Research ethics remains a cornerstone of the scientific enterprise as it defines the boundaries of responsible conduct of research. Our aim was to systematically identify, review and test online training courses in research ethics which could be considered most appropriate for future training at the University of Botswana. We used an evaluative tool that included both descriptive and evaluative criteria for assessing the strengths, weaknesses and appropriateness of 10 online research ethics courses which are publicly accessible. We then assembled Focus (...) Group Discussions to engage the UB community to select the best 2–3 online courses that are considered most suited for use in future training of research ethics at UB. Twenty respondents participated in three FGDs. Our findings show that there is limited research ethics training capacity in low resourced academic institutions like UB. Online training opportunities could be used to address this challenge. Our analysis reveal that out of the 10 online courses reviewed, CITI program, Family Health International, and Training and Resource in Research Ethics Evaluation have characteristics that would make them suitable for utilization in Botswana. We believe the findings from this case study will be of value to other similarly situated research institutions. (shrink)
ABSTRACT Research ethics remains a cornerstone of the scientific enterprise as it defines the boundaries of responsible conduct of research. Our aim was to systematically identify, review and test online training courses in research ethics which could be considered most appropriate for future training at the University of Botswana. We used an evaluative tool that included both descriptive and evaluative criteria for assessing the strengths, weaknesses and appropriateness of 10 online research ethics courses which are publicly accessible. We then assembled (...) Focus Group Discussions to engage the UB community to select the best 2–3 online courses that are considered most suited for use in future training of research ethics at UB. Twenty respondents participated in three FGDs. Our findings show that there is limited research ethics training capacity in low resourced academic institutions like UB. Online training opportunities could be used to address this challenge. Our analysis reveal that out of the 10 online courses reviewed, CITI program, Family Health International, and Training and Resource in Research Ethics Evaluation have characteristics that would make them suitable for utilization in Botswana. We believe the findings from this case study will be of value to other similarly situated research institutions. (shrink)
The ethical implications of human clones have been much alluded to, but have seldom been examined with any rigour. This paper examines the possible uses and abuses of human cloning and draws out the principal ethical dimensions, both of what might be done and its meaning. The paper examines some of the major public and official responses to cloning by authorities such as President Clinton, the World Health Organisation, the European parliament, UNESCO, and others and reveals their inadequacies as foundations (...) for a coherent public policy on human cloning. The paper ends by defending a conception of reproductive rights of "procreative autonomy" which shows human cloning to be not inconsistent with human rights and dignity. (shrink)
ObjectiveWe argue that people often fail to perceive and process stimuli easily available to them. In other words, we challenge the tacit assumption that awareness is unbounded and provide evidence that humans regularly fail to see and use stimuli and information easily available to them. We call this phenomenon “bounded awareness” (Bazerman and Chugh in Frontiers of social psychology: negotiations, Psychology Press: College Park 2005). Findings We begin by first describing perceptual mental processes in which obvious information is missed—that is, (...) simply not seen—by the visual perceiver. Inattentional blindness and change blindness are examples. We then extend this phenomenon to decision making and forecasting, using evidence about focalism to illustrate how people over focus on some information and fail to use other easily available information. We next examine how these processes of bounded awareness may extend to other important domains and across levels of analysis, such as information-sharing in groups, decision making in negotiators, and in competitive bidding situations such as auctions.ConclusionsBounded awareness is a phenomenon that encompasses a variety of psychological processes, all of which lead to the same error: a failure to see, seek, use, or share important and relevant information that is easily seen, sought, used, or shared. (shrink)
