Results for 'Direction'

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  1. Against Direction of Fit Accounts of Belief and Desire.D. Sobel & D. Copp - 2001 - Analysis 61 (1):44-53.
    The authors argue against direction of fit accounts of the distinction between belief and desire.
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  2. Aristotle on the Order and Direction of Time.John Bowin - 2009 - Apeiron 42 (1):49-78.
    This paper defends Aristotle’s project of deriving the order of time from the order of change in Physics 4.11, against the objection that it contains a vicious circularity arising from the assumption that we cannot specify the direction of a change without invoking the temporal relations of its stages. It considers and rejects a solution to this objection proposed by Ursula Coope, and proposes an alternative solution. It also considers the related problem of how the temporal orders and directions (...)
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  3. Reconceiving Direction of Fit.Avery Archer - 2015 - Thought: A Journal of Philosophy 4 (3):171-180.
    I argue that the concept of direction of fit is best seen as picking out a certain inferential property of a psychological attitude. The property in question is one that believing shares with assuming and fantasizing and fails to share with desire. Unfortunately, the standard analysis of DOF obscures this fact because it conflates two very different properties of an attitude: that in virtue of which it displays a certain DOF, and that in virtue of which it displays certain (...)
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  4.  81
    Changing Direction on Direction of Fit.Alex Gregory - 2012 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 15 (5):603-614.
    In this paper, I show that we should understand the direction of fit of beliefs and desires in normative terms. After rehearsing a standard objection to Michael Smith’s analysis of direction of fit, I raise a similar problem for Lloyd Humberstone’s analysis. I go on to offer my own account, according to which the difference between beliefs and desires is determined by the normative relations such states stand in. I argue that beliefs are states which we have reason (...)
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  5.  41
    Direction, Causation, and Appraisal Theories of Emotion.Larry A. Herzberg - 2009 - Philosophical Psychology 22 (2):167 – 186.
    Appraisal theories of emotion generally presuppose that emotions are “directed at” various items. They also hold that emotions have motivational properties. However, although it coheres well with their views, they have yet to seriously develop the idea that the function of emotional direction is to guide those properties. I argue that this “guidance hypothesis” can open up a promising new field of research in emotion theory. But I also argue that before appraisal theorists can take full advantage of it, (...)
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  6. Common Causes and the Direction of Causation.Brad Weslake - 2006 - Minds and Machines 16 (3):239-257.
    Is the common cause principle merely one of a set of useful heuristics for discovering causal relations, or is it rather a piece of heavy duty metaphysics, capable of grounding the direction of causation itself? Since the principle was introduced in Reichenbach’s groundbreaking work The Direction of Time (1956), there have been a series of attempts to pursue the latter program—to take the probabilistic relationships constitutive of the principle of the common cause and use them to ground the (...)
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  7.  46
    Physical Intentionality, Extrinsicness, and the Direction of Causation.William A. Bauer - 2016 - Acta Analytica 31 (4):397-417.
    The Physical Intentionality Thesis claims that dispositions share the marks of psychological intentionality; therefore, intentionality is not exclusively a mental phenomenon. Beyond the standard five marks, Alexander Bird introduces two additional marks of intentionality that he argues dispositions do not satisfy: first, thoughts are extrinsic; second, the direction of causation is that objects cause thoughts, not vice versa. In response, this paper identifies two relevant conceptions of extrinsicness, arguing that dispositions show deep parallels to thoughts on both conceptions. Then, (...)
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  8.  32
    Distance and Direction in Reid’s Theory of Vision.Giovanni B. Grandi - 2016 - Topoi 35 (2):465-478.
    Two theses appear to be central to Reid’s view of the visual field. By sight, we do not originally perceive depth or linear distance from the eye. By sight, we originally perceive the position that points on the surface of objects have with regard to the centre of the eye. In different terms, by sight, we originally perceive the compass direction and degree of elevation of points on the surface of objects with reference to the centre of the eye. (...)
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  9.  1
    Dynamical Systems and the Direction of Time.Claudio Mazzola - 2013 - In Pierluigi Graziani, Luca Guzzardi & Massimo Sangoi (eds.), Open Problems in Philosophy of Sciences. London: College Publications. pp. 217-232.
    The problem of the direction of time is reconsidered in the light of a generalized version of the theory of abstract deterministic dynamical systems, thanks to which the mathematical model of time can be provided with an internal dynamics, solely depending on its algebraic structure. This result calls for a reinterpretation of the directional properties of physical time, which have been typically understood in a strictly topological sense, as well as for a reexamination of the theoretical meaning of the (...)
