Results for 'Divine commands (Ethics'

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  1. Divine Commands and Moral Requirements.Philip L. Quinn - 1978 - Clarendon Press.
    In this wide-ranging study, Quinn argues that human moral autonomy is compatible with unqualified obedience to divine commands. He formulates several versions of the crucial assumptions of divine command ethics, defending them against a battery of objections often expressed in the philosophical literature.
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  2.  26
    In Search of “Good Positive Reasons” For an Ethics of Divine Commands.Janine Marie Idziak - 1989 - Faith and Philosophy 6 (1):47-64.
    Recent proponents of a divine command ethics have chiefly defended the theory by refuting objections rather than by offering “positive reasons” to support it. We here offer a catalogue of such positive arguments drawn from historical discussions of the theory. We presentarguments which focus on various properties of the divine nature and on the unique status of God, as well as arguments which are analogical in character. Finally, we describe a particularform of the theory to which these arguments (...)
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  3. In Search of “Good Positive Reasons” For an Ethics of Divine Commands: A Catalogue of Arguments.Janine Marie Idziak - 1989 - Faith and Philosophy 6 (1):47-64.
    Recent proponents of a divine command ethics have chiefly defended the theory by refuting objections rather than by offering “positive reasons” to support it. We here offer a catalogue of such positive arguments drawn from historical discussions of the theory. We presentarguments which focus on various properties of the divine nature and on the unique status of God, as well as arguments which are analogical in character. Finally, we describe a particularform of the theory to which these arguments (...)
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  4.  1
    IV.—The Ethics of Divine Commands.D. A. Rees - 1957 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 57 (1):83-106.
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  5.  1
    The Ethics of Divine Commands.D. A. Rees - 1956 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 57:83 - 106.
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  6. Divine Commands and Morality.Paul Helm (ed.) - 1981 - Oxford University Press.
     
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  7.  75
    Islamic Ethics: Divine Command Theory in Arabo-Islamic Thought.Mariam Attar - 2010 - Routledge.
    This book explores philosophical ethics in Arabo-Islamic thought.
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  8.  3
    Commands as Divine Attributes.Omar Farahat - 2016 - Journal of Religious Ethics 44 (4):581-605.
    Theories of ethics that attempt to incorporate divine speech or commands as necessary elements in the construction of moral obligations are often viewed as vulnerable to a challenge based on the so-called Euthyphro dilemma. According to this challenge, opponents of theistic ethics suppose that divine speech either informs one of a preexisting set of values and obligations, which makes it inconsequential, or is entirely arbitrary, which makes it irrational. This essay analyzes some of the debates on the (...)
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  9. Kierkegaard's Ethic of Love: Divine Commands and Moral Obligations.Evans C. Stephen - 2004 - Oxford University Press.
    C. Stephen Evans explains and defends Kierkegaard's account of moral obligations as rooted in God's commands, the fundamental command being `You shall love your neighbour as yourself'. The work will be of interest not only to those interested in Kierkegaard, but also to those interested in the relation between ethics and religion, especially questions about whether morality can or must have a religious foundation. As well as providing a comprehensive reading of Kierkegaard as an ethical thinker, Evans puts him (...)
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  10.  15
    Divine Command Ethics in Early Islam: Al-Shafi'i and the Problem of Guidance.John Kelsay - 1994 - Journal of Religious Ethics 22 (1):101 - 126.
    Al-Shafi'i (d. 820) is clearly one of the most important figures in the early history of Islamic jurisprudence. His Risala or "Treatise" on the "principles of jurisprudence" (usul al-fiqh) is also of interest as an example of an approach to ethics that focuses on divine commands. Following a brief introduction, I offer the reader a few comments about al-Shafi'i's context. I summarize the content of the Risala and then analyze it as an example of divine command reasoning (...)
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  11.  24
    Divine Commands and Secular Demands: On Darwall on Anscombe on ‘Modern Moral Philosophy’.Robert Stern - 2014 - Mind 123 (492):1095-1122.
    This paper considers Stephen Darwall’s recent attempt to overturn Elizabeth Anscombe’s claim that moral obligation only really makes sense in terms of a divine command account, where he argues that in fact this account must give way to a more secularized and humanistic position if it is to avoid incoherence. It is suggested that Darwall’s attempt to establish this is flawed, and thus that his internal critique of divine command ethics fails.
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  12. Divine Commands and the Social Nature of Obligation.Robert Merrihew Adams - 1987 - Faith and Philosophy 4 (3):262-275.