Public debate in Britain surrounding the cloning of Dolly the sheep has primarily focused on the legitimacy of cloning humans, not sheep. This bracketing of the human question relies on a distinction between humans and animals belied by the very constitution of transgenic animals who are made with human DNA, such as Polly. Moreover, the ways in which human beings think about, manipulate and classify animals have distinct cultural consequences, for example in relation to cultural understandings of life, property, (...) kinship and other forms of social interconnection. This article introduces the term 'breedwealth' to examine Dolly as a unique form of property in order to make some of these connections more visible. (shrink)
El libro “La Iglesia doliente. Un largo invierno en Cracovia”, escrito por la Dra. Miriam Dolly Arancibia, narra el martirio de la filósofa y religiosa Edith Stein y del sacerdote Jerzy Popiełuszko. Ambos fueron víctimas de la persecución a la Iglesia Católica en Polonia, ella lo fue del nazismo, él lo fue del comunismo estalinista. Ambos sufrieron la intolerancia religiosa y racial llevada a su máxima expresión. La ciudad de Cracovia, donde el Beato Juan Pablo II residió durante cuarenta (...) años, es el escenario desde el cual fluye el relato de los acontecimientos. La misma ciudad que será sede de la Jornada Mundial de la Juventud en el año 2016 -/- The book "The suffered Church. A long winter in Krakow", written by Dr. Miriam Dolly Arancibia, recounts the martyrdom of Edith Stein and Jerzy Popiełuszko. Both were victims of persecution by the Catholic Church in Poland, she was under Nazism and he was under Stalinist communism. Both suffered religious and racial intolerance led to its maximum expression. The city of Krakow, where Blessed John Paul II lived for forty years, is the stage from which flows the account of the events and the same city that will host the world youth day in 2016. (shrink)
For most of the 20th century, it was possible to regard fertilisation as the identifiable point when life begins, because this moment could be defined unequivocally and was thought to be the single most essential biological step in the establishment of a new human entity. Since the successful reproductive cloning of Dolly and other mammals, it is clear that any human cell has the potential to supply the full genome of an embryo, and hence a person, without going through (...) fertilisation. At what point in time do such embryos acquire the respect accorded to human beings? The authors argue that the time of implantation is the most useful point at which the potential and the intention to create a new person are translated into reality, because from that point a new life develops. Implantation differentiates a somatic cell in culture from a human entity that has acquired its own identity and developmental potential. The authors examine the value of quickening or viability as alternative developmental stages in the process of acquiring respect for the Dolly embryo. (shrink)
Quand la brebis Dolly avait fait son entrée de top model biologique sur notre scène médiatique, en 1997, elle avait déclenché une éruption d’imaginaire comme on n’en avait pas connu depuis la naissance de Louise Brown, premier « bébé-éprouvette » de l’histoire. À croire que si le Petit Prince de Saint-Exupéry revenait parmi nous aujourd’hui,..
Este libro se propone rescatar la mirada de mujeres filósofas silenciadas a lo largo de la historia. Se busca reflexionar sobre los principales acontecimientos que señalaron la trayectoria del pensamiento filosófico occidental, tomando como punto de partida a las mujeres filósofas en su contexto histórico. No es un libro sobre biografías femeninas, ni pretende limitarse al esquema de pensamiento de cada una de aquellas filósofas excluyendo a los varones. Se busca repensar las mismas cuestiones que aparecen con frecuencia en un (...) estudio introductorio a la filosofía social pero desde un enfoque epistemológico diferente. (shrink)
It has become a commonplace to observe that the people of the world will soon be divided into two classesfor everyone else—how much worse it would be if we made a slight alteration in our description. How much worse it would be if the vast majority of people were possessed of too little information to allow them to make informed decisions about their own lives, health, and genetic inheritance. Unfortunately, this is the reality. And as scientific advances rocket far ahead (...) of both our bemused journalistic establishment and our limping regulatory apparatus, the reality becomes ever more pernicious. (shrink)
The majority of adults in Britain cite the mass media as their main source of information about developments in science and technology. This alone makes it worth studying how the press covered the story of Dolly the cloned sheep. However, the media's reporting of Dolly revealed serious difficulties in the relationship of science to society. Although there were failures of journalistic accuracy and balance, these should not be allowed to obscure the deeper issues.
