Results for 'Disorder'

995 found
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  1. The Disorder of Things: Metaphysical Foundations of the Disunity of Science.John Dupré - 1993 - Harvard University Press.
  2.  73
    Mental Disorder and the Concept of Authenticity.Alexandre Erler & Tony Hope - 2014 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 21 (3):219-232.
    Authenticity has recently emerged as an important issue in discussions of mental disorder. We show, on the basis of personal accounts and empirical studies, that many people with psychological disorders are preoccupied with questions of authenticity. Most of the data considered in this paper are from studies of people with bipolar disorder and anorexia nervosa. We distinguish the various ways in which these people view the relationship between the disorder and their sense of their authentic self. We (...)
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  3.  61
    Depersonalization Disorder, Affective Processing and Predictive Coding.Philip Gerrans - 2019 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 10 (2):401-418.
    A flood of new multidisciplinary work on the causes of depersonalization disorder provides a new way to think about the feeling that experiences “belong” to the self. In this paper I argue that this feeling, baptized “mineness” or “subjective presence” : 565–573, 2013) emerges from a multilevel interaction between emotional, affective and cognitive processing. The “self” to which experience is attributed is a predictive model made by the mind to explain the modulation of affect as the organism progresses through (...)
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  4. Mental Disorder, Illness and Biological Disfunction.David Papineau - 1994 - Philosophy 37:73-82.
    I shall begin with the "anti-psychiatry" view that the lack of a physical basis excludes many familiar mental disorders from the category of "illness". My response to this argument will be that anti-psychiatrists are probably right to hold that most mental disorders do not involve any physical disorder, but that they are wrong to conclude from this that these mental disorders are not illnesses.
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  5.  79
    Disorder as Harmful Dysfunction: A Conceptual Critique of DSM-III-R's Definition of Mental Disorder.Jerome C. Wakefield - 1992 - Psychological Review 99 (2):232-247.
  6.  42
    Extending Disorder: Essentialism, Family Resemblance and Secondary Sense. [REVIEW]Neil Pickering - 2013 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 16 (2):185-195.
    It is commonly thought that mental disorder is a valid concept only in so far as it is an extension of or continuous with the concept of physical disorder. A valid extension has to meet two criteria: determination and coherence. Essentialists meet these criteria through necessary and sufficient conditions for being a disorder. Two Wittgensteinian alternatives to essentialism are considered and assessed against the two criteria. These are the family resemblance approach and the secondary sense approach. Where (...)
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  7. The Disorder of Public Reason.David Enoch - 2013 - Ethics 124 (1):141-176.
  8. The Disorder of Women Democracy, Feminism and Political Theory.Carole Pateman - 1989
  9.  30
    Mental Disorder Between Naturalism and Normativism.Somogy Varga - 2017 - Philosophy Compass 12 (6):e12422.
    Worries about the potential medicalization of social and moral problems has propelled the debate on the nature of mental disorder, with normativists insisting that psychiatric classification is inherently value-laden and naturalists maintaining that a purely descriptive account of disease is possible. In recent work, some authors take a different path, accepting that the concepts of disease and mental disorder are value-laden but maintaining that this does not prevent objective truths regarding mental disorder attribution. This paper explores two (...)
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  10. Mental Disorder and Values.Bengt Brülde - 2007 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 14 (2):pp. 93-102.
    It is now generally agreed that we have to rely on value judgments to distinguish mental disorders from other conditions, but it is not quite clear how. To clarify this, we need to know more than to what extent attributions of disorder are dependent on values. We also have to know (1) what kind of evaluations we have to rely on to identify the class of mental disorder; (2) whether attributions of disorder contain any implicit reference to (...)
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  11. What is Mental Disorder?: An Essay in Philosophy, Science, and Values.Derek Bolton - 2008 - Oxford University Press.
    The effects of mental disorder are apparent and pervasive, in suffering, loss of freedom and life opportunities, negative impacts on education, work satisfaction and productivity, complications in law, institutions of healthcare, and more. With a new edition of the 'bible' of psychiatric diagnosis - the DSM - under developmental, it is timely to take a step back and re-evalutate exactly how we diagnose and define mental disorder. This new book by Derek Bolton tackles the problems involved in the (...)
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  12.  29
    “Personality Disorder” and Capacity to Make Treatment Decisions.G. Szmukler - 2009 - Journal of Medical Ethics 35 (10):647-650.