    Divine command metaethics is one of those theories according to which the nature of obligation is grounded in personal or social relationships. In this paper I first try to show how facts about human relationships can fill some of the role that facts of obligation aresupposed to play, specifically with regard to moral motivation and guilt. Then I note certain problems that arise for social theories of obligation, and argue that they can be dealt with more adequately by an (...)
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  13. Divine Hoorays: Some Parallels Between Expressivism and Religious Ethics.Nicholas Unwin - 2008 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 77 (3):659-684.
    Divine law theories of metaethics claim that moral rightness is grounded in God’s commands, wishes and so forth. Expressivist theories, by contrast, claim that to call something morally right is to express our own attitudes, not to report on God’s. Ostensibly, such views are incompatible. However, we shall argue that a rapprochement is possible and beneficial to both sides. Expressivists need to explain the difference between reporting and expressing an attitude, and to address the Frege-Geach problem. Divine (...)
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  14. The Mandate of Heaven: The Divine Command and the Natural Order.Michael Keeling - 1995 - T&t Clark.
     
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  15.  8
    Divine and Human Agency in Second Temple Judaism and Paul: A Comparative Study.Jason Maston - 2010 - Mohr Siebeck.
    Obedience and the law of life in Sirach -- God's gracious acts of deliverance in the Hodayot -- Sin, the Spirit, and human obedience in Romans 7-8.
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  16. A Critique of Graber's Divine Command Theory of Ethics.John P. Reeder - 1975 - Journal of Religious Ethics 3 (1):157-163.
    The author criticizes a divine command theory of moral obligation offered by Glenn C. Graber. Reeder opposes Graber's claim that divine righteousness can be understood independent of standards of moral obligation and questions the plausibility of basing moral obligation on unchecked command, even the commands of God. Speaking historically, he discusses the relation of this theory to the moral theory of Ockham.
     
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  17.  48
    God and Moral Obligation.C. Stephen Evans - 2013 - Oxford University Press.
    God and moral obligations -- What is a divine command theory of moral obligation? -- The relation of divine command theory to natural law and virtue ethics -- Objections to divine command theory -- Alternatives to a divine command theory -- Conclusions: The inescapability of moral obligations.
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  18. Book Review: Kierkegaard's Ethic of Love: Divine Commands and Moral Obligations. [REVIEW]D. Barber - 2006 - Studies in Christian Ethics 19 (2):244-247.
  19. Divine Commands.Lois Malcolm - 2007 - In Gilbert Meilaender & William Werpehowski (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Theological Ethics. Oxford University Press.
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  20.  2
    Divine Commands, Natural Law, and the Authority of God.Jean Porter - 2014 - Journal of the Society of Christian Ethics 34 (1):3-20.
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  21.  24
    On Justifying One’s Acceptance of Divine Command Theory.Dennis Plaisted - 2017 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 81 (3):315-334.
    It has been alleged against divine command theory that we cannot justify our acceptance of it without giving it up. For if we provide moral reasons for our acceptance of God’s commands, then those reasons, and not God’s commands, must be our ultimate moral standard. Kai Nielsen has offered the most forceful version of this objection in his book, Ethics Without God. My principal aim is to show that Nielsen’s charge does not succeed. His argument crucially relies (...)
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  22.  71
    Euthyphro's 'Dilemma', Socrates' 'Daimonion'.Timothy Chappell - 2010 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 2 (1):39 - 64.
    In this paper I start with the familiar accusation that divine command ethics faces a "Euthyphro dilemma". By looking at what Plato’s ’Euthyphro’ actually says, I argue that no such argument against divine-command ethics was Plato’s intention, and that, in any case, no such argument is cogent. I then explore the place of divine commands and inspiration in Plato’s thought more generally, arguing that Plato sees an important epistemic and practical role for both.
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  23.  12
    The Oxford Handbook of Theological Ethics.Gilbert Meilaender & William Werpehowski (eds.) - 2005 - Oxford University Press.
    The Oxford Handbooks series is a major new initiative in academic publishing. Each volume offers an authoritative and up-to-date survey of original research in a particular subject area. Specially commissioned essays from leading figures in the discipline give critical examinations of the progress and direction of debates. The Oxford Handbook of Theological Ethics offers the most authoritative and compelling guide to the discipline. Thirty of the world's most distinguished specialists provide new essays in order to offer a survey of and (...)
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  24.  6
    Divine Command Theory in Early Franciscan Thought: A Response to the Autonomy Objection.Lydia Schumacher - 2016 - Studies in Christian Ethics 29 (4):461-476.