According to recent news reports, developments in biotechnology promise to transform our bodies and our lives. Stem cell research and cloning research are reported to offer us the prospect of being able to grow `spare' body parts and to replace diseased or damaged tissue, implying that there are no natural limits to life, and that the body-machine may be endlessly repaired, and even replicated. The birth of a cloned sheep, Dolly, announced in February 1997, is seen as a milestone (...) development in this regard, suggesting that it is possible to defy `nature' by `turning back the biological clock'. While the development was heralded by many as pointing to new medical therapies, it also served to fuel widespread fears that the technology would soon be applied to cloning humans. This article explores how the news media `framed' issues on human cloning in the aftermath of the announcement of Dolly and thus may have heightened public concerns about its implications, particularly for `individuality' or `identity'. It draws on articles appearing in Australian newspapers, beginning with the initial stories on Dolly through to May 1999, when it was reported that Dolly had shown signs of premature ageing. The article highlights the role of the media in shaping public debate on biotechnology, particularly with regard to its impacts on the body, self and society. (shrink)
Dolly, as we all know, is a sheep. And a very remarkable sheep. Not because of what she is, but because of the mode by which she appeared in our midst. Dolly was cloned in a laboratory by a technique called nuclear transfer; she is virtually genetically identical to a sheep born six years before she was. And wewill never be the same again.
Cameron and Williamson have provided a provocative and timely review of the ethical questions prompted by the birth of Dolly. The question Cameron and Williamson seek to address is “In the world of Dolly, when does a human embryo acquire respect?”. Their initial discussion sets the scene by providing a valuable overview of attitudes towards the embryo, summarising various religious, scientific, and philosophical viewpoints. They then ask, “What has Dolly changed?” and identify five changes, the first being (...) that fertilisation is no longer required to create an embryo. Following this analysis they then ask when an embryo created other than by fertilisation begins to acquire respect. This paper explores the ethical and legal issues highlighted by Cameron and Williamson’s paper. (shrink)
As the #1 topic in bioethics, cloning has made big news since Dolly's announced birth in 1998. In a new book building on his classic Who's Afraid of Human Cloning?, pioneering bioethicist Gregory E. Pence continues to advocate a reasoned view of cloning. Beginning with his surreal experiences as an expert witness before Congressional and California legislative committees, Pence analyzes the astounding recent progress in animal cloning; the coming surprises about human cloning; the links between animal, stem cell, and (...) human cloning; embryo politics; and other hot topics like artificial wombs and transgenic animals. -/- Pence rebuts the growing chorus of naysayers headed by Leon Kass, chairman of the President's Council on Bioethics, who attack the biomedical sciences, and explains why cloning will save endangered species and beloved pets, and help future children and people with degenerative diseases. (shrink)
This paper addresses the 1996 cloning of Dolly the sheep, locating it within a long-standing tradition of animal breeding research in Edinburgh. Far from being an end in itself, the cell-nuclear transfer experiment from which Dolly was born should be seen as a step in an investigative pathway that sought the production of medically relevant transgenic animals. By historicising Dolly, I illustrate how the birth of this sheep captures a dramatic redefinition of the life sciences, when in (...) the 1970s and 1980s the rise of neo-liberal governments and the emergence of the biotechnology market pushed research institutions to show tangible applications of their work. Through this broader interpretative framework, the Dolly story emerges as a case study of the deep transformations of agricultural experimentation during the last third of the twentieth century. The reorganisation of laboratory practice, human resources and institutional settings required by the production of transgenic animals had unanticipated consequences. One of these unanticipated effects was that the boundaries between animal and human health became blurred. As a result of this, new professional spaces emerged and the identity of Dolly the sheep was reconfigured, from an instrument for livestock improvement in the farm to a more universal symbol of the new cloning age. -/- . (shrink)
