Results for 'Discrimination'

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  1. Discrimination and Perceptual Knowledge.Alvin I. Goldman - 1976 - Journal of Philosophy 73 (November):771-791.
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  2.  4
    Discrimination and Disrespect.Benjamin Eidelson - 2015 - Oxford University Press UK.
    Hardly anyone disputes that discrimination can be a grave moral wrong. Yet this consensus masks fundamental disagreements about what makes something discrimination, as well as precisely why acts of discrimination are wrong. Benjamin Eidelson develops systematic answers to those two questions. He claims that discrimination is a form of differential treatment distinguished by its special connection to the differential ascription of some property to different people, and goes on to argue that what makes some cases of (...)
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  3.  42
    Harmless Discrimination.Adam Slavny & Tom Parr - 2015 - Legal Theory 21 (2):100-114.
    In Born Free and Equal: A Philosophical Inquiry into the Nature of Discrimination, Kasper Lippert-Rasmussen defends the harm-based account of the wrongness of discrimination, which explains the wrongness of discrimination with reference to the harmfulness of discriminatory acts. Against this view, we offer two objections. The conditions objection states that the harm-based account implausibly fails to recognize that harmless discrimination can be wrong. The explanation objection states that the harm-based account fails adequately to identify all of (...)
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  4. Non-Discrimination in Human Resources Management as a Moral Obligation.Geert Demuijnck - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 88 (1):83-101.
    In this paper, I will argue that it is a moral obligation for companies, firstly, to accept their moral responsibility with respect to non-discrimination, and secondly, to address the issue with a full-fledged programme, including but not limited to the countering of microsocial discrimination processes through specific policies. On the basis of a broad sketch of how some discrimination mechanisms are actually influencing decisions, that is, causing intended as well as unintended bias in Human Resources Management (HRM), (...)
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  5. Ideological Diversity, Hostility, and Discrimination in Philosophy.Uwe Peters, Nathan Honeycutt, Andreas De Block & Lee Jussim - 2020 - Philosophical Psychology 33 (4):511-548.
    Members of the field of philosophy have, just as other people, political convictions or, as psychologists call them, ideologies. How are different ideologies distributed and perceived in the field? Using the familiar distinction between the political left and right, we surveyed an international sample of 794 subjects in philosophy. We found that survey participants clearly leaned left (75%), while right-leaning individuals (14%) and moderates (11%) were underrepresented. Moreover, and strikingly, across the political spectrum, from very left-leaning individuals and moderates to (...)
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  6.  35
    Discrimination and Collaboration in Science.Hannah Rubin & Cailin O’Connor - 2018 - Philosophy of Science 85 (3):380-402.
    We use game theoretic models to take an in-depth look at the dynamics of discrimination and academic collaboration. We find that in collaboration networks, small minority groups may be more likely to end up being discriminated against while collaborating. We also find that discrimination can lead members of different social groups to mostly collaborate with in-group members, decreasing the effective diversity of the social network. Drawing on previous work, we discuss how decreases in the diversity of scientific collaborations (...)
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  7. Identity and Discrimination.Timothy WILLIAMSON - 1990 - Wiley-Blackwell.
    _Identity and Discrimination_, originally published in 1990 and the first book by respected philosopher Timothy Williamson, is now reissued and updated with the inclusion of significant new material. Williamson here proposes an original and rigorous theory linking identity, a relation central to metaphysics, and indiscriminability, a relation central to epistemology.__ Updated and reissued edition of Williamson’s first publication, with the inclusion of significant new material Argues for an original cognitive account of the relation between identity and discrimination that has (...)
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  8.  83
    Discrimination.Andrew Altman - forthcoming - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  9. Discrimination and Perceptual Knowledge.Alvin I. Goldman - 1976 - In Sven Bernecker & Fred I. Dretske (eds.), Knowledge: Readings in Contemporary Epistemology. Oxford University Press.
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  10.  34
    Discriminability and Stimulus Generalization.Norman Guttman & Harry I. Kalish - 1956 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 51 (1):79.
  11.  28
    Discrimination and Learning Without Awareness: A Metholodological Survey and Evaluation.C. W. Eriksen - 1960 - Psychological Review 67 (5):279-300.
