Results for 'Distribution'

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  1. Human Enhancement, Social Solidarity and the Distribution of Responsibility.John Danaher - 2016 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 19 (2):359-378.
    This paper tries to clarify, strengthen and respond to two prominent objections to the development and use of human enhancement technologies. Both objections express concerns about the link between enhancement and the drive for hyperagency. The first derives from the work of Sandel and Hauskeller—and is concerned with the negative impact of hyperagency on social solidarity. In responding to their objection, I argue that although social solidarity is valuable, there is a danger in overestimating its value and in neglecting some (...)
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  2. Struggles Over Recognition and Distribution.James Tully - 2000 - Constellations 7 (4):469-482.
    I would like to present a two part response to the following question that Seyla Benhabib posed at a conference at Harvard University in 1999: “Is there a Transition from Distribution to Recognition?” The first part proposes that issues of distribution and recognition should be seen as aspects of political struggles, rather than distinct types of struggle, and thus a form of analysis is required that has the capacity to study political struggles under both aspects. The second part (...)
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  3.  77
    Naturalistic and Theistic Explanations of the Distribution of Suffering.Dan Linford - forthcoming - In Graham Oppy & Joseph W. Koterski (eds.), Theism and Atheism: Opposing Viewpoints in Philosophy. Cengage.
    This is a forthcoming section for the book "Theism and Atheism: Opposing Arguments in Philosophy", edited by Graham Oppy, Gregory Dawes, Evan Fales, Joseph Koterski, Mashhad Al-Allaf, Robert Fastiggi, and David Shatz. I was asked to write a brief essay on whether naturalism or theism can successfully explain the distribution of suffering in our world. Wheras another section covers the possibility that suffering is evidence against theism, my essay is concerned only with the ability for either naturalism or theism (...)
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  4.  50
    You Can Know Your School and Feed It Too: Vermont Farmers' Motivations and Distribution Practices in Direct Sales to School Food Services.David Conner, Benjamin King, Jane Kolodinsky, Erin Roche, Christopher Koliba & Amy Trubek - 2012 - Agriculture and Human Values 29 (3):321-332.
    Farm to School (FTS) programs are increasingly popular as methods to teach students about food, nutrition, and agriculture by connecting students with the sources of the food that they eat. They may also provide opportunity for farmers seeking to diversify market channels. Food service buyers in FTS programs often choose to procure food for school meals directly from farmers. The distribution practices required for such direct procurement often bring significant transaction costs for both school food service professionals and farmers. (...)
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  5.  31
    Distribution of Responsibility, Ability and Competition.Johan J. Graafland - 2003 - Journal of Business Ethics 45 (1-2):133 - 147.
    This paper considers the distribution of responsibility for prevention of negative social or ecological effects of production and consumption. Responsibility is related to ability and ability depends on welfare. An increase in competition between Western companies depresses their profitability, but increases the welfare of Western consumers and,hence, their ability to acknowledge social values. Therefore, an increase in competition on consumer markets shifts the balance in responsibility from companies to consumers to prevent negative external effects from production and consumption patterns. (...)
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  6.  81
    Speed-Dependent Weighting of the Maxwellian Distribution in Rarefied Gases: A Second-Law Paradox? [REVIEW]Jack Denur - 2007 - Foundations of Physics 37 (12):1685-1706.
    We show that the velocity distribution in rarefied (i.e., Knudsen) gases is spontaneously weighted in favor of small speeds away from the Maxwellian distribution corresponding to the temperature of the container walls—despite thermodynamic equilibrium with the walls. The consequent paradox concerning the second law of thermodynamics is discussed.
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  7.  46
    The Business Responsibility for Wealth Distribution in a Globalized Political-Economy: Merging Moral Economics and Catholic Social Teaching. [REVIEW]John Kohls & Sandra L. Christensen - 2002 - Journal of Business Ethics 35 (3):223 - 234.
    If it is accepted that the real marketplace does not necessarily distribute wealth in the manner that the ideal market would have done, and that societal institutions have an obligation to bring the real and ideal market distributions into accord, then it can be argued that economic actors have a responsibility to consider the effects of their activities on the distribution of wealth in society. This paper asserts that businesses have a responsibility to consider the wealth distribution effects (...)
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  8.  79
    Socio-Cultural Processes Behind the Differential Distribution of Organic Farming in Denmark: A Case Study. [REVIEW]Marie-Louise Risgaard, Pia Frederiksen & Pernille Kaltoft - 2007 - Agriculture and Human Values 24 (4):445-459.
    Conversion to organic farming, along with its associated driving forces and barriers, has been explored intensively over the past decade, while studies on the distribution and impacts of local socio-cultural processes in relation to conversion to and diffusion of organic farming have been scarce. The concentration of organic farms in Denmark differs according to county and, moreover, there appears to be large within-county variation in the density of organic farms. The present study explores local aspects of conversion to organic (...)
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  9.  96
    The Wigner Function as Distribution Function.M. Revzen - 2006 - Foundations of Physics 36 (4):546-562.
    Some entangled states have nonnegative Wigner representative function. The latter allow being viewed as a distribution function of local hidden variables. It is argued herewith that the interpretation of expectation values using such distribution functions as local hidden variable theory requires restrictions pertaining to the observables under study. The reasoning lead to support the view that violation of Bell’s inequalities that is always possible for entangled states hinges not only on the states involved but also whether the dynamical (...)
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  10.  18
    On the Distribution of NPIs in Korean.Duk-Ho An - 2007 - Natural Language Semantics 15 (4):317-350.
    In this paper, I offer a novel solution to the well-known problem concerning two polarity items in Korean, amu-(N)-to and amu-(N)-rato, that show a complementary distribution within the set of typical NPI-licensing contexts. I present a uniform analysis of the distribution of these NPIs, where the complementary distribution follows from the opposite scope properties of the emphatic particles to and rato contained in the NPIs in question. As the- oretical background, I adopt Karttunen and Peters’s (1979, Syntax (...)
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  11.  11
    Fat Distribution Patterns in Young Amenorrheic Females.Sylvia Kirchengast & Johannes Huber - 2001 - Human Nature 12 (2):123-140.
    The present study analyzes body fat distribution, a well-known and important indicator of reproductive capability, in young women between 18 and 28 years of age (mean=23.3 years) suffering from secondary amenorrhea and therefore temporary infertility resulting from self-starvation. Body composition parameters estimated by means of dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and the fat distribution index, indicating body shape, were compared with those of healthy controls. Although members of the infertile, amenorrheic group exhibited dramatically low body weight and total amount (...)
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  12.  7
    What is Distribution in the Market Process.Spencer Heath - 2017 - Libertarian Papers 9.
    It is a commonplace of the current learned diagnoses that modern technology has all but abolished the resistances of nature to the physical production and transportation of goods. Distribution is regarded as less well developed—as the open or broken link between our needs and their ful­fillment, between desire and gratification. To concede this should suggest not that the current processes of distribution should be attacked or abolished but rather that they should be examined and understood, for it should (...)
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  13.  20
    Factors That Degrade the Match Distribution in Iris Biometrics.Kevin W. Bowyer, Sarah E. Baker, Amanda Hentz, Karen Hollingsworth, Tanya Peters & Patrick J. Flynn - 2009 - Identity in the Information Society 2 (3):327-343.
    We consider three accepted truths about iris biometrics, involving pupil dilation, contact lenses and template aging. We also consider a relatively ignored issue that may arise in system interoperability. Experimental results from our laboratory demonstrate that the three accepted truths are not entirely true, and also that interoperability can involve subtle performance degradation. All four of these problems affect primarily the stability of the match, or authentic, distribution of template comparison scores rather than the non-match, or imposter, distribution (...)
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  14.  42
    Distribution of Health Care Resources in LIC: A Utilitarian Approach.Azam Golam - 2010 - VDM Verlag Dr. Müller.
    Distribution of sufficient health care resources to the maximum number of people in LIC is the central theme of the book. Bangladesh is taken as a representative of low income countries (LIe. In LIC, there is scarcity of health care resources like other resources but the deserving persons are numerous. Therefore, it requires an efficient distribution of resources. Considering 'Inequality to get access to health care' as the basic problem in LIC, John Rawls' principle of fair equality of (...)
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  15.  18
    Language-Like Behavior of Protein Length Distribution in Proteomes.Sertac Eroglu - 2014 - Complexity 20 (2):12-21.
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  16.  25
    Remarks on the Concept of Distribution in Traditional Logic.David Makinson - 1969 - Noûs 3 (1):103-108.
    Uses ideas of mathematical logic to clarify and to a certain extent defend a controverted and rather obscure notion of traditional syllogistic.
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  17.  18
    Do the Weak Stand a Chance? Distribution of Resources in a Competitive Environment.Judith Avrahami & Yaakov Kareev - 2009 - Cognitive Science 33 (5):940-950.
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  18.  9
    Distribution and Sequence Effects in Judgment.Allen Parducci & Arthur Sandusky - 1965 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 69 (5):450.
  19.  23
    Racial Groups, Distrust, and the Distribution of Health Care.Howard McGary - 2002 - In Rosamond Rhodes, Margaret P. Battin & Anita Silvers (eds.), Medicine and Social Justice: Essays on the Distribution of Health Care. Oup Usa. pp. 212.
    This chapter examines the ways race should and should not affect the delivery of health care benefits in a system that is just. To show how race affects the distribution of health care, it highlights disquieting similarities between the infamous Tuskegee study of fifty years ago and contemporary public health efforts directed at reducing HIV infection/AIDS in the African-American community that may detract from the effectiveness of these programs. It argues that a just society’s stability may require resource allocation (...)
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  20.  9
    Extinction as a Function of Partial Reinforcement and Distribution of Practice.Virginia F. Sheffield - 1949 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 39 (4):511.
  21.  3
    Completeness and Spatial Distribution of Mask Contours as Factors in Visual Backward Masking.Michael F. Sherrick & William N. Dember - 1970 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 84 (1):179.
  22.  12
    Two Tests of the Sheffield Hypothesis Concerning Resistance to Extinction, Partial Reinforcement, and Distribution of Practice.Wilma Wilson, Elizabeth J. Weiss & Abram Amsel - 1955 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 50 (1):51.
  23.  19
    On the Convergence of a Factorized Distribution Algorithm with Truncation Selection.Qingfu Zhang - 2004 - Complexity 9 (4):17-23.
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  24.  18
    Expected Value as a Determinant of the Distribution of Attention.Harvey G. Shulman & Ronald P. Fisher - 1972 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 93 (2):343.
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  25.  9
    Effect of Shift in Distribution of Practice Conditions Following Interpolated Rest.Jack A. Adams & Bradley Reynolds - 1954 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 47 (1):32-36.
  26.  16
    Estimates of Expected Value as a Function of Distribution Parameters.Robert J. Schreiber - 1957 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 53 (3):218.
  27.  15
    A Comparison of Disease‐Specific Medical Expenditures in Japan Using the Principal Diagnosis Method and the Proportional Distribution Method.Shinichi Tanihara, Etsuji Okamoto & Hiroshi Une - 2012 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 18 (3):616-622.
  28.  4
    Correlation Between Two Psychomotor Tasks as a Function of Distribution of Practice on the First.Bradley Reynolds - 1952 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 43 (5):341.
  29.  12
    The Effects of Pacing and Distribution on Intercorrelations of Motor Abilities.R. D. Nance - 1947 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 37 (6):459.
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  30.  9
    The Distribution of Tone in Skeletal Muscle.W. W. Tuttle - 1925 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 8 (4):319.
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  31.  11
    Performance and Reminiscence in Motor Learning as a Function of the Degree of Distribution of Practice.Gregory A. Kimble - 1949 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 39 (4):500.
  32.  9
    Meaningfulness of Material, Distribution of Practice, and Serial-Position Curves.Harry W. Braun & Sydney P. Heymann - 1958 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 56 (2):146.
  33.  7
    Some Effects of Unequal Spatial Distribution on the Detectability of Radar Targets.Patricia E. Nicely & George A. Miller - 1957 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 53 (3):195.
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  34.  8
    Mixed Distribution of Practice in Mirror-Drawing.J. C. Tsao - 1950 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 40 (6):752.
  35.  6
    Influence of Work Distribution Upon Complex Learning by the Noncorrection and Modified-Correction Methods.Clyde E. Noble & Anthony Taylor - 1959 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 58 (5):352.
  36.  6
    Shifting of Distribution of Practice in Mirror Drawing.J. C. Tsao - 1950 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 40 (5):639.
  37.  5
    A Nonmonotonic Effect of Distribution of Trials in Retardate Learning and Memory.Richard D. Sperber, Daryl B. Greenfield & Betty J. House - 1973 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 99 (2):186.
  38.  6
    Experimental Extinction as a Function of the Distribution of Extinction Trials and Response Strength.John H. Rohrer - 1947 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 37 (6):473.
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  39.  6
    Reminiscence in Motor Learning as a Function of Prerest Distribution of Practice.Benjamin H. Pubols - 1960 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 60 (3):155.
  40.  5
    Stimulus Familiarization and Changes in Distribution of Stimulus Encodings.Allen R. Dobbs - 1974 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 102 (2):234.
  41.  4
    Distribution of Practice Prior to Solution of a Verbal Reasoning Problem.A. B. Shaklee & B. Edson Jones - 1953 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 46 (6):429.
  42.  4
    An Extended Use of Moments of Two Distribution Functions for Predicting Performance in a Pattern Discrimination Task.T. M. Caelli & J. A. Keats - 1973 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 99 (2):209.
  43. A Conceptual and Empirical Framework for the Social Distribution of Cognition: The Case of Memory.Amanda Barnier, John Sutton, Celia Harris & Robert A. Wilson - 2008 - Cognitive Systems Research 9 (1):33-51.
    In this paper, we aim to show that the framework of embedded, distributed, or extended cognition offers new perspectives on social cognition by applying it to one specific domain: the psychology of memory. In making our case, first we specify some key social dimensions of cognitive distribution and some basic distinctions between memory cases, and then describe stronger and weaker versions of distributed remembering in the general distributed cognition framework. Next, we examine studies of social influences on memory in (...)
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  44. Pattern as Observation: Darwin’s ‘Great Facts’ of Geographical Distribution.Casey Helgeson - 2017 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 7 (2):337-351.
    Among philosophical analyses of Darwin’s Origin, a standard view says the theory presented there had no concrete observational consequences against which it might be checked. I challenge this idea with a new analysis of Darwin’s principal geographical distribution observations and how they connect to his common ancestry hypothesis.
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  45.  29
    Rethinking the Very Idea of Egalitarian Markets and Corporations: Why Relationships Might Matter More Than Distribution.Pierre-Yves Néron - 2015 - Business Ethics Quarterly 25 (1):93-124.
    ABSTRACT: What kinds of markets, market regulations, and business organizations are compatible with contemporary egalitarian theories of justice? This article argues that any thoughtful answer to this question will have to draw on recent developments in political philosophy that are concerned not only with the equality of the distribution of core goods but also with the requirements for equality of status, voice, and so on, in the relations between individuals and within organizations. The dominance of theories of distributive justice (...)
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  46. Diagrammatic Reasoning as the Basis for Developing Concepts: A Semiotic Analysis of Students' Learning About Statistical Distribution.Arthur Bakker & Michael H. G. Hoffmann - 2005 - Educational Studies in Mathematics 60:333–358.
    In recent years, semiotics has become an innovative theoretical framework in mathematics education. The purpose of this article is to show that semiotics can be used to explain learning as a process of experimenting with and communicating about one's own representations of mathematical problems. As a paradigmatic example, we apply a Peircean semiotic framework to answer the question of how students learned the concept of "distribution" in a statistics course by "diagrammatic reasoning" and by developing "hypostatic abstractions," that is (...)
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  47.  27
    Value Creation, Appropriation, and Distribution: How Firms Contribute to Societal Economic Inequality.Raza Mir, Jane Lu, Bryan W. Husted & Hari Bapuji - 2018 - Business and Society 57 (6):983-1009.
    Firms are central to wealth creation and distribution, but their role in economic inequality in a society remains poorly studied. In this essay, we define and distinguish value distribution from value creation and value appropriation. We identify four value distribution mechanisms that firms engage in and argue that shareholder wealth maximization approach skews the value distribution toward shareholders and top executives, which in turn contributes to rising economic inequalities around the world. We call on organizational scholars (...)
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  48. Evaluating Risky Prospects: The Distribution View.Luc Bovens - 2015 - Analysis 75 (2):243-253.
    Risky prospects represent policies that impose different types of risks on multiple people. I present an example from food safety. A utilitarian following Harsanyi's Aggregation Theorem ranks such prospects according to their mean expected utility or the expectation of the social utility. Such a ranking is not sensitive to any of four types of distributional concerns. I develop a model that lets the policy analyst rank prospects relative to the distributional concerns that she considers fitting in the context at hand. (...)
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  49.  37
    Fairness and Microcredit Interest Rates: From Rawlsian Principles of Justice to the Distribution of the Bargaining Range.Marek Hudon & Arvind Ashta - 2013 - Business Ethics 22 (3):277-291.
    This paper addresses the fairness of microcredit interest rates. Since microfinance institutions provide credit for the poor at relatively high prices, the fairness of their interest rates has been repeatedly debated. We first apply Rawls' principles of justice to the case of microcredit interest rates and suggest some limitations related to the hypothesis of rationality of the borrowers and the level of inequality. We then suggest another framework based on the analysis of the distribution of the benefits generated by (...)
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  50.  67
    Epistemicism, Distribution, and the Argument From Vagueness.Ofra Magidor - 2018 - Noûs 52 (1):144-170.
    This paper consists of two parts. The first concerns the logic of vagueness. The second concerns a prominent debate in metaphysics. One of the most widely accepted principles governing the ‘definitely’ operator is the principle of Distribution: if ‘p’ and ‘if p then q’ are both definite, then so is ‘q’. I argue however, that epistemicists about vagueness should reject this principle. The discussion also helps to shed light on the elusive question of what, on this framework, it takes (...)
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