    Whether treatment decision-making capacity can be meaningfully applied to patients with a diagnosis of “personality disorder” is examined. Patients presenting to a psychiatric emergency clinic with threats of self-harm are considered, two having been assessed and reviewed in detail. It was found that capacity can be meaningfully assessed in such patients, although the process is more complex than in patients with diagnoses of a more conventional kind. The process of assessing capacity in such patients is very time-consuming and may (...)
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  13. Mental Disorder, Moral Agency, and the Self.Jeanette Kennett - 2007 - In Bonnie Steinbock (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Bioethics. Oxford University Press. pp. 90-113.
    A person suffering a mental illness or disorder may differ dramatically from his or her previous well self. Family and close friends who knew the person before the onset of illness tend to regard the illness as obscuring their loved one's true self and see the goal of treatment as the restoration of that self. ‘He is not really like this,’ they will say with increasing desperation. Treatment teams and others, who have no acquaintance with the person when well, (...)
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  14.  45
    Challenges in Internet Addiction Disorder: Is a Diagnosis Feasible or Not?Alessandro Musetti, Roberto Cattivelli, Marco Giacobbi, Pablo Zuglian, Martina Ceccarini, Francesca Capelli, Giada Pietrabissa & Gianluca Castelnuovo - 2016 - Frontiers in Psychology 7.
    An important international discussion began because of some pioneer studies carried out by Young (1996a) on the internet addiction disorder (IAD). In the fifth and most recent version of the Diagnostic, and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) there is no mention of this disorder and among researchers there are basically two opposite positions. Those who are in favor of a specific diagnosis and those who are claiming the importance of specific criteria characterizing this behavior and the precise (...)
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  15.  62
    Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder as a Disorder of Attention.Neil Levy - 2018 - Mind and Language 33 (1):3-16.
    An influential model holds that obsessive–compulsive disorder is caused by distinctive personality traits and belief biases. But a substantial number of sufferers do not manifest these traits. I propose a predictive coding account of the disorder, which explains both the symptoms and the cognitive traits. On this account, OCD centrally involves heightened and dysfunctionally focused attention to normally unattended sensory and motor representations. As these representations have contents that predict catastrophic outcomes, patients are disposed to engage in behaviors (...)
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  16.  24
    Personality Disorder and Competence to Refuse Treatment.E. Winburn & R. Mullen - 2008 - Journal of Medical Ethics 34 (10):715-716.
    The traditional view that having a personality disorder, unlike other mental disorders, is not usually reason enough to consider a person incompetent to make healthcare decisions is challenged. The example of a case in which a woman was treated for a physical disorder without her consent illustrates that personality disorder can render a person incompetent to refuse essential treatment, particularly because it can affect the doctor–patient relationship within which consent is given.
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  17.  97
    Autonomy and Mental Disorder.Lubomira Radoilska (ed.) - 2012 - Oxford University Press.
    Autonomy is a fundamental though contested concept both in philosophy and the broader intellectual culture of today’s liberal societies. For instance, most of us place great value on the opportunity to make our own decisions and to lead a life of our own choosing. Yet, there is stark disagreement on what is involved in being able to decide autonomously, as well as how important this is compared to other commitments. For example, the success of every group project requires that group (...)
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  18. Can We Define Mental Disorder by Using the Criterion of Mental Dysfunction?Thomas Schramme - 2010 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 31 (1):35-47.
    The concept of mental disorder is often defined by reference to the notion of mental dysfunction, which is in line with how the concept of disease in somatic medicine is often defined. However, the notions of mental function and dysfunction seem to suffer from some problems that do not affect models of physiological function. Functions in general have a teleological structure; they are effects of traits that are supposed to have a particular purpose, such that, for example, the heart (...)
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  19. Emotional Disorder and Attention.Kent Bach - 1993 - In George Graham (ed.), Philosophical Psychopathology. Cambridge: MIT Press.
    Some would say that philosophy can contribute more to the occurrence of mental disorder than to the study of it. Thinking too much does have its risks, but so do willful ignorance and selective inattention. Well, what can philosophy contribute? It is not equipped to enumerate the symptoms and varieties of disorder or to identify their diverse causes, much less offer cures (maybe it can do that-personal philosophical therapy is now available in the Netherlands). On the other hand, (...)
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  20.  14
    Mental Disorder, Illness and Biological Disfunction.David Papineau - 1994 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 37:73-82.