BackgroundA key ethical question in genomics research relates to whether individual genetic research results should be disclosed to research participants and if so, which results are to be disclosed, by whom and when. Whilst this issue has received only scarce attention in African bioethics discourse, the extension of genomics research to the African continent has brought it into sharp focus.MethodsIn this qualitative study, we examined the views of adolescents, parents and caregivers participating in a paediatric and adolescent HIV-TB genomic study (...) in Botswana on how solidarity and reciprocity obligations could guide decisions about feedback of individual genetic research results. Data were collected using deliberative focus group discussions and in-depth interviews.ResultsFindings from 93 participants demonstrated the importance of considering solidarity and reciprocity obligations in decisions about the return of individual genetic research results to participants. Participants viewed research participation as a mutual relationship and expressed that return of research results would be one way in which research participation could be reciprocated. They noted that when reciprocity obligations are respected, participants feel valued and not respecting reciprocity expectations could undermine participant trust and participation in future studies.ConclusionsWe conclude that expectations of solidarity and reciprocity could translate into an obligation to feedback selected individual genetic research results in African genomics research. (shrink)
RESUMEN Este libro contiene guías prácticas para aprender filosofía y destinadas principalmente a estudiantes de Filosofía Social. Proporciona sugerencias de actividades y fotografías a utilizar en las investigaciones. El objetivo principal es ayudar a los estudiantes a encontrar formas de hacer filosofía como una experiencia vivida. Las actividades se basan en teorías pedagógicas y filosóficas que promueven el desarrollo del pensamiento crítico y complejo: Epistemología de la complejidad de Edgar Morin, las propuestas metodológicas de Matthew Lipman y la Antropología trascendental (...) de Leonardo Polo. ABSTRACT -/- This book contains practical guides to learn philosophy mainly for students of Social Philosophy. It provides suggestions of activities and photographs to use in the enquiries. The main objective is helping students to find ways to make philosophy as a lived experience. The activities are based in pedagogical and philosophical theories which promote the development of critical and complex thinking: Complexity epistemology of Edgar Morin, the Methodological proposals by Matthew Lipman and the Transcendental Anthropology of Leonardo Polo. (shrink)
RESUMEN: Durante mucho tiempo las investigaciones sociológicas se centraron en el término exclusión. Existe, sin embargo, un abuso del término designando como tales, situaciones que en realidad responden a la vulnerabilidad creada por la degradación de las relaciones de trabajo, por la precarización o la marginación. Éstas son propiamente situaciones bajo amenaza de exclusión pero no son exclusión propiamente dicha, pueden desembocar en ella pero dependen de otra lógica. La lógica de la exclusión procede por discriminaciones oficiales, la marginación se (...) produce por procesos de desestabilización. En este trabajo se realizará un análisis comparado entre dos perspectivas tan disímiles como las subyacentes en las políticas de inclusión aplicadas en Argentina y Leonardo Polo pues de la confrontación fructífera emergerán las condiciones de posibilidad para una auténtica inclusión social en las organizaciones. SUMMARY: From longtime ago, sociological researches focused on the Word exclusion abusing on it. The fact is that many situations considered as exclusion really are the effect of vulnerability due to degrade of job´s relationships, or due to marginal and precarious situations. Those are situations under danger of exclusion but they are not properly exclusion, those could to end in exclusion but those depend on a different logic which runs by official discriminations. Marginality is consequence of process of unbalances. This article intend to analyzes two different perspectives, that from political plans from Argentinian government and that from Leonardo Polo because it is possible to confront in a positive way and then, many possibilities for authentic social inclusion in organizations will emerge. (shrink)
Una sociedad libre necesita de ciudadanos autónomos. La noción de autonomía va estrechamente relacionada con las de libertad y de responsabilidad, separada por lo tanto de sus opuestos, determinismo e irresponsabilidad. Ya no son posibles posiciones reduccionistas que partan de una visión determinista del ser humano y de la naturaleza, pero tampoco lo son aquellas que en nombre de la libertad promueven y justifican la inseguridad, la violencia, el nihilismo. Los seres humanos y la realidad social toda son multidimensionales, polifacéticos. (...) El color de la piel, las ideas, las culturas, poseen una infinidad de matices imposible de encerrar en fórmulas inmutables. Por ende, es en una educación trazada desde el horizonte de la antropología trascendental donde se resolverán satisfactoriamente los reduccionismos de tipo psicologista o