    In recent years, many scholars have bemoaned the gradual demise of traditional virtue ethics, and its eventual replacement in the later Middle Ages by divine command theory. Where virtue ethics nurtures a capacity for spontaneous moral judgement, this theory turns on adherence to ordained duties and laws. Thus, virtue ethicists among others have tended to object to the theory on the grounds that it undermines the role of the moral agent in moral adjudication. In this article, by contrast, I (...)
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  25.  8
    Authority and Justification in Theological Ethics: A Study in I Corinthians 7.Paul W. Gooch - 1983 - Journal of Religious Ethics 11 (1):62-74.
    Moral philosophers have frequently criticized theological ethics for its dependence upon divine authority and its consequent lack of autonomy. To test their perception of religious ethics and mentality, this paper examines the ways in which Paul justifies his ethical advice in I Corinthians 7. Analysis of his reasoning reveals that Paul invokes his own authority as well as the Lord's rulings and the commands of God. These are, however, related in ways which encourage freedom of interpretation and application. (...)
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  26.  37
    A Psychological Constraint on Obedience to God's Commands: The Reasonableness of Obeying the Abhorrently Evil.James D. Rissler - 2002 - Religious Studies 38 (2):125-146.
    Robert Adams, in Finite and Infinite Goods: A Framework for Ethics, suggests a moral constraint on our obedience to God's commands: if a purportedly divine command seems abhorrently evil, then we should infer that it is not really God so commanding. I suggest that in light of his commitments to God as the standard of goodness, to the transcendence of God, and to a critical stance towards ethics, Adams should be willing to consider the possibility of a good (...)
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  27.  55
    Ethics and God.Lenn E. Goodman - 2011 - Philosophical Investigations 34 (2):135-150.
    Philosophers like to speak of a “Euthyphro Dilemma” pitting divine fiat against a moral realism that soon fades to personal or social preferences. But Plato targets no such dilemma. The Euthyphro hints a complementarity of divine commands with human moral insights. Values are constitutive in ideas of divinity, and monotheism affirms only goodness in God. So, pace James Rachels, worship is not surrender of autonomy, as Saadiah and Maimonides' biblical and rabbinic ethics reveal. Chimneying more fairly models (...)
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  28.  44
    Divine Command and Ethical Duty: A Critique of the Scriptural Argument.Simin Rahimi - 2008 - Journal of Islamic Philosophy 4:77-108.
    What is the relationship between divine commands and ethical duties? According to the divine command theory of ethics, moral actions are obligatory simply because God commands people to do them. This position raises a serious question about the nature of ethics, since it suggests that there is no reason, ethical or non-ethical, behind divine commands; hence both his commands and morality become arbitrary. This paper investigates the scriptural defense of the divine command (...)
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  29. Kierkegaard and Divine-Command Theory: Replies to Quinn and Evans.R. Zachary Manis - 2009 - Religious Studies 45 (3):289-307.
    One of the most important recent developments in the discussion of Kierkegaard's ethics is an interpretation defended, in different forms, by Philip Quinn and Stephen Evans. Both argue that a divine-command theory of moral obligation (DCT) is to be found in "Works of Love". Against this view, I argue that, despite significant overlap between DCT and the view of moral obligation found in "Works of Love", there is at least one essential difference between the two: the former, but not (...)
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  30.  55
    Ockham as a Divine-Command Theorist.Thomas M. Osborne - 2005 - Religious Studies 41 (1):1-22.
    Although this thesis is denied by much recent scholarship, Ockham holds that the ultimate ground of a moral judgement's truth is a divine command, rather than natural or non-natural properties. God could assign a different moral value not only to every exterior act, but also to loving God. Ockham does allow that someone who has not had access to revelation can make correct moral judgements. Although her right reason dictates what God in fact commands, she need not know (...)
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  31.  25
    A Jewish Modified Divine Command Theory.Kavka Martin & Rashkover Randi - 2004 - Journal of Religious Ethics 32 (2):387 - 414.
    We claim that divine command metaethicists have not thought through the nature of the expression of divine love with sufficient rigor. We argue, against prior divine command theories, that the radical difference between God and the natural world means that grounding divine command in divine love can only ground a formal claim of the divine on the human; recipients of revelation must construct particular commands out of this formal claim. While some metaethicists might (...)
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  32. Anscombe on `Ought'.Charles Pigden - 1988 - Philosophical Quarterly 38 (150):20-41.
    n ‘Modern Moral Philosophy’ Anscombe argues that the moral ‘ought’ should be abandoned as the senseless survivor from a defunct conceptual scheme. I argue 1) That even if the moral ‘ought’ derives its meaning from a Divine Law conception of ethics it does not follow that it cannot sensibly survive the Death of God. 2) That anyway Anscombe is mistaken since ancestors of the emphatic moral ‘ought’ predate the system of Christian Divine Law from which the moral ‘ought’ (...)