    This paper will be about the relationship between mental disorder and physical disorder. I shall also be concerned with the connection between these notions and the notion of ‘illness’.
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  21. Autism as an Executive Disorder.James Russell (ed.) - 1997 - Oxford University Press UK.
    Autism continues to fascinate researchers because it is both debilitating in its effects and complex in its nature and origins. The prevalent theory is that autism is primarily characterised by difficulties in understanding mental concepts, but the contributors to this book present new and compelling arguments for an alternative theory. Their research points strongly to the idea that autism is primarily a disorder of "executive functions", those involved in the control of action and thought. As such, the book provides (...)
     
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  22. Body Integrity Identity Disorder —Is the Amputation of Healthy Limbs Ethically Justified?Sabine Müller - 2009 - American Journal of Bioethics 9 (1):36-43.
    The term body integrity identity disorder describes the extremely rare phenomenon of persons who desire the amputation of one or more healthy limbs or who desire a paralysis. Some of these persons mutilate themselves; others ask surgeons for an amputation or for the transection of their spinal cord. Psychologists and physicians explain this phenomenon in quite different ways; but a successful psychotherapeutic or pharmaceutical therapy is not known. Lobbies of persons suffering from BIID explain the desire for amputation in (...)
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  23.  93
    "The Disorder of Women": Women, Love, and the Sense of Justice.Carole Pateman - 1980 - Ethics 91 (1):20-34.
  24.  55
    Body Integrity Identity Disorder Beyond Amputation: Consent and Liberty.Amy White - 2014 - HEC Forum 26 (3):225-236.
    In this article, I argue that persons suffering from Body Integrity Identity Disorder (BIID) can give informed consent to surgical measures designed to treat this disorder. This is true even if the surgery seems radical or irrational to most people. The decision to have surgery made by a BIID patient is not necessarily coerced, incompetent or uninformed. If surgery for BIID is offered, there should certainly be a screening process in place to insure informed consent. It is beyond (...)
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  25.  49
    Whose Disorder?: A Constructive MacIntyrean Critique of Psychiatric Nosology.W. A. Kinghorn - 2011 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 36 (2):187-205.
    The American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) has for decades been a locus of dispute between ardent defenders of its scientific validity and vociferous critics who charge that it covertly cloaks disputed moral and political judgments in scientific language. This essay explores Alasdair MacIntyre's tripartite typology of moral reasoning—"encyclopedia," "genealogy," and "tradition"—as an analytic lens for appreciation and critique of these debates. The DSM opens itself to corrosive neo-Nietzschean "genealogical" critique, such an analysis holds, only (...)
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  26.  11
    Eating Disorder Symptoms and Proneness in Gay Men, Lesbian Women, and Transgender and Non-Conforming Adults: Comparative Levels and a Proposed Mediational Model.Kathryn Bell, Elizabeth Rieger & Jameson K. Hirsch - 2019 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
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  27.  71
    Naturalist Accounts of Mental Disorder.Elselijn Kingma - 2013 - In K. . W. . M. Fulford (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy and Psychiatry. Oxford University Press. pp. 363.
    This chapter examines naturalistic accounts of mental disorder: accounts that define disorder as biological dysfunction. There are three such accounts: an eliminativist account ; a forward-looking or goal-contribution account and a backward-looking or evolutionary account. I argue first, and contra Szasz, that biological functions can be attributed at a mental level. But our mental architecture might simultaneously support many different ways of attributing function claims, which might undermine a strong naturalism about mental disorder. Second, I argue that (...)
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  28.  24
    Appetites, Disorder, and Desire.Lisa H. Schwartzman - 2015 - International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 8 (2):86-102.
    Popular interest in the topic of food has exploded in the past decade. Due in part to books by Michael Pollan, Barbara Kingsolver, and Eric Schlosser and films such as Food, Inc., Super Size Me, and Forks over Knives, people are starting to think critically about where their food originates, how it is processed, and how their consumption choices affect the environment, nonhuman animals, and other people. At the same time, there is rising concern about the dangers of obesity. Although (...)
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  29.  13
    Conversion Disorder Diagnosis and Medically Unexplained Symptoms.Michael James Redinger, Parker Crutchfield, Tyler S. Gibb, Peter Longstreet & Robert Strung - 2018 - American Journal of Bioethics 18 (5):31-33.
