Results for 'Distinguishability'

43 found
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  1.  46
    Perfect State Distinguishability and Computational Speedups with Postselected Closed Timelike Curves.Todd A. Brun & Mark M. Wilde - 2012 - Foundations of Physics 42 (3):341-361.
    Bennett and Schumacher’s postselected quantum teleportation is a model of closed timelike curves (CTCs) that leads to results physically different from Deutsch’s model. We show that even a single qubit passing through a postselected CTC (P-CTC) is sufficient to do any postselected quantum measurement with certainty, and we discuss an important difference between “Deutschian” CTCs (D-CTCs) and P-CTCs in which the future existence of a P-CTC might affect the present outcome of an experiment. Then, based on a suggestion of Bennett (...)
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  2.  21
    The Gibbs Paradox and the Distinguishability of Identical Particles.Marijn A. M. Versteegh & Dennis Dieks - unknown
    Classical particles of the same kind are distinguishable: they can be labeled by their positions and follow different trajectories. This distinguishability affects the number of ways W a macrostate can be realized on the micro-level, and via S=k ln W this leads to a non-extensive expression for the entropy. This result is generally considered wrong because of its inconsistency with thermodynamics. It is sometimes concluded from this inconsistency, notoriously illustrated by the Gibbs paradox, that identical particles must be treated (...)
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  3. The Logic of Identity: Distinguishability and Indistinguishability in Classical and Quantum Physics.Dennis Dieks - 2014 - Foundations of Physics 44 (12):1302-1316.
    The suggestion that particles of the same kind may be indistinguishable in a fundamental sense, even so that challenges to traditional notions of individuality and identity may arise, has first come up in the context of classical statistical mechanics. In particular, the Gibbs paradox has sometimes been interpreted as a sign of the untenability of the classical concept of a particle and as a premonition that quantum theory is needed. This idea of a ‘quantum connection’ stubbornly persists in the literature, (...)
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  4.  27
    How to Solve the Distinguishability Problem: Triangulation Without Explicit Training.Robert W. Lurz - 2001 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (6):1142-1143.
    Heyes's (1998) triangulation approach to distinguishing a “theory” of mind (ToM) from a “theory” of behavior (ToB) in chimpanzees fails. The ToB theorist can appeal to the explicit training sessions and analogical reasoning to explain/predict the chimpanzees' behaviors. An alternative triangulation experiment is sketched, demonstrating how the removal of such training sessions paves the way toward solving the distinguishability problem.
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  5.  29
    Individuality, Distinguishability, and Entanglement: A Defense of Leibniz׳s Principle.Cord Friebe - 2014 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 48 (1):89-98.
  6. Concept and Intuition. On Distinguishability and Separability.Robert B. Pippin - 2005 - Hegel-Studien 39:25-39.
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  7.  66
    Statistics, Symmetry, and (In)Distinguishability in Bohmian Mechanics.Darrin W. Belousek - 2000 - Foundations of Physics 30 (1):153-164.
    This paper continues an earlier work by considering in what sense and to what extent identical Bohmian-mechanical particles in many-particle systems can be considered indistinguishable. We conclude that while whether identical Bohmian-mechanical particles ace considered to be “statistically (in)distinguishable” is a matter of theory choice underdetermined by logic and experiment, such particles are in any case “physically distinguishable.”.
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  8.  46
    The Gibbs' Paradox and the Distinguishability of Physical Systems.Robert Rosen - 1964 - Philosophy of Science 31 (3):232-236.
    The Gibbs' Paradox is commonly explained by invoking some type of "principle of indistinguishability," which asserts that the interchange of identical particles is not a real physical event, i.e., is operationally meaningless. However, if this principle is to provide a satisfactory resolution of the Paradox, it must be operationally possible to determine whether, in fact, two given systems are identical or not. That is, the assertion that the Gibbs' Paradox is resolvable by an indistinguishability principle actually is an assertion that (...)
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  9.  11
    On Measures and Distinguishability.Gregory Mellema - 1983 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 24 (1):151-158.
  10.  52
    The Elusive Source of Quantum Speedup.Vlatko Vedral - 2010 - Foundations of Physics 40 (8):1141-1154.
    We discuss two qualities of quantum systems: various correlations existing between their subsystems and the distinguishability of different quantum states. This is then applied to analysing quantum information processing. While quantum correlations, or entanglement, are clearly of paramount importance for efficient pure state manipulations, mixed states present a much richer arena and reveal a more subtle interplay between correlations and distinguishability. The current work explores a number of issues related with identifying the important ingredients needed for quantum information (...)
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  11.  94
    Choosing a Definition of Entropy That Works.Robert H. Swendsen - 2012 - Foundations of Physics 42 (4):582-593.
    Disagreements over the meaning of the thermodynamic entropy and how it should be defined in statistical mechanics have endured for well over a century. In an earlier paper, I showed that there were at least nine essential properties of entropy that are still under dispute among experts. In this paper, I examine the consequences of differing definitions of the thermodynamic entropy of macroscopic systems.Two proposed definitions of entropy in classical statistical mechanics are (1) defining entropy on the basis of probability (...)
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  12.  12
    On Indistinguishability and Prototypes.Konstantinos Georgatos - 2003 - Logic Journal of the IGPL 11 (5):531-545.
    Tolerance spaces are sets equipped with a reflexive, symmetric, but not necessarily transitive, relation of indistinguishability, and are useful for describing vagueness based on error-prone measurements. We show that any tolerance space can be embedded in one generated by comparisons using prototypical objects. As a result propositions, definable on a tolerance space can be translated into propositions behaving classically.
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  13. An Ecological Approach to Disjunctivism.Eros Moreira de Carvalho - forthcoming - Synthese (Radical Views on Cognition):1-22.
    In this paper I claim that perceptual discriminatory skills rely on a suitable type of environment as an enabling condition for their exercise. This is because of the constitutive connection between environment and perceptual discriminatory skills, inasmuch as such connection is construed from an ecological approach. The exercise of a discriminatory skill yields knowledge of affordances of objects, properties, or events in the surrounding environment. This is practical knowledge in the first-person perspective. An organism learns to perceive an object by (...)
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  14.  40
    What Do We Mean by “True” in Scientific Realism?Robert W. P. Luk - forthcoming - Foundations of Science:1-12.
    A crucial aspect of scientific realism is what do we mean by true. In Luk’s theory and model of scientific study, a theory can be believed to be “true” but a model is only accurate. Therefore, what do we mean by a “true” theory in scientific realism? Here, we focus on exploring the notion of truth by some thought experiments and we come up with the idea that truth is related to what we mean by the same. This has repercussion (...)
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  15. Criteria for Indefeasible Knowledge: John Mcdowell and 'Epistemological Disjunctivism'.Peter Dennis - 2014 - Synthese 191 (17):4099-4113.
    Duncan Pritchard has recently defended a view he calls ‘epistemological disjunctivism’, largely inspired by John McDowell. I argue that Pritchard is right to associate the view with McDowell, and that McDowell’s ‘inference-blocking’ argument against the sceptic succeeds only if epistemological disjunctivism is accepted. However, Pritchard also recognises that epistemological disjunctivism appears to conflict with our belief that genuine and illusory experiences are indistinguishable (the ‘distinguishability problem’). Since the indistinguishability of experiences is the antecedent in the inference McDowell intends to (...)
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  16.  11
    Finite and Absolute Idealism.Robert Pippin - 2015 - In Sebastian Gardner & Matthew Grist (eds.), The Transcendental Turn. Oxford University Press UK.
    Any interpretation of Hegel which stresses both his deep dependence on and radical revision of Kant must account for the nature of the difference between what Hegel calls a merely finite idealism and a so-called ’Absolute Idealism’. Such a clarification in turn depends on understanding Hegel’s claim to have preserved the distinguishability of intuition and concept, but to have insisted on their inseparability, or, to have defended their ’organic’ rather than ’mechanical’ relation. This is the main issue in this (...)