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  33.  14
    Divine Justice/Divine Command.D. Novak - 2010 - Studies in Christian Ethics 23 (1):6-20.
    In the Jewish tradition there are those who simply identify divine justice with the specific divine commands, which is a theological version of legal positivism. This paper argues for another view in the Jewish tradition, viz., divine justice or divine wisdom is the rationale of the specific divine commands, thus making them more than arbitrary decrees. As the rationale of the specific divine commands, divine justice functions as a criterion of (...)
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  34.  14
    Divine Command/Divine Law: A Biblical Perspective.P. D. Miller - 2010 - Studies in Christian Ethics 23 (1):21-34.
    The starting point for thinking about divine command is the reality of God, the initiating and effecting word of God and the character of God, reflected in Scripture especially in regard to goodness and justice.The necessity of social interaction as context for divine command is reflected in several ways; among those mentioned here are the divine council, the covenant, and the incarnation, the word made flesh and living among us. The covenant is central to thinking about (...) commands as they are reflected in Scripture. It presumes a relationship between God and those commanded and is a voluntary association. Obedience to the divine commands results from the goodness of God and is only to the Lord. As such the ethic of command becomes also an ethic of response. Rather than being commands to be obeyed without reason or thought and only because they are commanded by God, the divine commands of Scripture and the law generally involve rationality and persuasion, teaching and interpretation. They chart a way of freedom. (shrink)
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  35. Divine Command Metaethics Modified Again.Robert Merrihew Adams - 1979 - Journal of Religious Ethics 7 (1):66 - 79.
    This essay presents a version of divine command metaethics inspired by recent work of Donnellan, Kripke, and Putnam on the relation between necessity and conceptual analysis. What we can discover a priori, by conceptual analysis, about the nature of ethical wrongness is that wrongness is the property of actions that best fills a certain role. What property that is cannot be discovered by conceptual analysis. But I suggest that theists should claim it is the property of being contrary to (...)
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  36.  39
    Divine Command.John E. Hare - 2013 - In Hugh LaFollette (ed.), The International Encyclopedia of Ethics. Wiley-Blackwell.
    Divine Command defends the thesis that what makes something morally obligatory is that God commands it, and what makes something morally forbidden is that God forbids it. John E. Hare successfully defends a version of divine command theory, but also shows that there is considerable overlap with some versions of natural law theory. Hare engages with a number of Christian theologians, most especially Karl Barth, and extends into a discussion of divine command within Judaism and Islam. (...)
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  37.  17
    The Virtue of Obedience.Joseph Shaw - 2002 - Religious Studies 38 (1):63-75.
    In this paper I give an account and defence of the thought and practice associated with the notion of obedience in religious ethics, especially in reply to the claim that obedience is necessarily unconscientious. First, I argue that it is conscientious to give weight to commands if they are identifiable as pieces of authoritative advice, or, as theists commonly believe, if they have intrinsic moral force. Second, I argue that a theist's strictly moral reasons for fulfilling obligations are not (...)
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  38.  15
    Can We Love as God Loves?Pamela Sue Anderson - unknown
    I locate the starting point for this essay on the common ground between the traditionally conceived attribute of divine love and the moral theory known as divine command ethics. The latter assumes that something is good because God commands it; with the former, the gift of divine love requires love in return. In this light, God’s command to love is recognized as goodness itself by those ‘he’ loves. In other words, those persons loved by God are (...)
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  39.  1
    Euthyphro’s dqDilemmadq, Socrates’ Daimonion and Plato’s God.Timothy Chappell - 2010 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 2 (1):39--64.
    In this paper I start with the familiar accusation that divine command ethics faces a flqqEuthyphro dilemmafrqq. By looking at what Plato’s Euthyphro actually says, I argue that no such argument against divine-command ethics was Plato’s intention, and that, in any case, no such argument is cogent. I then explore the place of divine commands and inspiration in Plato’s thought more generally, arguing that Plato sees an important epistemic and practical role for both.
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  40.  13
    Commanded Love and Moral Autonomy.Merold Westphal - 1998 - Ethical Perspectives 5 (4):263-276.
    One way to read Kierkegaard’s Works of Love is as an all out assault on the Enlightenment ideal of moral autonomy from a religious point of view. Kant is the locus classicus of this ideal, just as Descartes and Locke are, respectively, for the correlative ideals of epistemic and political autonomy. Since these three components belong to the central core of what we have come to think of as the modern understanding of the subject, Kierkegaard’s critique has a distinctively postmodern (...)
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  41.  23
    Swinburne on the Euthyphro Dilemma. Can Supervenience Save Him?Simini Rahimi - 2008 - Forum Philosophicum: International Journal for Philosophy 13 (1):17-29.
    Modern philosophers normally either reject the "divine command theory" of ethics and argue that moral duties are independent of any commands, or make it dependent on God's commands but like Robert Adams modify their theory and identify moral duties in terms of the commands of a loving God. Adams regards this theory as metaphysically necessary. That is, if it is true, it is true in all possible worlds. But Swinburne's position is unprecedented insofar as he regards (...)
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  42.  13
    Absolute Prohibitions Without Divine Promises.Sabina Lovibond - 2004 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 54:141-158.
    Elizabeth Anscombe's ‘Modern Moral Philosophy’ is read and remembered principally as a critique of the state of ethical theory at the time when she was writing—an account of certain faulty assumptions underlying that theory in its different variants, and rendering trivial the points on which they ostensibly disagree. Not unreasonably, the essay serves as a starting point for the recent Oxford Readings collection on ‘virtue ethics’, and as an authoritative text on the failings of other approaches with which philosophy students (...)
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  43.  11
    Accountability and Parenthood in Locke's Theological Ethics.Daniel Layman - 2014 - History of Philosophy Quarterly 31 (2):101-118.
    According to John Locke, the conditions of human happiness establish the content of natural law, but God’s commands make it morally binding. This raises two questions. First, why does moral obligation require an authority figure? Second, what gives God authority? I argue that, according to Locke, moral obligation requires an authority figure because to have an obligation is to be accountable to someone. I then argue that, according to Locke, God has a kind of parental authority inasmuch as he (...)
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  44.  41
    Kierkegaard and Evans on the Problem of Abraham.R. Zachary Manis - 2011 - Journal of Religious Ethics 39 (3):474-492.
    A significant challenge faces any ethic that endorses the view that divine commands are sufficient to impose moral obligations; in this paper, I focus on Kierkegaard's ethic, in particular. The challenge to be addressed is the "modernized" problem of Abraham, popularized especially by Fear and Trembling: the dilemma that an agent faces when a being claiming to be God issues a command to the agent that, by the agent's own lights, seems not to be the kind of command (...)
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  45.  25
    Religion and Morality.D. Z. Phillips (ed.) - 1996 - St. Martin's Press.
    Reflection on religion inevitably involves consideration of its relation to morality. When great evil is done to human beings, we may feel that something absolute has been violated. Can that sense, which is related to gratitude for existence, be expressed without religious concepts? Can we express central religious concerns, such as losing the self, while abandoning any religious metaphysic? Is moral obligation itself dependent on divine commands if it is to be objective, or is morality not only independent (...)
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  46.  6
    God as the Subject of Unique Veneration: A Response to Ronald M. Green.Gene Outka - 1993 - Journal of Religious Ethics 21 (2):211 - 215.
    It is true that we draw nearer the key significance of Fear and Trembling if we supplement the now too standard readings of the text as an exploration of the moral force of divine commands, but to do that we need not resort to reading the work exclusively as a treatment of justification by faith. Kierkegaard presents Abraham as an exemplar whose faith is informed by, but not constricted by, the ethical and whose example has, and is meant (...)
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  47.  12
    Abraham, Isaac, And The Jewish Tradition: An Ethical Reappraisal.Ronald M. Green - 1982 - Journal of Religious Ethics 10 (1):1-21.
    Would the Jewish tradition agree with Søren Kierkegaard's claim that the biblical episode of Abraham's near-sacrifice of Isaac represents a fearful "teleological suspension of the ethical"? After surveying a variety of classical Jewish sources, the author concludes that Kierkegaard's interpretation has almost no resonance within the Jewish tradition. Rather than involving a suspension of the ethical, this episode is viewed by Jewish writers as involving a moment of supreme moral responsibility on the part of both God and man. This treatment (...)
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  48.  21
    WHAT IS IMMANENT IN JUDAISM? Transcending A Secular Age. [REVIEW]Martin Kavka - 2012 - Journal of Religious Ethics 40 (1):123-137.
    This essay takes on the implicit claim in Taylor's A Secular Age, forecast in some of his earlier writings, that the desire for a meaningful life can never be satisfied in this life. As a result, A Secular Age is suffused with a tragic view of existence; its love of narratives of religious longing makes no sense otherwise. Yet there are other models of religion that lend meaning to existence, and in the majority of this essay, I take up one (...)
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