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Doris Schroeder
University of Central Lancashire
  1.  43
    Vulnerability: Too Vague and Too Broad?Doris Schroeder & Eugenijus Gefenas - 2009 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 18 (2):113.
    Imagine you are walking down a city street. It is windy and raining. Amidst the bustle you see a young woman. She sits under a railway bridge, hardly protected from the rain and holds a woolen hat containing a small number of coins. You can see that she trembles from the cold. Or imagine seeing an old woman walking in the street at dusk, clutching her bag with one hand and a walking stick with the other. A group of male (...)
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  2. Dignity: One, Two, Three, Four, Five, Still Counting.Doris Schroeder - 2010 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 19 (1):118.
  3. Dignity: Two Riddles and Four Concepts.Doris Schroeder - 2008 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 17 (2):230-238.
    edited by Tuija Takala and Matti Häyry, welcomes contributions on the conceptual and theoretical dimensions of bioethics.
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  4. Human Rights and Human Dignity: An Appeal to Separate the Conjoined Twins.Doris Schroeder - 2012 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 15 (3):323-335.
    Why should all human beings have certain rights simply by virtue of being human? One justification is an appeal to religious authority. However, in increasingly secular societies this approach has its limits. An alternative answer is that human rights are justified through human dignity. This paper argues that human rights and human dignity are better separated for three reasons. First, the justification paradox: the concept of human dignity does not solve the justification problem for human rights but rather aggravates it (...)
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  5.  31
    Realizing Benefit Sharing – the Case of Post-Study Obligations.Doris Schroeder & Eugenijus Gefenas - 2012 - Bioethics 26 (6):305-314.
    In 2006, the Indonesian government decided to withhold avian flu samples from the World Health Organization. They argued that even though Indonesian samples were crucial to the development of vaccines, the results of vaccine research would be unaffordable for its citizens. Commentaries on the case varied from alleging blackmail to welcoming this strong stance against alleged exploitation. What is clear is that the concern expressed is related to benefit sharing.Benefit sharing requires resource users to return benefits to resource providers in (...)
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  6.  49
    Ethics From the Top: Top Management and Ethical Business.Doris Schroeder - 2002 - Business Ethics 11 (3):260–267.
    Codes of ethics and conduct typically demand the highest standard of ethical behaviour from every single employee. This implies a democratic or lobbyist understanding of ethics in business. The contrasting view would argue that business ethics is an elitist undertaking that can only be instigated from the top, by managing directors or owner managers. This article looks at three types of ethical businesses, three types of approaches to ethical problem‐solving, and three possible incentives for ethical business to see which of (...)
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  7.  13
    Responsible Research and Innovation in Industry - The Case for Corporate Responsibility Tools.Konstantinos Iatridis & Doris Schroeder - 2016 - Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer.
    Responsible research and innovation (RRI) is a governance framework promoted by influential policy makers such as the European Commission and academics from the fields of science and technology studies and management. This book is the first text to serve industry. Inspired by existing Corporate Responsibility standards and principles, it offers a selection of tools that can assist practitioners in implementing RRI in business and industry. -/- Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI) is integrative. It is a convergence of Technology Assessment (TA) (...)
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  8.  44
    Dignity in the 21st Century - Middle East and West.Doris Schroeder & Abol‐Hassan Bani-Sadr (eds.) - 2017 - Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer.
    This book offers a unique and insightful analysis of Western and Middle Eastern concepts of dignity and illustrates them with examples of everyday life. Dignity in the 21st Century - Middle East and West is unique and insightful for a range of reasons. First, the book is co-authored by scholars from two different cultures (Middle East and West). As a result, the interpretations of dignity covered are broader than those in most Western publications. Second, the ambition of the book is (...)
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  9.  2
    Ethics Dumping: Case Studies From North-South Research Collaborations.Doris Schroeder, Julie Cook, François Hirsch, Solveig Fenet & Vasantha Muthuswamy (eds.) - 2018 - New York: Springer.
    This open access book provides original, up-to-date case studies of “ethics dumping” that were largely facilitated by loopholes in the ethics governance of low and middle-income countries. It is instructive even to experienced researchers since it provides a voice to vulnerable populations from the fore mentioned countries. Ensuring the ethical conduct of North-South collaborations in research is a process fraught with difficulties. The background conditions under which such collaborations take place include extreme differentials in available income and power, as well (...)
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  10.  82
    Human Rights and Human Dignity: An Appeal to Separate the Conjoined Twins.Doris Schroeder - 2012 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 15 (3):323 - 335.
    Why should all human beings have certain rights simply by virtue of being human? One justification is an appeal to religious authority. However, in increasingly secular societies this approach has its limits. An alternative answer is that human rights are justified through human dignity. This paper argues that human rights and human dignity are better separated for three reasons. First, the justification paradox: the concept of human dignity does not solve the justification problem for human rights but rather aggravates it (...)
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  11. Does the Pharmaceutical Sector Have a Coresponsibility for the Human Right to Health?Doris Schroeder - 2011 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 20 (2):298-308.
    The highest attainable standard of health is a fundamental human right, which has been part of international law since 1948. States and their institutions are the primary duty bearers responsible for ensuring that human rights are respected, protected, and fulfilled. However, more recently it has been argued that pharmaceutical companies have a coresponsibility to fulfill the human right to health. Most prominently, this coresponsibility has been expressed in the United Nations Millennium Goal 8 Target 4. “In cooperation with pharmaceutical companies, (...)
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  12.  86
    Access to Life-Saving Medicines and Intellectual Property Rights: An Ethical Assessment.Doris Schroeder & Peter Singer - 2011 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 20 (2):279-289.
    Dying before one’s time has been a prominent theme in classic literature and poetry. Catherine Linton’s youthful death in Wuthering Heights leaves behind a bereft Heathcliff and generations of mourning readers. The author herself, Emily Brontë, died young from tuberculosis. John Keats’ Ode on Melancholy captures the transitory beauty of 19th century human lives too often ravished by early death. Keats also died of tuberculosis, aged 25. “The bloom, whose petals nipped before they blew, died on the promise of the (...)
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  13. Technology Assessment and the 'Ethical Matrix'.Doris Schroeder & Clare Palmer - 2003 - Poiesis and Praxis 1 (4):295-307.
    This paper explores the usefulness of the 'ethical matrix', proposed by Ben Mepham, as a tool in technology assessment, specifically in food ethics. We consider what the matrix is, how it might be useful as a tool in ethical decision-making, and what drawbacks might be associated with it. We suggest that it is helpful for fact-finding in ethical debates relating to food ethics; but that it is much less helpful in terms of weighing the different ethical problems that it uncovers. (...)
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  14.  13
    Promoting Equity and Preventing Exploitation in International Research: The Aims, Work, and Output of the TRUST Project.Julie Cook, Kate Chatfield & Doris Schroeder - 2018 - In Zvonimir Koporc (ed.), