This qualitative study investigated the personal and professional stances of 40 health and social care professionals confronted with assisted suicide of older persons living in nursing homes or supported by social welfare or home care and support services in French-speaking Switzerland. Requests of assisted suicide triggered questions with regard to the professional mission, the quality of accompaniment, values, and ethical principles. Four types of stances emerged from the analysis performed according to the principles of the grounded theory: favorable in principle, (...) professional compromise, personal compromise, and opposed in principle. Each stance results from the combination of several dimensions: personal or professional concordance or compatibility with assisted suicide; implication in, and impact of, the process; appreciation of the process; and satisfaction with the resources at disposal. The differentiated stances adopted by professionals depend largely on their way of interpreting their mission, deontology, and the relationship to the older person. (shrink)
Contrary to intuitions that human beings are free to think and act with “buck-stopping” freedom, philosophers since Holbach and Hume have argued that universal causation makes free will nonsensical. Contemporary neuroscience has strengthened their case and begun to reveal subtle and counterintuitive mechanisms in the processes of conscious agency. Although some fear that determinism undermines moral responsibility, the opposite is true: free will, if it existed, would undermine coherent systems of justice. Moreover, deterministic views of human choice clarify the conditions (...) in which we ought to protect people from themselves, for example when they cannot give informed consent to medical procedures. Some of the most unresolved questions in this domain are just now emerging; they include robot ethics and the responsibilities of groups. We propose a philosophical and scientific research program to apply complex systems science to these problems. (shrink)
The stage-like ?exhibitionary space,? which members of the public visit, has received more scholarly scrutiny than the pedagogical and curatorial activities that take place in the back rooms of museums. This essay draws attention to the behind-the-scenes places in university museums as a pedagogic site where students learn through the close examination of artefacts. It addresses the social context of learning through the study of incomplete objects, which may involve handling them. This process of using artefacts to engage with different (...) groups of people (collectors, curators, teaching staff and students) contributes to the physical and intellectual development of academic disciplines. It enhances the museum's institutional mission and survival as an incorporated body that is embedded in a greater whole, the university itself. The Ashmolean Museum, in the University of Oxford, and the Balfourian and Sibbaldian Museums, in the University of Edinburgh, were founded in the seventeenth century. But whereas the Ashmolean survived as an institution, the first Edinburgh collections did not. These historical antecedents serve as a backdrop to a discussion of how one particular example, the Cambridge Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology (CUMAA), trains new generations of learners to evaluate empirical evidence and by working with different communities of users?students and the wider public?it ensures its survival. (shrink)
The article focuses on a chapter of the biography of Angela Davis which, unless mistaken, has not yet received due attention: the training and intellectual experience with her German professors, Herbert Marcuse and Theodor W. Adorno. From the philosophical studies in Frankfurt in the 1960s to the more recent reflections on movements such as Black Lives Matter, there seems to be a continuity in the way she approaches contemporary social reality, a démarche that draws its strength from the original (...) combination of two traditions of radical critical thinking: Frankfurtian and Afro-American. (shrink)
Publication date: 26 January 2017 Source: Author: Abolfazl Mohammadi, Javad Momeni Angela Carter in her famous short story, The Bloody Chamber, depicts a protagonist whose identity seems to be a predetermined sign in a signifying loop from which she can make no escape. In the first part of our paper, we attempt to show how The protagonist’s ensuing psychological tension is aggravated by the conflict which she feels between her ideal ego and her ego-ideal and which leads her to (...) unrelenting introspection and interior dialogue with her existential states. Such interior dialogue provides the protagonist with an existential ground on which she empties all her life events of their presence by signifying them through Derridean Differance. Therefore, her interior dialogue results in non-identity in her subjectivization both in the realm of signs and of events. Then, we focus on the protaganist’s paradoxical urges spontaneously outflowed from within which, by resisting symbolization, provide her with the possibility of becoming what she thinks she has never been and allow for her moments of self-determination. Finally, we illustrate how such psychological odyssey takes shape in the Gothic setting which arouses, in Lacanian terminology, pre-symbolic tendencies and which involves the coincidence of Gothic horror with the horrors of social reality. (shrink)