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  30. The Disorder of Things. Metaphysical Foundation of the Disunity of Science.John Dupré - 1995 - Studia Logica 54 (1):133-137.
     
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  31.  30
    Body Dysmorphic Disorder: Contraindication or Ethical Justification for Female Genital Cosmetic Surgery in Adolescents.Merle Spriggs & Lynn Gillam - 2016 - Bioethics 30 (9):706-713.
    Is Female Genital Cosmetic Surgery for an adolescent with Body Dysmorphic Disorder ever ethically justified? Cosmetic genital surgery for adolescent girls is one of the most ethically controversial forms of cosmetic surgery and Body Dysmorphic Disorder is typically seen as a contraindication for cosmetic surgery. Two key ethical concerns are that Body Dysmorphic Disorder undermines whatever capacity for autonomy the adolescent has; and even if there is valid parental consent, the presence of Body Dysmorphic Disorder means (...)
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  32.  93
    Is Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder Really a Disorder?Tamara Kayali Browne - 2015 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 12 (2):313-330.
    Premenstrual dysphoric disorder was recently moved to a full category in the DSM-5 . It also appears set for inclusion as a separate disorder in the ICD-11 . This paper argues that PMDD should not be listed in the DSM or the ICD at all, adding to the call to recognise PMDD as a socially constructed disorder. I first present the argument that PMDD pathologises understandable anger/distress and that to do so is potentially dangerous. I then present (...)
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  33. On Defining “Mental Disorder”: Purposes and Conditions of Adequacy.Bengt Brülde - 2010 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 31 (1):19-33.
    All definitions of mental disorder are backed up by arguments that rely on general criteria (e.g., that a definition should be consistent with ordinary language). These desiderata are rarely explicitly stated, and there has been no systematic discussion of how different definitions should be assessed. To arrive at a well-founded list of desiderata, we need to know the purpose of a definition. I argue that this purpose must be practical; it should, for example, help us determine who is entitled (...)
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  34.  34
    Moral Disorder In the DSM-IV?: The Cluster B Personality Disorders.Marga Reimer - 2013 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 20 (3):203-215.
  35.  31
    The Concept of Disorder Revisited: Robustly VAlue-Laden Despite Change.I.—Rachel Cooper - 2020 - Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 94 (1):141-161.
    Our concept of disorder is changing. This causes problems for projects of descriptive conceptual analysis. Conceptual change means that a criterion that was necessary for a condition to be a disorder at one time may cease to be necessary a relatively short time later. Nevertheless, some conceptually based claims will be fairly robust. In particular, the claim that no adequate account of disorder can appeal only to biological facts can be maintained for the foreseeable future. This is (...)
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  36.  17
    Mental Disorder as a Puzzle for Constitutivism.Diana B. Heney - 2018 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 24 (5):1107-1113.
  37.  5
    Mental Disorder: Are We Moving Away From Distress and Disability?Diogo Telles-Correia - 2018 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 24 (5):973-977.
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  38. Free Will and Mental Disorder: Exploring the Relationship.Gerben Meynen - 2010 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 31 (6):429-443.
    A link between mental disorder and freedom is clearly present in the introduction of the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV). It mentions “an important loss of freedom” as one of the possible defining features of mental disorder. Meanwhile, it remains unclear how “an important loss of freedom” should be understood. In order to get a clearer view on the relationship between mental disorder and (a loss of) freedom, in this article, (...)
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  39.  87
    What Is Personality Disorder?Hanna Pickard - 2011 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 18 (3):181-184.
    The DSM-IV-TR (American Psychiatric Association 1994, 689) defines personality disorder (PD) as: An enduring pattern of experience and behavior that deviates markedly from the expectations of an individual’s culture. This pattern is manifested in two (or more) of the following areas: 1 Cognition (i.e., ways of perceiving and interpreting self, other people, and events); 2 Affectivity (i.e., the range, intensity, lability, and appropriateness of emotional response); 3 Interpersonal functioning; and 4 Impulse control. B The enduring ..
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  40.  23
    Causal Disorder Again.Antony Flew - 1956 - Analysis 17 (4):81 - 86.
  41.  31
    An Ideal Disorder? Autism as a Psychiatric Kind.Daniel A. Weiskopf - 2017 - Philosophical Explorations 20 (2):175-190.