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  10. The Mind's Direction of Time.Eliaz Segal - 2004 - Journal of Mind and Behavior 25 (3):227-235.
    It seems that time has direction which points ahead from the past to the future. Traditionally, the main efforts to explain the arrow of time were carried out within the domain of physics, primarily utilizing statistical mechanics laws. Here, I attempt to explain how the forward direction of time is configured from the viewpoint of the mind. At first impression the concept of forward direction stems from the meeting of subjectivity with space and as such it is (...)
     
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  11.  10
    Spatial Learning in the T-Maze: The Influence of Direction, Turn, and Food Location.Hugh C. Blodgett, Kenneth McCutchan & Ravenna Mathews - 1949 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 39 (6):800.
  12.  10
    Semantic Gradients and Interference in Naming Color, Spatial Direction, and Numerosity.Leslie A. Fox, Ronald E. Shor & Robert J. Steinman - 1971 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 91 (1):59.
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  13.  33
    Direction of Fit.G. F. Schueler - 2013 - In Huge LaFollette (ed.), The International Encyclopedia of Ethics. Blackwell.
    The difference between cognitive and conative mental states, such as beliefs and desires, has sometimes been held to be that they have different “directions of fit” between the mind and the world – mind-to-world for beliefs and world-to-mind for desires (see Desire). Some philosophers have pursued the idea that if this thought can be given a plausible explanation it can be used to ground Hume's claim that “reason is the slave of the passions,” i.e., that no moral or other “practical” (...)
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  14.  19
    Persistent Deprivation-Shift Effect Opposite in Direction to Incentive Contrast.Robert Eisenberger, Arlo K. Myers & Robert M. Kaplan - 1973 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 99 (3):400-404.
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  15.  3
    Effect of Inspection Time and Direction of Rotation on a Generalized From of the Spiral Aftereffect.Paul Bakan & Kiyoe Mizusawa - 1963 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 65 (6):583.
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  16.  1
    Supplementary Report: Direction of Change in CS in Eyelid Conditioning.Frank A. Logan & Allan R. Wagner - 1962 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 64 (3):325.
  17.  6
    Discrete Movements in the Horizontal Plane as a Function of Their Length and Direction.Judson S. Brown & Arthur T. Slater-Hammel - 1949 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 39 (1):84.
  18.  4
    Studies in Spatial Learning. VI. Place Orientation and Direction Orientation.Benbow F. Ritchie - 1948 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 38 (6):659.
  19.  4
    Adaptation to Sensory-Motor Conflict Produced by the Visual Direction of the Hand Specified From the Cyclopean Eye.Horoshi Ono & Robert G. Angus - 1974 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 103 (1):1.
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  20.  2
    The Effect of Training Procedures on the Relative Strength of Place and Direction Dispositions.Frederick R. Fosmire & W. Lynn Brown - 1951 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 41 (6):450.
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  21.  2
    Visual Hemifield Differences as Conflicts in Direction of Reading.E. Rae Harcum - 1966 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 72 (3):479.
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  22.  2
    Constant Velocity Tracking as a Function of S's Handedness and the Rate and Direction of the Target Course.David A. Grant & Noel F. Kaestner - 1955 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 49 (3):203.
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  23.  1
    Extinction as Due to the Changed Direction of a Psychological Force.Koh Johdai - 1955 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 49 (3):193.
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  24. The Direction of Time.Hans Reichenbach - 1956 - Dover Publications.
    The final work of a distinguished physicist, this remarkable volume examines the emotive significance of time, the time order of mechanics, the time direction of thermodynamics and microstatistics, the time direction of macrostatistics, and the time of quantum physics. Coherent discussions include accounts of analytic methods of scientific philosophy in the investigation of probability, quantum mechanics, the theory of relativity, and causality. "[Reichenbach’s] best by a good deal."—Physics Today. 1971 ed.
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  25. A New Direction for Science and Values.Dan Hicks - 2014 - Synthese 191 (14):3271-95.
    The controversy over the old ideal of “value-free science” has cooled significantly over the past decade. Many philosophers of science now agree that even ethical and political values may play a substantial role in all aspects of scientific inquiry. Consequently, in the last few years, work in science and values has become more specific: Which values may influence science, and in which ways? Or, how do we distinguish illegitimate from illegitimate kinds of influence? In this paper, I argue that this (...)
