade no conceito de eticidade natural do System der Sittlichkeit, a qual sugere uma mediação entre amor e direito oferecida pela formação. palavras-chave direito; eticidade; reconhecimento; formação; educação. (shrink)
A distinguishing characteristic of the biomedical model is its compartmentalized view of man. This way of seeing human beings has its origin in Greek thought; it was stated by Descartes and to this day it still considers humans as beings composed of distinct entities combined into a certain form. Because of this observation, one began to believe that the focus of a health treatment could be exclusively on the affected area of the body, without the need to pay attention to (...) patient’s subjectivity. By seeing pain as a merely sensory response, this model was not capable of encompassing chronic pain, since the latter is a complex process that can occur independently of tissue damage. As of the second half of the twentieth century, when it became impossible to deny the relationship between psyche and soma, the current understanding of chronic pain emerges: that of chronic pain as an individual experience, the result of a sum of physical, psychological, and social factors that, for this reason, cannot be approached separately from the individual who expresses pain. This understanding has allowed a significant improvement in perspective, emphasizing the characteristic of pain as an individual experience. However, the understanding of chronic pain as a sum of factors corresponds to the current way of seeing the process of falling ill, for its conception holds a Cartesian duality and the positivist premise of a single reality. For phenomenology, on the other hand, the individual in his/her unity is more than a simple sum of parts. Phenomenology sees a human being as an intending entity, in which body, mind, and the world are intertwined and constitute each other mutually, thus establishing the human being’s integral functioning. Therefore, a real understanding of the chronic pain process would only be possible from a phenomenological point of view at the experience lived by the individual who expresses and communicates pain. (shrink)
The importance of evolutionary parallelisms and their differences from evolutionary convergences have been historically underappreciated, as recently noticed in Gould's last book `The structure of evolutionary history'. In that book, Gould make an effort to distinguish and to reinterpret these concepts in the light of the new discoveries of the last decades on developmental biology and genetics, presenting the elegant metaphor of `Pharaonic bricks versus Corinthian columns'. In this paper I will briefly discuss these concepts, and will argue that, despite (...) the advances that have been made to define them in theory, it is rather hard to differentiate them in a practical phylogenetic context. In order to do so, I will provide some few examples from my own empirical studies on the last years of one of the most morphologically and taxonomically diverse groups of Vertebrates, the catfishes. (shrink)
Resumo: Este artigo analisa a categoria de impolitico de Roberto Esposito. Tem por objetivo demonstrar a relação entre os conceitos de impolitico e de das Politische. Inicialmente, a pesquisa explora a categoria de impolítico e demonstra alguns pressupostos não assumidos em relação ao pensamento de Carl Schmitt. Em seguida, insere Schmitt na tradição impolítica reconstruída por Esposito e elabora algumas considerações sobre as características impolíticas do das Politische. Ao demonstrar, como resultado, um ponto cego na análise espositiana, qual seja, a (...) ausência de um capítulo necessário sobre o jurista alemão, chega à conclusão de que Esposito elabora uma refinada interpretação da obra de Schmitt, resolvendo alguns problemas de transição, na obra do autor, na década de 1920, porém, oblitera sua influência; propõe uma leitura que afasta Schmitt da teologia política, ao vinculá-lo à tradição impolítica e esboça a relação entre impolitico e das Politische.: This article analyzes Roberto Esposito's idea of the impolitico, with the aim of showing the relation between the impolitical and Carl Schmitt's das Politische. Schmitt is examined in terms of the impolitical tradition reconstructed by Esposito, and the impolitical characteristics of das Politische are discussed. We then argue that Esposito gives a refined interpretation of Schmitt, solving some problems regarding transitions in Schmitt's work the 1920s, but that Esposito ends up obliterating Schmitt's influence. We propose a reading, which separates Schmitt from political theology by linking him to the impolitical tradition and which drafts the relation between the impolitico and das Politische. (shrink)
This paper focuses on the contributions to natural history, particularly in methods of plant classification of the Portuguese botanist, man of letters, diplomat, and Freemason Abbé José Correia da Serra (1751-1823), placing them in their national and international political and social contexts. Correia da Serra adopted the natural method of classification championed by the Frenchman Antoine-Laurent de Jussieu, and introduced refinements of his own that owe much to parallel developments in zoology. He endorsed the view that the classification of plants (...) should be based on the establishment of affinities rather than of differences. The emphasis on affinities went hand in hand with the development of the concept of symmetry. This idea was introduced by Correia da Serra in systematics and was adopted and further developed by his friend, Augustin-Pyramus de Candolle. Correia da Serra also argued that Cryptogamia reproduce sexually, advocated extension of methods of comparative anatomy from zoology to botany, and applied them to the study of fruits. Correia da Serra was one among many of the estrangeirados, Portuguese "Europeanized" intellectuals who traveled extensively abroad in most cases to escape political or religious persecution at home. The estrangeirados were important contributors to 18th and 19th century European thinking. Most of the estrangeirados were pivotal in the introduction, dissemination and propagation of the new sciences in Portugal, but unlike most of his fellow estrangeirados, Correia da Serra was also an innovative man of science in his own right. (shrink)