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  17.  6
    How Macrostates Come About?Marton Gomori, Balazs Gyenis & Gábor Hofer-Szabó - unknown
    This paper is a further consideration of Hemmo and Shenker’s ideas about the proper conceptual characterization of macrostates in statistical mechanics. We provide two formulations of how macrostates come about as elements of certain partitions of the system’s phase space imposed on by the interaction between the system and an observer, and we show that these two formulations are mathematically equivalent. We also reflect on conceptual issues regarding the relationship of macrostates to distinguishability, thermodynamic regularity, observer dependence, and the (...)
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  18.  78
    Particles, Objects, and Physics.Justin Pniower - unknown
    This thesis analyses the ontological nature of quantum particles. In it I argue that quantum particles, despite their indistinguishability, are objects in much the same way as classical particles. This similarity provides an important point of continuity between classical and quantum physics. I consider two notions of indistinguishability, that of indiscernibility and permutation symmetry. I argue that neither sort of indistinguishability undermines the identity of quantum particles. I further argue that, when we understand in distinguishability in terms of permutation (...)
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  19.  49
    Gibbs' Paradox and Non-Uniform Convergence.K. G. Denbigh & M. L. G. Redhead - 1989 - Synthese 81 (3):283 - 312.
    It is only when mixing two or more pure substances along a reversible path that the entropy of the mixing can be made physically manifest. It is not, in this case, a mere mathematical artifact. This mixing requires a process of successive stages. In any finite number of stages, the external manifestation of the entropy change, as a definite and measurable quantity of heat, isa fully continuous function of the relevant variables. It is only at an infinite and unattainable limit (...)
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  20.  8
    Geodesic Revision.Konstantinos Georgatos - 2009 - Journal of Logic and Computation 19 (3):447-459.
    The purpose of this article is to introduce a class of distance-based iterated revision operators generated by minimizing the geodesic distance on a graph. Such operators correspond bijectively to metrics and have a simple finite presentation. As distance is generated by distinguishability, our framework is appropriate for modelling contexts where distance is generated by threshold, and therefore, when measurement is erroneous.
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  21.  28
    Automated Discovery of Linear Feedback Models.Thomas Richardson - unknown
    The introduction of statistical models represented by directed acyclic graphs (DAGs) has proved fruitful in the construction of expert systems, in allowing efficient updating algorithms that take advantage of conditional independence relations (Pearl, 1988, Lauritzen et al. 1993), and in inferring causal structure from conditional independence relations (Spirtes and Glymour, 1991, Spirtes, Glymour and Scheines, 1993, Pearl and Verma, 1991, Cooper, 1992). As a framework for representing the combination of causal and statistical hypotheses, DAG models have shed light on a (...)
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  22.  43
    Uncertainty in Prediction and in Inference.Jan Hilgevoord & Jos Uffink - 1991 - Foundations of Physics 21 (3):323-341.
    The concepts of uncertainty in prediction and inference are introduced and illustrated using the diffraction of light as an example. The close relationship between the concepts of uncertainty in inference and resolving power is noted. A general quantitative measure of uncertainty in inference can be obtained by means of the so-called statistical distance between probability distributions. When applied to quantum mechanics, this distance leads to a measure of the distinguishability of quantum states, which essentially is the absolute value of (...)
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  23.  17
    The Moral Oracle’s Test.Sven Ove Hansson - 2014 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 17 (4):643-651.
    When presented with a situation involving an agent’s choice between alternative actions, a moral oracle says what the agent is allowed to do. The oracle bases her advice on some moral theory, but the nature of that theory is not known by us. The moral oracle’s test consists in determining whether a series of questions to the oracle can be so constructed that her answers will reveal which of two given types of theories she adheres to. The test can be (...)
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  24.  20
    On the Possibility of Nonlinear Quantum Evolution and Superluminal Communication.Shan Gao - unknown
    A possible mechanism of nonlinear quantum evolution is introduced and its implications for quantum communication are investigated. First, it is demonstrated that an appropriate combination of wavefunction collapse and the consciousness of observer may permit the observer to distinguish nonorthogonal quantum states in principle, and thus consciousness will introduce certain nonlinearity into quantum dynamics. Next, it is shown that the distinguishability of nonorthogonal states can be used to achieve quantum superluminal communication, by which information can be transmitted nonlocally and (...)
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  25.  21
    Logical Entropy: Introduction to Classical and Quantum Logical Information Theory.David Ellerman - 2018 - Entropy 20 (9):679.
    Logical information theory is the quantitative version of the logic of partitions just as logical probability theory is the quantitative version of the dual Boolean logic of subsets. The resulting notion of information is about distinctions, differences and distinguishability and is formalized using the distinctions of a partition. All the definitions of simple, joint, conditional and mutual entropy of Shannon information theory are derived by a uniform transformation from the corresponding definitions at the logical level. The purpose of this (...)
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  26.  81
    Distinguishable Equivalent Particles with Symmetrized Wave Functions.Armand Siegel - 1970 - Foundations of Physics 1 (1):57-68.
    The quantum formalism ofdistinguishable, yetequivalent particles (with symmetric or antisymmetric wave functions) is here worked out. The result is an entirely explicit formulation of the way in which classical mechanics emerges from quantum mechanics for such particles. Distinguishability is achieved at the cost of dynamical precision; the two are, in fact, complementary.
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  27.  18
    The Gibbs Paradox.Simon Saunders - 2018 - Entropy 20 (8):552.
    The Gibbs Paradox is essentially a set of open questions as to how sameness of gases or fluids are to be treated in thermodynamics and statistical mechanics. They have a variety of answers, some restricted to quantum theory, some to classical theory. The solution offered here applies to both in equal measure, and is based on the concept of particle indistinguishability. Correctly understood, it is the elimination of sequence position as a labelling device, where sequences enter at the level of (...)
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  28.  24
    A Probabilistic Foundation of Elementary Particle Statistics. Part I.Domenico Costantini & Ubaldo Garibaldi - 1997 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 28 (4):483-506.
    The long history of ergodic and quasi-ergodic hypotheses provides the best example of the attempt to supply non-probabilistic justifications for the use of statistical mechanics in describing mechanical systems. In this paper we reverse the terms of the problem. We aim to show that accepting a probabilistic foundation of elementary particle statistics dispenses with the need to resort to ambiguous non-probabilistic notions like that of (in)distinguishability. In the quantum case, starting from suitable probability conditions, it is possible to deduce (...)
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  29.  17
    In Dialectical Tension: Realist and Instrumentalist Attitudes in Scientific Practice.Yoichi Ishida - forthcoming - Synthese:1-30.
    Stein has raised a fundamental problem for any attempt to characterize instrumentalism and realism as substantive alternatives. This is the distinguishability problem, which consists in the problem of developing a form of instrumentalism that is substantially different from a plausible realist alternative and the problem of showing that this form of instrumentalism does justice to actual scientific practice. Using Stein’s own discussion of Maxwell, I formulate instrumentalism and realism as a scientist’s attitudes toward models, where an attitude is understood (...)
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  30.  12
    Classical and Quantum Statistics as Finite Random Processes.D. Costantini & U. Garibaldi - 1989 - Foundations of Physics 19 (6):743-754.
    We show: (1) It is possible to produce the three familiar statistics without referring to the problem of distinguishability; (2) what really distinguishes elementary particles is the correlation existing among them; (3) correlations existing among quantum particles, positive for bosons and negative form fermions, are completely different in character.
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  31.  36
    The Private Language Argument and the Analogy Between Rules and Grounds.Mario Gomez-Torrente - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 39:49-54.