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  26.  12
    Affective Evaluations of Objects Are Influenced by Observed Gaze Direction and Emotional Expression.A. P. Bayliss, A. Frischen, M. J. Fenske & S. P. Tipper - 2007 - Cognition 104 (3):644-653.
    Gaze direction signals another person’s focus of interest. Facial expressions convey information about their mental state. Appropriate responses to these signals should reflect their combined influence, yet current evidence suggests that gaze-cueing effects for objects near an observed face are not modulated by its emotional expression. Here, we extend the investigation of perceived gaze direction and emotional expression by considering their combined influence on affective judgments. While traditional response-time measures revealed equal gaze-cueing effects for happy and disgust faces, (...)
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  27. On the Very Idea of Direction of Fit.Kim Frost - 2014 - Philosophical Review 123 (4):429-484.
    Direction of fit theories usually claim that beliefs are such that they “aim at truth” or “ought to fit” the world and desires are such that they “aim at realization” or the world “ought to fit” them. This essay argues that no theory of direction of fit is correct. The two directions of fit are supposed to be determinations of one and the same determinable two-place relation, differing only in the ordering of favored terms. But there is no (...)
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  28.  1
    Subliminal Gaze Cues Increase Preference Levels for Items in the Gaze Direction.Takashi Mitsuda & Syuta Masaki - forthcoming - Cognition and Emotion:1-6.
    Another individual’s gaze automatically shifts an observer’s attention to a location. This reflexive response occurs even when the gaze is presented subliminally over a short period. Another’s gaze also increases the preference level for items in the gaze direction; however, it was previously unclear if this effect occurs when the gaze is presented subliminally. This study showed that the preference levels for nonsense figures looked at by a subliminal gaze were significantly greater than those for items that were subliminally (...)
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  29.  35
    Looking in the Wrong Direction Correlates With More Accurate Word Learning.Stanka A. Fitneva & Morten H. Christiansen - 2011 - Cognitive Science 35 (2):367-380.
    Previous research on lexical development has aimed to identify the factors that enable accurate initial word-referent mappings based on the assumption that the accuracy of initial word-referent associations is critical for word learning. The present study challenges this assumption. Adult English speakers learned an artificial language within a cross-situational learning paradigm. Visual fixation data were used to assess the direction of visual attention. Participants whose longest fixations in the initial trials fell more often on distracter images performed significantly better (...)
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  30.  32
    Personal Identity, Direction of Change, and Neuroethics.Kevin Patrick Tobia - 2016 - Neuroethics 9 (1):37-43.
    The personal identity relation is of great interest to philosophers, who often consider fictional scenarios to test what features seem to make persons persist through time. But often real examples of neuroscientific interest also provide important tests of personal identity. One such example is the case of Phineas Gage – or at least the story often told about Phineas Gage. Many cite Gage’s story as example of severed personal identity; Phineas underwent such a tremendous change that Gage “survived as a (...)
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  31. On the Lack of Direction in Rayo's The Construction of Logical Space.Ross Cameron - 2014 - Inquiry : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 57 (4):427-441.
    (2014). On the Lack of Direction in Rayo’s The Construction of Logical Space. Inquiry: Vol. 57, The Construction of Logical Space, pp. 427-441. doi: 10.1080/0020174X.2014.905035.
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  32. Direction of Fit and Motivational Cognitivism.Sergio Tenenbaum - 2006 - In Russ Shafer-Landau (ed.), Oxford Studies in Metaethics. Oxford University Press. pp. 235-64.
    The idea of direction of fit has been found appealing by many philosophers. Anscombe’s famous examples have persuaded many of us that there must be some deep difference between belief and desire that is captured by the metaphor of direction of fit. Most of the aim of the paper is to try to get clear on which intuitions Anscombe’s example taps into. My view is that there is more than one intuition in play here, and I will try (...)
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  33.  88
    In a Fitter Direction: Moving Beyond the Direction of Fit Picture of Belief and Desire.John Milliken - 2008 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 11 (5):563-571.
    Those working within the tradition of Humean psychology tend to mark a clear distinction between beliefs and desires. One prominent way of elucidating this distinction is to describe them as having different “directions of fit” with respect to the world. After first giving a brief overview of the various attempts to carry out this strategy along with their flaws, I argue that the direction of fit metaphor is misleading and ought to be abandoned. It fails to take into account (...)
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  34.  60
    Motivational Cognitivism and the Argument From Direction of Fit.Hilla Jacobson-Horowitz - 2006 - Philosophical Studies 127 (3):561-580.