    In recent decades, attempts to explain autism have been frustrated by the heterogeneous nature of its behavioral symptoms and the underlying genetic, neural, and cognitive mechanisms that produce them. This has led some to propose eliminating the category altogether. The eliminativist inference relies on a conception of psychiatric categories as kinds defined by their underlying mechanistic structure. I review the evidence for eliminativism and propose an alternative model of the family of autisms. On this account, autism is a network category (...)
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  42.  62
    Defining Mental Disorder. Exploring the 'Natural Function' Approach.Somogy Varga - 2011 - Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 6:1-.
    Due to several socio-political factors, to many psychiatrists only a strictly objective definition of mental disorder, free of value components, seems really acceptable. In this paper, I will explore a variant of such an objectivist approach to defining metal disorder, natural function objectivism. Proponents of this approach make recourse to the notion of natural function in order to reach a value-free definition of mental disorder. The exploration of Christopher Boorse's 'biostatistical' account of natural function (1) will be (...)
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  43.  29
    Treatment-Resistant Major Depressive Disorder and Assisted Dying.Udo Schuklenk & Suzanne van de Vathorst - 2015 - Journal of Medical Ethics 41 (8):577-583.
  44.  64
    Mental Disorder and Moral Responsibility: Disorders of Personhood as Harmful Dysfunctions, With Special Reference to Alcoholism.Jerome C. Wakefield - 2009 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 16 (1):91-99.
  45.  58
    Personality Disorder and the Law: Some Awkward Questions.Jill Peay - 2011 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 18 (3):231-244.
    All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood. (Article 1, Universal Declaration of Human Rights 1948) This resounding statement encapsulates a number of problematic themes for lawyers with respect to personality disorder, and acutely so for the extremes of personality disorder embraced by designations such as psychopathy or dangerous and severe personality disorder (DSPD). These designations (...)
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  46. Psychotherapy for Borderline Personality Disorder: Mentalization Based Treatment.Anthony Bateman & Peter Fonagy - 2004 - Oxford University Press UK.
    Borderline Personality disorder is a severe personality dysfunction characterized by behavioural features such as impulsivity, identity disturbance, suicidal behaviour, emptiness, and intense and unstable relationships. Approximately 2% of the population are thought to meet the criteria for BPD. The authors of this volume - Anthony Bateman and Peter Fonagy - have developed a psychoanalytically oriented treatment to BPD known as mentalization treatment. With randomised controlled trials having shown this method to be effective, this book presents the first account of (...)
     
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  47.  89
    Psychopathic Disorder: A Category Mistake?C. A. Holmes - 1991 - Journal of Medical Ethics 17 (2):77-85.
    Although the concept of psychopathy retains its currency in British psychiatry, apparently being meaningful as well as useful to practitioners (1), it is often taken to refer to a purely legal category with social control functions rather than a medical diagnosis with treatment implications. I wish, in this brief article, to suggest that it is essentially, and most usefully, an ethical category which stands outside the diagnostic framework of present-day psychiatry.
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  48.  4
    Somatoform Disorder in Primary Care: The Influence of Co-Morbidity with Anxiety and Depression on Health Care Utilization.Paul Hüsing, Bernd Löwe, Katharina Piontek & Meike Shedden-Mora - 2018 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 24 (4):892-900.
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  49. Psychiatry Beyond the Brain: Externalism, Mental Health, and Autistic Spectrum Disorder.Tom Roberts, Joel Krueger & Shane Glackin - 2019 - Philosophy Psychiatry and Psychology 26 (3):E-51-E68.
    Externalist theories hold that a comprehensive understanding of mental disorder cannot be achieved unless we attend to factors that lie outside of the head: neural explanations alone will not fully capture the complex dependencies that exist between an individual’s psychiatric condition and her social, cultural, and material environment. Here, we firstly offer a taxonomy of ways in which the externalist viewpoint can be understood, and unpack its commitments concerning the nature and physical realization of mental disorder. Secondly, we (...)
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  50. Personal Identity, Multiple Personality Disorder, and Moral Personhood.Steve Matthews - 1998 - Philosophical Psychology 11 (1):67-88.
    Marya Schechtman argues that psychological continuity accounts of personal identity, as represented by Derek Parfit's account, fail to escape the circularity objection. She claims that Parfit's deployment of quasi-memory (and other quasi-psychological) states to escape circularity implicitly commit us to an implausible view of human psychology. Schechtman suggests that what is lacking here is a coherence condition, and that this is something essential in any account of personal identity. In response to this I argue first that circularity may be escaped (...)
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