sociologista, precisamente porque en ella se reconoce el carácter sublime de la persona en cuanto ser libre destinándose. Palabras clave: Constructivismo- Reduccionismo- Antropología trascendental Abstract A free society needs autonomous citizens. The notion of autonomy is closely linked with the freedom and responsibility, therefore separate of their opposites, determinism and irresponsibility. They are no longer possible positions reductionist that draw upon a deterministic view of human beings and nature, but then neither are those who in the name of freedom, promote and justify the insecurity, violence, nihilism. Human beings and social reality all are multidimensional, multifaceted. Have the color of the skin, ideas, cultures, infinity of nuances impossible to lock up in immutable formulas. Thus, it is in an education from the horizon of the transcendental anthropology which will resolve satisfactorily the reductionism of type psychologistic or sociologistic, precisely because she recognizes the sublime person character as soon as be free aiming. (shrink)
¿Què se avizora para el ser humano cuando se piensa en un tema tan existencial como lo es el de sus derechos? ¿Predomina la incertidumbre, la desazòn, los diagnòsticos interminables sobre los males por los cuales la especie humana agonizarà inexorablemente? ¿O por el contrario, se vislumbra con optimismo un futuro de posibilidades siempre abiertas? La cuestiòn de los derechos humanos remite a reflexiones muy profundas en torno a la Identidad y a la Alteridad. Ambas nociones aparecen como supuestos implicitos (...) o explicitos en las diversas estrategias empleadas para el abordaje de un tema tan complejo. El fondo cultural desde el que emergen acompaña las perspectivas teòricas de interpretaciòn y las politicas que las ponen en pràctica. En ambos planos surge con frecuencia la palabra tolerancia aunque en occasiones es utilizada con un significado muy ambiguo. La tolerancia requiere de seres razonables para alcanzar sociedades autènticamente democràticas. La razonabilidad a su vez se logra en la medida en que se estimule el desarrollo del pensamento critico. En este contexto, los aportes de la epistemologia de la complejidad de Edgar Morin, (la cual surgiò como alternativa frente a las epistemologias cerradas), posee una especial relevancia para la reflexiòn de los derechos humanos en el contexto històrico-cultural latinoamericano. En esa misma linea se ubica la teoria general de los sistemas sociales de Niklas Luhmann y las reflexiones sobre la identidad del sociòlogo polaco Zygmunt Baumann. En esta ponencia se busca mostrar la estrecha interrelaciòn entre esos autores con respecto al modo de interpretar la identidad y la alteridad, bases ineludibles para la construcciòn del respeto por los derechos del otro en cuanto tal. (shrink)
Para Foucault las relaciones de dominación son el camino de acceso al análisis del poder. Cabe la pregunta si la relación de poder es lucha, enfrentamiento, guerra, siendo ésta última el motor de las instituciones y el orden en la visión foucaultiana de la realidad. Para responderla aparecen nociones como la del mal radical de Hanna Arendt o la de libertad de Leonardo Polo. Aún cuando se trata de posiciones filosóficas distintas todas ellas vislumbran que lo auténticamente radical en el (...) ser humano es la libertad. (shrink)
Las actuales circunstancias políticas y culturales nos sumergen en una realidad paradojal, por un lado se exaltan la subjetividad, la autonomía, la independencia y al mismo tiempo se constriñen las libertades pretendiendo reducir todas las voluntades a una masa informe pero obediente al mandato de una conciencia colectiva omnipresente. Para una cabal comprensión de la realidad y alcances de la libertad humana se hace imprescindible entonces remitirnos a los horizontes de comprensión que nos brinda la Antropología, particularmente la Antropología Trascendental, (...) pues emerge como una respuesta clara, profunda y a grandes interrogantes de nuestro tiempo. (shrink)
In Luca Fantini’s doctoral dissertation, a central question is introduced in reference to actual theories of identity. Many modern and posmodern philosophers introduce a division between objectivity and subjectivity conceiving the human subject in a partial way. Modern subjective philosophy fails because it is made in symmetry with metaphysics. Fantini asks if it is possible to understand the modern subject in another way. He asks is Aquinas is a valid answer today, after modernity. He proposes Polo as a contemporary philosopher (...) that examines this questions in a radical way. Polo accepts traditional anthropology but proposes his transcendental anthropology as innovative pretending to improve our understanding of personal being. Classic philosophy is thus enlarged and modern philosophy rectified. Polo offers a new method: the abandonment of mental limit, that consists in amplifying classical metaphysics with a transcendental anthropology. Fantini offers with this an important contribution to the diffusion of this method. (shrink)