    An important argument for the belief-desire thesis is based on the idea that an agent can be motivated to act only if her mental states include one which aims at changing the world, that is, one with a “world-to-mind”, or “telic”, direction of fit. Some cognitivists accept this claim, but argue that some beliefs, notably moral ones, have not only a “mind-to-world”, or “thetic”, direction of fit, but also a telic one. The paper first argues that this cognitivist (...)
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  35. An Attempt to Add a Little Direction to "the Problem of the Direction of Time".John Earman - 1974 - Philosophy of Science 41 (1):15-47.
    It is argued that the main problem with "the problem of the direction of time" is to figure out what the problem is or is supposed to be. Towards this end, an attempt is made to disentangle and to classify some of the many issues which have been discussed under the label of 'the direction of time'. Secondly, some technical apparatus is introduced in the hope of producing a sharper formulation of the issues than they have received in (...)
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  36.  4
    Time's Arrows Today: Recent Physical and Philosophical Work on the Direction of Time.Steven Frederick Savitt (ed.) - 1995 - Cambridge University Press.
    While experience tells us that time flows from the past to the present and into the future, a number of philosophical and physical objections exist to this commonsense view of dynamic time. In an attempt to make sense of this conundrum, philosophers and physicists are forced to confront fascinating questions, such as: Can effects precede causes? Can one travel in time? Can the expansion of the Universe or the process of measurement in quantum mechanics define a direction in time? (...)
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  37. The Direction of Time.S. F. Savitt - 1996 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 47 (3):347-370.
    The aim of this essay is to introduce philosophers of science to some recent philosophical discussions of the nature and origin of the direction of time. The essay is organized around books by Hans Reichenbach, Paul Horwich, and Huw Price. I outline their major arguments and treat certain critical points in detail. I speculate at the end about the ways in which the subject may continue to develop and in which it may connect with other areas of philosophy.
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  38. Nonlocal Influences and Possible Worlds--A Stapp in the Wrong Direction.Robert K. Clifton, Jeremy N. Butterfield & Michael L. G. Redhead - 1990 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 41 (1):5-58.
    give a proof of the existence of nonlocal influences acting on correlated spin-1/2 particles in the singlet state which does not require any particular interpretation of quantum mechanics (QM). (Except Stapp holds that the proof fails under a many-worlds interpretation of QM—a claim we analyse in 1.2.) Recently, in responding to Redhead's ([1987], pp. 90-6) criticism that the Stapp 1 proof fails under an indeterministic interpretation of QM, Stapp [1989] (henceforth Stapp 2), has revised the logical structure of his proof (...)
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  39.  26
    Stepping Into a Map: Initial Heading Direction Influences Spatial Memory Flexibility.Stephanie A. Gagnon, Tad T. Brunyé, Aaron Gardony, Matthijs L. Noordzij, Caroline R. Mahoney & Holly A. Taylor - 2014 - Cognitive Science 38 (2):275-302.
    Learning a novel environment involves integrating first-person perceptual and motoric experiences with developing knowledge about the overall structure of the surroundings. The present experiments provide insights into the parallel development of these egocentric and allocentric memories by intentionally conflicting body- and world-centered frames of reference during learning, and measuring outcomes via online and offline measures. Results of two experiments demonstrate faster learning and increased memory flexibility following route perspective reading (Experiment 1) and virtual navigation (Experiment 2) when participants begin exploring (...)
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  40. What is 'the Problem of the Direction of Time'?Craig Callender - 1997 - Philosophy of Science 64 (4):234.
    This paper searches for an explicit expression of the so-called problem of the direction of time. I argue that the traditional version of the problem is an artifact of a mistaken view in the foundations of statistical mechanics, and that to the degree it is a problem, it is really one general to all the special sciences. I then search the residue of the traditional problem for any remaining difficulty particular to time's arrow and find that there is a (...)
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  41.  20
    Can We Reduce Causal Direction to Probabilities?David Papineau - 1992 - PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1992:238-252.
    This paper defends the view that the asymmetry of causation can be explained in terms of probabilistic relationships between event types. Papineau first explores three different versions of the "fork asymmetry", namely David Lewis' asymmetry of overdetermination, the screening-off property of common causes, and Spirtes', Glymour's and Scheines' analysis of probabilistic graphs. He then argues that this fork asymmetry is both a genuine phenomenon and a satisfactory metaphysical reduction of causal asymmetry. In his final section he shows how this reduction (...)
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  42.  81
    The Direction of Causation: Ramsey's Ultimate Contingency.Huw Price - 1992 - PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1992:253 - 267.