O presente artigo busca fazer uma análise do diálogo inter-religioso entre o judaísmo e o cristianismo, duas religiões monoteístas, com origens semelhantes, mas separadas por questões históricas e algumas divergências doutrinárias. Inicialmente se propõe relatar a importância do diálogo entre as duas religiões, baseando-se nos trabalhos de Alberto Milkewitz, Edwin Arteaga Tobon, e Frederico Laufer. Após isso, procurou-se identificar os aspectos divergentes e convergentes entre o cristianismo e o judaísmo, para verificar a viabilidade do diálogo. Consultou-se para este momento os (...) trabalhos de Josh McDowel e do Instituto Cristão de Pesquisas. Como conclusão do artigo, apresentou-se uma breve síntese visando a aplicabilidade do diálogo inter-religioso para a Igreja Cristã atual. (shrink)
Trata de uma leitura do papel da tecnociência no que tange ao esvaziamento ético com o qual nos deparamos. Para tanto, vale-se das abordagens feitas por Jürgen Habermas e Hans Jonas. Neste sentido, opera com alguns conceitos fundamentais de ambos os teóricos, no que se refere ao tema posto. Do primeiro filósofo refletir-se-á acerca do esvaziamento dos significados do mundo da vida face ao caráter instrumentalizador que a razão assumiu após o iluminismo. Do segundo, analisar-se-á o vácuo ético operante diante (...) do poder que foi outorgado ao homem pela tecnociência. (shrink)
The possible interpretations of container phrases has been long debated in the formal semantics literature because container phrases can be associated with a variety of possible readings that go from individuation to measure. In this paper we explore the interpretation of container phrases in Yudja, a language where container phrases are optional in construction with numerals and are morphosyntactically identical to locative phrases. Based on experimental studies with Yudja children and adults we intend to show that these expressions are ambiguous (...) in at least three ways and that a locative reading might emerge even in scenarios where the verb and the context favor a measure interpretation. Furthermore, this paper provides evidence that there is no hidden container phrase when numerals are combined with notional mass nouns and that, supporting Partee and Borschev, the results of the studies show that, indeed, the individuation reading is more “primitive”, i.e. it precedes measuring in language acquisition. (shrink)
Much literature has explored the interpretation of the bare singular in Brazilian Portuguese. Pires de Oliveira and Rothstein claim that BS nouns are mass because they denote kinds and argue that this explains why only the BS in Brazilian Portuguese can have a non-cardinal interpretation. In this paper, based on an experimental task with Brazilian Portuguese adult speakers, we explore one of their predictions, namely that the ‘volume interpretation’ of the BS cannot be explained as a case of Grinding. Our (...) results show that Grinding and Volume readings of a BS noun are not equivalent. We also show that a volume interpretation of a noun is never preferred when a cardinal interpretation is available, but that this can be explained by other lexical and pragmatic factors. We conclude by suggesting that Rothstein’s distinction between counting and measuring accounts for the fact that non-cardinal readings are not grinding. (shrink)
Among the many interesting problems considered in this book, I will center my commentary on two issues: (1) on the role of narrative reconstructions as an alternative to objectivist accounts of culture; (2) on the implications of her proposed reformulation of discourse ethics as interactive universalism for the dilemmas of multiculturalism. On the question of the dialogical-narrative reconstructions of identity, a combination of perspectives of participants as well as of external observers is suggested, instead of a shift from the latter (...) to the former. On the more difficult question of the political, legal and moral implications for democratic theory of forms of rational accommodation of cultural differences, I will consider the problem of justification of morality under conditions not only of radical cultural differences but of asymmetries in power and resources among the participants, which seem to present a problem for a model that presupposes a cooperative engagement and free uncoerced consent from all involved. (shrink)
Exame da trajetória do Teatro Oficina de São Paulo (1958-1972),no que concerne à sua preocupação de militância política. Por meio de encenações como O rei da vela e Galileu Galilei, o Teatro Oficina demonstra rara sensibilidade para captar as angústias sociais de cada momento, detectando o texto que melhor expressa essa inquietação.
A Síndrome de Kabuki é um distúrbio bastante raro, com múltiplas anomalias congênitas. O objetivo do estudo foi descrever características comportamentais, cognitivas e sociais de uma criança com seis anos de idade com Síndrome de Kabuki, e suas implicações no processo escolar. Como resultados, verif..
Pretende-se investigar aqui a conexáo entre intersubjetividade e normatividade a partir das filosofias do direito de Kant e Fichte. Na primeira parte, levanto a questáo da intersubjetividade jurídico-moral a partir de uma reconsideraçáo sistemática do direito em Kant. Na segunda parte, desenvolvo esta interpretaçáo dentro da própria Rechtslehre . Na terceira parte, investigo a possibilidade de uma leitura da passagem do direito privado ao público capaz de realçar os nexos intersubjetivos como pressupostos para a aplicabilidade do direito. Em seguida, considero (...) como Fichte recorre ao reconhecimento recíproco para dar sustentaçáo à aplicabilidade da racionalidade jurídico-moral kantiana. Finalmente, pretendo indicar, do ponto de vista da validade hipotética do direito, tanto as aporias do modelo fichteano quanto as potencialidades de uma ancoragem intersubjetiva da consciência jurídica. (shrink)