    I identify one neglected source of support for a Kripkean reading of Wittgenstein’s Philosophical Investigations: the analogy between rules and epistemic grounds and the existence of a Kripkean anti-privacy argument about epistemic grounds in On Certainty. This latter argument supports Kripke’s claims that the basic anti-privacy argument in the Investigations (a) poses a question about the distinguishability of certain first-person attributions with identical assertability conditions, (b) concludes that distinguishability is provided by third-person evaluability, and (c) is a general (...)
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  32.  30
    On the Classical Approximation in the Quantum Statistics of Equivalent Particles.Armand Siegel - 1970 - Foundations of Physics 1 (2):145-171.
    It is shown here that the microcanonical ensemble for a system of noninteracting bosons and fermions contains a subensemble of state vectors for which all particles of the system are distinguishable. This “IQC” (inner quantum-classical) subensemble is therefore fully classical, except for a rather extreme quantization of particle momentum and position, which appears as the natural price that must be paid for distinguishability. The contribution of the IQC subensemble to the entropy is readily calculated, and the criterion for this (...)
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  33.  12
    On the Relation Between Indistinguishability of Identical Particles and Symmetry of the Wave Function in Quantum Mechanics.Willem M. de Muynck - 1986 - Synthese 67 (3):477-496.
    Two different concepts of distinguishability are often mixed up in attempts to derive in quantum mechanics the symmetry of the wave function from indistinguishability of identical particles. Some of these attempts are analyzed and shown to be defective. It is argued that, although identical particles should be considered as observationally indistinguishable in symmetric states, they may be considered to be conceptually distinguishable. These two notions of distinguishability have quite different physical origins, the former one being related to observations (...)
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  34.  61
    On the Relation Between Indistinguishability of Identical Particles and (Anti)Symmetry of the Wave Function in Quantum Mechanics.Willem M. Muynck & Gidi P. Liempd - 1986 - Synthese 67 (3):477 - 496.
    Two different concepts of distinguishability are often mixed up in attempts to derive in quantum mechanics the (anti)symmetry of the wave function from indistinguishability of identical particles. Some of these attempts are analyzed and shown to be defective. It is argued that, although identical particles should be considered as observationally indistinguishable in (anti)symmetric states, they may be considered to be conceptually distinguishable. These two notions of (in)distinguishability have quite different physical origins, the former one being related to observations (...)
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  35.  11
    Like Devils, but Still Humans: A Systematic Examination and Moderate Defense of Kant’s View of (Quasi-)Diabolical Evil.Chao Lu - 2017 - International Journal of Philosophy and Theology 78 (3):270-288.
    Among scholars, how to interpret and evaluate Kant’s rejection of diabolical evil remains controversial. This article has two aims. First, I will examine all six forms of diabolical evil either discussed by Kant or implicitly contained in his texts, thereby demonstrating the reasons why each of these forms must be rejected within his framework. The conclusion of this text analysis is that the extremity of human evil for Kant is quasi-diabolical Willkür which does evil for the sake of self-assertion. Second, (...)
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  36.  27
    A Granular Account For Gradable Adjectives.Silvia Gaio - 2009 - Logique Et Analyse 52.
    In this paper I consider one kind of vague linguistic expression: adjec- tives like tall, big, expensive. These are called gradable adjectives. The most well-known linguistic theories that account for them are the so-called degree-based theories. In this paper I present a formal model that accounts for vague gradable adjectives as an alternative to degree-based theories. The model is built on two basic ingredients: (i) comparison classes and (ii) gran- ular partitions. (i) Comparison classes are introduced to account for the (...)
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  37.  10
    Physical Uniformities on the State Space of Nonrelativisitic Quantum Mechanics.Reinhard Werner - 1983 - Foundations of Physics 13 (8):859-881.
    Uniformities describing the distinguishability of states and of observables are discussed in the context of general statistical theories and are shown to be related to distinguished subspaces of continuous observables and states, respectively. The usual formalism of quantum mechanics contains no such physical uniformity for states. Using recently developed tools of quantum harmonic analysis, a natural one-to-one correspondence between continuous subspaces of nonrelativistic quantum and classical mechanics is established, thus exhibiting a close interrelation between physical uniformities for quantum states (...)