Angela of Foligno was certainly born in the middle of the 13th century, in a rich family. Most scholars accept, at least to a certain extent, a more exact chronology of her life, proposed by Martin-Jean Ferré.1 According to him, Angela, born in 1248, experienced a conversion in 1285 and lost her entire family – husband, children, and mother – in a few subsequent years. In this time she also sold all of her possessions. At the beginning of (...) 1291 she entered the Third Order of St. Francis and went on a pilgrimage to Assisi, during which she experienced powerful mystical graces, hearing the voice of the Holy Spirit and conversing with him almost the whole way. During her stay in Assisi, she caused a scandal, screaming... (shrink)
« No pasaran » (ils ne passeront pas). Devant les micros del Ministerio de Gobernacion, la députée communiste Dolorès Ibarruri officialise le mot d’ordre destiné à unir les forces de gauche contre les rebelles fascistes. En ce 19 juillet 1936, au lendemain du coup d’Etat nationaliste, les défenseurs de la démocratie viennent de trouver leur cri de ralliement ; une femme, qui devient un mythe, incarne la lutte. Les facettes de cette construction imaginaire se dévoilent aisément : voix du peup..
Angela Carter spent a few years in Japan, from 1969 to 1972, and though the experience apparently impacted on her creative imagination so much as to transform her writing style drastically thereafter, the details of her life in Japan have not previously been revealed. With original information drawn from interviews with Carter’s former Japanese boyfriend, combined with the examination of her unpublished journal entries, this paper attempts to bring to light the scale of the impact that Japanese society, culture, (...) literature, and her romantic and devastating encounter had on her literary career. Short stories compiled in Fireworks as well as the novel The Infernal Desire Machines of Doctor Hoffman seem to be inspired by her own emotionally draining relationship with this Japanese boyfriend, whom she calls “my friend S” in her essays. Her journal entries further suggest that Carter experienced her relationship with him as what she names “a philosophic assassination,” a loss of subjectivity in the mirror of the other, although she also confesses that she loves him “desperately.” The paper tries to suggest how Carter may have become better equipped as a postmodern feminist writer in her literary project of subverting masculine discourses, empowered by these personal ordeals she had in Japan. (shrink)
An interview with poet and literary critic, Professor Angela Leighton (Senior Research Fellow, Trinity College, Cambridge). She is primarily interested in poetry of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, but also in nineteenth-century aestheticism and its continuing legacy in the twentieth, in particular the work of Woolf, Yeats, Stevens, Bishop, Plath and W.S. Graham. In this interview, Leighton talks about her poetry, the philosophical potential of poetry and the way in which poetry means.
For three decades, Angela Y. Davis has written on liberation theory and democratic praxis. Challenging the foundations of mainstream discourse, her analyses of culture, gender, capital, and race have profoundly influenced democratic theory, antiracist feminism, critical studies and political struggles. Even for readers who primarily know her as a revolutionary of the late 1960s and early 1970s she has greatly expanded the scope and range of social philosophy and political theory. Expanding critical theory, contemporary progressive theorists - engaged in (...) justice struggles - will find their thought influenced by the liberation praxis of Angela Y. Davis. _The Angela Y. Davis Reader_ presents eighteen essays from her writings and interviews which have appeared in _If They Come in the Morning, Women, Race, and Class, Women, Culture, and Politics,_ and _Black Women and the Blues_ as well as articles published in women's, ethnic/black studies and communist journals, and cultural studies anthologies. In four parts - "Prisons, Repression, and Resistance", "Marxism, Anti-Racism, and Feminism", "Aesthetics and Culture", and recent interviews - Davis examines revolutionary politics and intellectualism. Davis's discourse chronicles progressive political movements and social philosophy. It is essential reading for anyone interested in contemporary political philosophy, critical race theory, social theory, ethnic studies, American studies, African American studies, cultural theory, feminist philosophy, gender studies. (shrink)