    The paper criticizes the attempt to account for the direction of causation in terms of objective statistical asymmetries, such as those of the fork asymmetry. Following Ramsey, I argue that the most plausible way to account for causal asymmetry is to regard it as "put in by hand", that is as a feature that agents project onto the world. Its temporal orientation stems from that of ourselves as agents. The crucial statistical asymmetry is an anthropocentric one, namely that we (...)
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  43.  92
    Backward Causation and the Direction of Causal Processes: Reply to Dowe.H. Price - 1996 - Mind 105 (419):467 - 474.
    argues that the success of the backward causation hypothesis in quantum mechanics would provide strong support for a version of Reichenbach's account of the direction of causal processes, which takes the direction of causation to rest on the fork asymmetry. He also criticises my perspectival account of the direction of causation, which takes causal asymmetry to be a projection of our own temporal asymmetry as agents. In this reply I take issue with Dowe's argument at three main (...)
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  44. Indeterminism and the Direction of Time.Frank Arntzenius - 1995 - Topoi 14 (1):67-81.
    Many phenomena in the world display a striking time-asymmetry: the forwards transition frequencies are approximately invariant while the backwards ones are not. I argue in this paper that theories of such phenomena will entail that time has a direction, and that quantum mechanics in particular entails that the future is objectively different from the past.
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  45. Remarks on the Direction of Time in Quantum Mechanics.Meir Hemmo - 2003 - Philosophy of Science 70 (5):1458-1471.
    I argue that in the many worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics time has no fundamental direction. I further discuss a way to recover thermodynamics in this interpretation using decoherence theory (Zurek and Paz 1994). Albert's proposal to recover thermodynamics from the collapse theory of Ghirardi et al. (1986) is also considered.
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  46.  11
    Problems and the Potential Direction of Reforms for the Current Individual Medical Savings Accounts in the Chinese Health Care System.X. Kong, Y. Yang, F. Gong & M. Zhao - 2012 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 37 (6):556-567.
    Individual health savings accounts are an important part of the current basic medical insurance system for urban workers in China. Since 1998 when the system of personal medical insurance accounts was first implemented, there has been considerable controversy over its function and significance within different social communities. This paper analyzes the main problems in the practical implementation of individual medical insurance accounts and discusses the social and cultural foundations for the establishment of family health savings accounts from the perspective of (...)
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  47.  57
    Temporal Becoming and the Direction of Time.William Lane Craig - 1999 - Philosophy and Theology 11 (2):349-366.
    The impression is frequently given that the static description of the 4-dimensional world given by a tenseless theory of time adequately accounts for the world and that a tensed theory of time has nothing to offer. In fact, the tenseless theory of time leaves us incapable of specifying the direction of time, whereas a tensed theory of time enables us to do so. Thus, the tensed theory enjoys a considerable advantage over the tenseless view.
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  48.  59
    The Direction of theZitterbewegung: A Hidden Variable. [REVIEW]Granville A. Perkins - 1976 - Foundations of Physics 6 (2):237-248.
    Whittaker studied Dirac's equation, using prequantum mathematics, and found oscillating vectors corresponding to Schrödinger'sZitterbewegung. An extension of his study, without added assumptions or speculation, reveals the speedc associated at any instant with a direction that can be defined by specification of the Dirac spinor. This direction is hidden from quantum theory because that theory violates the physical principle that coherent amplitudes of the same kind must be added before quadratic quantities are formed from them. Two-component equations are formed (...)
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  49.  79
    Mirrors and the Direction of Time.Frank Arntzenius - 1997 - Philosophy of Science 64 (4):222.
    The frequencies with which photons pass through half-silvered mirrors in the forward direction of time is always approximately 1/2, whereas the frequencies with which photons pass through mirrors in the backward direction in time can be highly time-dependent. I argue that whether one should infer from this time-asymmetric phenomenon that time has an objective direction will depend on one's interpretation of quantum mechanics.
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  50.  43
    Discussion. Backward Causation and the Direction of Causal Processes: Reply to Dowe.H. Price - 1996 - Mind 105 (419):467-474.
    Dowe (1996) argues that the success of the backward causation hypothesis in quantum mechanics would provide strong support for a version of Reichenbach's account of the direction of causal processes, which takes the direction of causation to rest on the fork asymmetry. He also criticises my perspectival account of the direction of causation, which takes causal asymmetry to be a projection of our own temporal asymmetry as agents. In this reply I take issue with Dowe's argument at (...)
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