  12.  38
    Discrimination and Equality of Opportunity.Carl Knight - 2018 - In Kasper Lippert-Rasmussen (ed.), The Routledge Handbook of the Ethics of Discrimination. London, UK: pp. 140-150.
    Discrimination, understood as differential treatment of individuals on the basis of their respective group memberships, is widely considered to be morally wrong. This moral judgment is backed in many jurisdictions with the passage of equality of opportunity legislation, which aims to ensure that racial, ethnic, religious, sexual, sexual-orientation, disability and other groups are not subjected to discrimination. This chapter explores the conceptual underpinnings of discrimination and equality of opportunity using the tools of analytical moral and political philosophy.
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  13.  31
    Discrimination Reaction Time for a 1,023-Alternative Task.Robert Seibel - 1963 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 66 (3):215.
  14.  33
    Discriminative Conditioning. I. A Discriminative Property of Conditioned Anticipation.W. K. Estes - 1943 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 32 (2):150.
  15. Discrimination and Self-Knowledge.Patrick Greenough - 2012 - In Declan Smithies & Daniel Stoljar (eds.), Introspection and Consciousness. Oxford University Press.
    In this paper I show that a variety of Cartesian Conceptions of the mental are unworkable. In particular, I offer a much weaker conception of limited discrimination than the one advanced by Williamson (2000) and show that this weaker conception, together with some plausible background assumptions, is not only able to undermine the claim that our core mental states are luminous (roughly: if one is in such a state then one is in a position to know that one is) (...)
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  16. Subjective Discriminability of Invisibility: A Framework for Distinguishing Perceptual and Attentional Failures of Awareness.Ryota Kanai, Vincent Walsh & Chia-Huei Tseng - 2010 - Consciousness and Cognition 19 (4):1045-1057.
    Conscious visual perception can fail in many circumstances. However, little is known about the causes and processes leading to failures of visual awareness. In this study, we introduce a new signal detection measure termed subjective discriminability of invisibility that allows one to distinguish between subjective blindness due to reduction of sensory signals or to lack of attentional access to sensory signals. The SDI is computed based upon subjective confidence in reporting the absence of a target . Using this new measure, (...)
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  17. Discrimination Revised: Reviewing the Relationship Between Social Groups, Disparate Treatment, and Disparate Impact.Ryan Cook - 2015 - Moral Philosophy and Politics 2 (2):219-244.
    It is usually accepted that whether or not indirect discrimination is a form of immoral discrimination, it appears to be structurally different from direct discrimination. First, it seems that either one involves the agent focusing on different things while making a decision. Second, it seems that the victim’s group membership is relevant to the outcomes of either sort of action in different ways. In virtue of these two facts, it is usually concluded that indirect discrimination is (...)
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  18. Stereotyping as Discrimination: Why Thoughts Can Be Discriminatory.Erin Beeghly - 2021 - Social Epistemology 35 (6):547-563.
    .Can we treat people in a discriminatory way in virtue of how we think about them? In this essay, I argue that the answer is yes. According to the constitutive claim, stereotyping constitutes discrimination, either sometimes or always. This essay defends the constitutive claim and explores the deeper justifications for it. I also sketch the constitutive claim’s larger ethical significance. One upshot is that we can wrongfully discriminate against (or in favor of) others in thought, even if we keep (...)
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  19.  10
    Probabilistic Discrimination Learning.W. K. Estes, C. J. Burke, R. C. Atkinson & J. P. Frankmann - 1957 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 54 (4):233.
  20.  76
    Discrimination and Immigration.José Jorge Mendoza - 2018 - In Kasper Lippert-Rasmussen (ed.), The Routledge Handbook of the Ethics of Discrimination. Routledge.
    In this chapter, I outline what philosophers working on the ethics of immigration have had to say with regard to invidious discrimination. In doing so, I look at both instances of direct discrimination, by which I mean discrimination that is explicitly stated in official immigration policy, and indirect discrimination, by which I mean cases where the implementation or enforcement of facially “neutral” policies nonetheless generate invidious forms of discrimination. The end goal of this chapter is (...)