This paper motivates the idea that social robots should be credited as moral patients, building on an argumentative approach that combines virtue ethics and social recognition theory. Our proposal answers the call for a nuanced ethical evaluation of human-robot interaction that does justice to both the robustness of the social responses solicited in humans by robots and the fact that robots are designed to be used as instruments. On the one hand, we acknowledge that the instrumental nature of robots and (...) their unsophisticated social capabilities prevent any attribution of rights to robots, which are devoid of intrinsic moral dignity and personal status. On the other hand, we argue that another form of moral consideration—not based on rights attribution—can and must be granted to robots. The reason is that relationships with robots offer to the human agents important opportunities to cultivate both vices and virtues, like social interaction with other human beings. Our argument appeals to social recognition to explain why social robots, unlike other technological artifacts, are capable of establishing with their human users quasi-social relationships as pseudo-persons. This recognition dynamic justifies seeing robots as worthy of moral consideration from a virtue ethical standpoint as it predicts the pre-reflective formation of persistent affective dispositions and behavioral habits that are capable of corrupting the human user’s character. We conclude by drawing attention to a potential paradox drawn forth by our analysis and by examining the main conceptual conundrums that our approach has to face. (shrink)
Resumo: Para ampliar a compreensão das problemáticas ambientais atuais, este texto reúne as análises interpretativas de dois documentos, os quais, por possuírem perspectivas distintas, contribuem significativamente com o estudo da teoria fleckiana. São dois coletivos de pensamento desenvolvendo práticas científicas com intencionalidades advindas das opções teóricas e políticas, configurando um processo dinâmico de produção de conhecimento. A essência de cada um desses coletivos de pensamento consiste na ampliação e na disseminação da ideia transpessoal, por ela não pertencer, de forma exclusiva, (...) a nenhum dos componentes do coletivo. Propiciar a troca constante de concepções interna e externamente impulsiona o conhecimento científico, cuja evolução depende do processo coletivo em que o pensamento se desenvolve por vínculos e interferências engendradas pelo condicionamento social.: With the intention of broadening the understanding of current environmental issues, this article contains interpretive analysis of two documents which, because of their different perspectives, contribute significantly to the study of Fleckian theory. They are two collective thought manifestoes which develop scientific practices, their goals arising from theoretical and political options that configure a dynamic process of knowledge production. The essence of each of these collective thoughts consists in the expansion and spread of transpersonal ideas that do not belong exclusively to any of the components of the collective. Propitiating the constant exchange of internal and external views drives scientific knowledge, whose evolution depends on a collective process in which thought is developed by bonds and interferences engendered by social conditioning. (shrink)
This is a welcome collection of essays addressing Kant’s treatment of natural laws. Kant’s best-known discussion of natural laws is the Critique of Pure Reason’s second analogy, which argues that all alterations take place according to causal laws. But Kant’s overall treatment of natural laws extends far beyond the second analogy. For instance, the Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science aims to derive specific laws of motion. The appendix to the Critique of Pure Reason’s transcendental dialectic and the introductions to the (...) Critique of the Power of Judgment examine the notion of a systematic order of particular laws. And the Critique of the Power of Judgment discusses the relationship between mechanical and... (shrink)
One of the most radical dimensions of Davis’s critique of American democracy is her exposure of the vestiges of slavery that remain in the contemporary criminal justice system. I discuss this aspect of her critical project, its roots in Du Bois’s critique of Black Reconstruction, and the way that it informs her prison abolitionism and her two-pronged program for the formation of a genuine “abolition democracy.” I conclude by reflecting upon Davis’s reticence about abolition as a constructive enterprise and assessing (...) some of the challenges faced by the contemporary abolitionist movement. (shrink)
As a feminist bioethicist, I have frequently wondered why the exclusion of pregnant women has been the default position for most clinical research and how social values have influenced this decision. Relatedly, I wonder what responsible research involving pregnant women would look like. As a theorist who conducts research on the concept of vulnerability, I have often wanted to know why there has been so little research into the harmful effects of the routine exclusion of pregnant women, including questions such (...) as: What do pregnant women actually think about participating in research? How should we treat pregnant women and their fetuses for the purposes of consent (are they two separable persons or one complex... (shrink)