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  38.  9
    Radical Scepticism and Transcendental Arguments.Ju Wang - unknown
    I aim to provide a satisfying response to radical scepticism, a view according to which our knowledge of the external world is impossible. In the first chapter I investigate into the nature and the source of scepticism. Radical scepticism is motivated both by the closureRK-based and the underdeterminationRK-based sceptical arguments. Because these two sceptical arguments are logically independent, any satisfying anti-sceptical proposal must take both of them into consideration. Also, scepticism is a paradox, albeit a spurious one, so we need (...)
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  39.  19
    Belief Update Using Graphs.Konstantinos Georgatos - 2008 - In David Wilson & Chad H. Lane (eds.), FLAIRS 21. AAAI Press. pp. 649-654.
    The purpose of this paper is to introduce a form of update based on the minimization of the geodesic distance on a graph. We provide a characterization of this class using set- theoretic operators and show that such operators bijectively correspond to geodesic metrics. As distance is generated by distinguishability, our framework is appropriate in contexts where distance is generated by threshold, and therefore, when measurement is erroneous.
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  40.  14
    Is There a Unique Physical Entropy? Micro Versus Macro.Dennis Dieks - 2012 - In Hanne Andersen, Dennis Dieks, Wenceslao González, Thomas Uebel & Gregory Wheeler (eds.), New Challenges to Philosophy of Science. Springer Verlag. pp. 23--34.
    Entropy in thermodynamics is an extensive quantity, whereas standard methods in statistical mechanics give rise to a non-extensive expression for the entropy. This discrepancy is often seen as a sign that basic formulas of statistical mechanics should be revised, either on the basis of quantum mechanics or on the basis of general and fundamental considerations about the distinguishability of particles. In this article we argue against this response. We show that both the extensive thermodynamic and the non-extensive statistical entropy (...)
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  41.  15
    New prospects for de Broglie interferometry.Thomas Juffmann, Stefan Nimmrichter, Markus Arndt, Herbert Gleiter & Klaus Hornberger - 2012 - Foundations of Physics 42 (1):98-110.
    We consider various effects that are encountered in matter wave interference experiments with massive nanoparticles. The text-book example of far-field interference at a grating is compared with diffraction into the dark field behind an opaque aperture, commonly designated as Poisson’s spot or the spot of Arago. Our estimates indicate that both phenomena may still be observed in a mass range exceeding present-day experiments by at least two orders of magnitude. They both require, however, the development of sufficiently cold, intense and (...)
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  42.  21
    A Probabilistic Foundation of Elementary Particle Statistics. Part II.Domenico Costantini & Ubaldo Garibaldi - 1998 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 29 (1):37-59.
    The long history of ergodic and quasi-ergodic hypotheses provides the best example of the attempt to supply non-probabilistic justifications for the use of statistical mechanics in describing mechanical systems. In this paper we reverse the terms of the problem. We aim to show that accepting a probabilistic foundation of elementary particle statistics dispenses with the need to resort to ambiguous non-probabilistic notions like that of (in)distinguishability. In the quantum case, starting from suitable probability conditions, it is possible to deduce (...)
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  43. Percezione, Motivazione, Esistenza. Intenzionalità E Costituzione Nella Prima Fenomenologia Husserliana (1898-1921).Andrea Marchesi - 2017 - Dissertation, Università Degli Studi di Roma "La Sapienza"
    The present work is a systematic study of the nexus which holds together perception, motivation and existence in Husserl’s early writings—precisely those which are dated between 1898 and 1921. In Chapter I a historical and conceptual reconstruction of the genesis of what is termed ‘constitution problem’ is provided. After a thorough discussion about the distinction between real and intentional description, we elucidate the method of phenomenological reduction and show how the constitution problem relates to questions regarding transcendence and existence. Chapter (...)
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