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  21.  47
    The Discrimination of Speech Sounds Within and Across Phoneme Boundaries.Alvin M. Liberman, Katherine Safford Harris, Howard S. Hoffman & Belver C. Griffith - 1957 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 54 (5):358.
  22. Discrimination, Harassment, and the Glass Ceiling: Women Executives as Change Agents. [REVIEW]Myrtle P. Bell, Mary E. Mclaughlin & Jennifer M. Sequeira - 2002 - Journal of Business Ethics 37 (1):65 - 76.
    In this article, we discuss the relationships between discrimination, harassment, and the glass ceiling, arguing that many of the factors that preclude women from occupying executive and managerial positions also foster sexual harassment. We suggest that measures designed to increase numbers of women in higher level positions will reduce sexual harassment. We first define and discuss discrimination, harassment, and the glass ceiling, relationships between each, and relevant legislation. We next discuss the relationships between gender and sexual harassment, emphasizing (...)
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  23. Infants' Discrimination of Number Vs. Continuous Extent.Elizabeth Spelke - manuscript
    Seven studies explored the empirical basis for claims that infants represent cardinal values of small sets of objects. Many studies investigating numerical ability did not properly control for continuous stimulus properties such as surface area, volume, contour length, or dimensions that correlate with these properties. Experiment 1 extended the standard habituation/dishabituation paradigm to a 1 vs 2 comparison with three-dimensional objects and confirmed that when number and total front surface area are confounded, infants discriminate the arrays. Experiment 2 revealed that (...)
     
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  24.  16
    Discrimination of Cues in Mazes: A Resolution of the "Place-Vs.-Response" Question.Frank Restle - 1957 - Psychological Review 64 (4):217-228.
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  25.  51
    Discrimination and Well-Being in Organizations: Testing the Differential Power and Organizational Justice Theories of Workplace Aggression. [REVIEW]Stephen Wood, Johan Braeken & Karen Niven - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics 115 (3):617-634.
    People may be subjected to discrimination from a variety of sources in the workplace. In this study of mental health workers, we contrast four potential perpetrators of discrimination (managers, co-workers, patients, and visitors) to investigate whether the negative impact of discrimination on victims’ well-being will vary in strength depending on the relative power of the perpetrator. We further explore whether the negative impact of discrimination is at least partly explained by its effects on people’s sense of (...)
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  26. Racial Discrimination: How Not to Do It.Adam Hochman - 2013 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences (3):278-286.
    The UNESCO Statements on Race of the early 1950s are understood to have marked a consensus amongst natural scientists and social scientists that ‘race’ is a social construct. Human biological diversity was shown to be predominantly clinal, or gradual, not discreet, and clustered, as racial naturalism implied. From the seventies social constructionists added that the vast majority of human genetic diversity resides within any given racialised group. While social constructionism about race became the majority consensus view on the topic, social (...)
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  27.  7
    Probabilistic Discrimination Learning in the Pigeon.Charles P. Shimp - 1973 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 97 (3):292.
  28.  13
    The Discrimination of Two Simultaneously Presented Brightnesses.N. R. Bartlett - 1942 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 31 (5):380.
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  29. Affective Discrimination of Stimuli That Cannot Be Recognized.W. R. Kunst-Wilson & R. B. Zajonc - 1980 - Science 207:557-58.
  30.  56
    Non Discrimination as a Moral Obligation in Human Resources Management.Geert Demuijnck - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 88 (S1):83-101.
    In this paper, I will argue that it is a moral obligation for companies, firstly, to accept their moral responsibility with respect to non-discrimination, and secondly, to address the issue with a full-fledged programme, including but not limited to the countering of microsocial discrimination processes through specific policies. On the basis of a broad sketch of how some discrimination mechanisms are actually influencing decisions, that is, causing intended as well as unintended bias in Human Resources Management, I (...)
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  31.  8
    Discrimination Learning as a Function of Reversal and Nonreversal Shifts.Roger T. Kelleher - 1956 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 51 (6):379.
  32.  68
    Discrimination & Disrespect.Erin Beeghly - 2017 - In Kasper Lippert-Rasmussen (ed.), Routledge Handbook to the Ethics of Discrimination. New York, NY: Routledge. pp. 83 - 96.
    In this essay, I explore the view that wrongful discrimination is disrespectful. In section 1, I articulate three conceptions of disrespect, each of which provides a special way to understand the way in which wrongful discrimination is disrespectful. In section 2, I ask what it would take for any of these conceptions to serve as the basis for a plausible theory of wrongful discrimination. I argue that any adequate theory of wrongful discrimination must be able to (...)
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  33.  91
    Discrimination Against Vegans.Oscar Horta - 2018 - Res Publica 24 (3):359-373.
    There are many circumstances in which vegans are treated or considered worse than nonvegans, both in the private and the public sphere, either due to the presence of a bias against them or for structural reasons. For instance, vegans sometimes suffer harassment, have issues at their workplace, or find little vegan food available. In many cases they are forced to contribute to, or to participate in, animal exploitation against their will when states render it illegitimate to oppose or refuse to (...)
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  34.  78
    Discrimination.Frej Klem Thomsen - 2017 - Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Politics.
    The conceptualization and moral analysis of discrimination constitutes a burgeoning theoretical field, with a number of open problems and a rapidly developing literature. A central problem is how to define discrimination, both in its most basic direct sense and in the most prominent variations. A plausible definition of the basic sense of the word understands discrimination as disadvantageous differential treatment of two groups that is in some respect caused by the properties that distinguish the groups, but open (...)
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  35.  5
    Equal Discriminability Scale of Number.Stanley J. Rule - 1969 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 79 (1p1):35.
  36.  95
    Large Number Discrimination in 6-Month-Old Infants.Fei Xu & Elizabeth S. Spelke - 2000 - Cognition 74 (1):1-11.
    Six-month-old infants discriminate between large sets of objects on the basis of numerosity when other extraneous variables are controlled, provided that the sets to be discriminated differ by a large ratio (8 vs. 16 but not 8 vs. 12). The capacities to represent approximate numerosity found in adult animals and humans evidently develop in human infants prior to language and symbolic counting.
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  37.  71
    Numerosity Discrimination in Infants: Evidence for Two Systems of Representations.Fei Xu - 2003 - Cognition 89 (1):B15-B25.
  38.  13
    Discriminated Avoidance Learning as a Function of Parameters of Discontinuous Shock.M. R. D'Amato, Donald Keller & Gerald Biederman - 1965 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 70 (6):543.
  39. Skepticism, Contextualism, and Discrimination.Jonathan Schaffer - 2004 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 69 (1):138 - 155.
    The skeptic says that "knowledge" is an absolute term, whereas the contextualist says that 'knowledge" is a relationally absolute term. Which is the better hypothesis about "knowledge"? And what implications do these hypotheses about "knowledge" have for knowledge? I argue that the skeptic has the better hypothesis about "knowledge", but that both hypotheses about "knowledge" have deeply anti-skeptical implications for knowledge, since both presuppose our capacity for epistemically salient discrimination.
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  40.  88
    Scientific Discrimination and the Activist Scientist: L. C. Dunn and the Professionalization of Genetics and Human Genetics in the United States.Melinda Gormley - 2009 - Journal of the History of Biology 42 (1):33-72.
    During the 1920s and 1930s geneticist L. C. Dunn of Columbia University cautioned Americans against endorsing eugenic policies and called attention to eugenicists' less than rigorous practices. Then, from the mid-1940s to early 1950s he attacked scientific racism and Nazi Rassenhygiene by co-authoring Heredity, Race and Society with Theodosius Dobzhansky and collaborating with members of UNESCO on their international campaign against racism. Even though shaking the foundations of scientific discrimination was Dunn's primary concern during the interwar and post-World War (...)
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  41.  15
    Disability Discrimination and Misdirected Criticism of the Quality-Adjusted Life Year Framework.David G. T. Whitehurst & Lidia Engel - 2018 - Journal of Medical Ethics 44 (11):793-795.
    Whose values should count – those of patients or the general public – when adopting the quality-adjusted life year framework for healthcare decision making is a long-standing debate. Specific disciplines, such as economics, are not wedded to a particular side of the debate, and arguments for and against the use of patient values have been discussed at length in the literature. In 2012, Sinclair proposed an approach, grounded within patient preference theory, which sought to avoid a perceived unfair discrimination (...)
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  42.  11
    Affective Discrimination of Stimuli That Are Not Recognized: II. Effect of Delay Between Study and Test.John G. Seamon, Nathan Brody & David M. Kauff - 1983 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 21 (3):187-189.
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  43.  10
    The Discriminative Lexicon: A Unified Computational Model for the Lexicon and Lexical Processing in Comprehension and Production Grounded Not in Composition but in Linear Discriminative Learning.R. Harald Baayen, Yu-Ying Chuang, Elnaz Shafaei-Bajestan & James P. Blevins - 2019 - Complexity 2019:1-39.
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  44.  74
    Discriminating Between ‘Meaningful Work’ and the ‘Management of Meaning’.Marjolein Lips-Wiersma & Lani Morris - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 88 (S3):491-511.
    The interest in meaningful work has significantly increased over the last two decades. Much of the associated managerial research has focused on researching ways to 'provide and manage meaning' through leadership or organizational culture. This stands in sharp contrast with the literature of the humanities which suggests that meaningfulness does not need to be provided, as the distinct feature of a human being is that he or she has an intrinsic 'will to meaning'. The research that has been done based (...)
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  45. Discrimination in Terms of Moral Exclusion.Oscar Horta - 2010 - Theoria 76 (4):314-332.
    This article tries to define what discrimination is and to understand in particular detail its most important instances: those in which the satisfaction of interests is at stake. These cases of discrimination will be characterized in terms of deprivations of benefits. In order to describe and classify them we need to consider three different factors: the benefits of which discriminatees are deprived, the criteria according to which such benefits are denied or granted, and the justification that such deprivation (...)
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  46.  20
    Discrimination of Item Strength at Time of Presentation.Tannis Y. Arbuckle & Lola L. Cuddy - 1969 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 81 (1):126.
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  47.  23
    Sex Discrimination and Female Top Managers: Evidence From China.Huasheng Gao, Yaheng Lin & Yujing Ma - 2016 - Journal of Business Ethics 138 (4):683-702.
    We examine whether sex discrimination contributes to the underrepresentation of female executives in large corporations. China’s strong cultural preference for sons has made newborn boys greatly outnumber newborn girls. Using the male-to-female sex ratio at birth as the proxy for discrimination against women, we find that firms headquartered in more discriminatory areas hire fewer female executives. Even conditional on a woman reaching an executive position, she faces a higher likelihood of dismissal and receives lower compensation than her male (...)
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  48.  3
    Normative Discrimination and the Motherhood Penalty.Shelley J. Correll & Stephen Benard - 2010 - Gender and Society 24 (5):616-646.
    This research proposes and tests a new theoretical mechanism to account for a portion of the motherhood penalty in wages and related labor market outcomes. At least a portion of this penalty is attributable to discrimination based on the assumption that mothers are less competent and committed than other types of workers. But what happens when mothers definitively prove their competence and commitment? In this study, we examine whether mothers face discrimination in labor-market-type evaluations even when they provide (...)
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  49.  41
    Discrimination: An Interdisciplinary Analysis. [REVIEW]Walter Block - 1992 - Journal of Business Ethics 11 (4):241 - 254.
    Discrimination on the basis of race, sex, national origin, etc., is often morally wrong. But should such behaviour be proscribed by legislation, and penalized by fines or jail sentences? This paper argues that such enactments are incompatible with the law of free association, and with the concept of economic liberty and civil rights.
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  50.  27
    Non-Discrimination, in-Work Benefits, and Free Movement in the EU.Andrea Sangiovanni - 2017 - European Journal of Political Theory 16 (2):143-163.
    The Cameron government has recently negotiated a deal with the EU which permits the UK to restrict access to in-work benefits for recent EU migrants in the first four years of residence. Withdrawing access to in-work benefits will lead to significant inequalities in pay between British workers and their EU equivalents working at the same job, in the same general situation. The proposal has been widely decried as discriminatory. Is it? I do not, in this article, ask the legal question: (...)
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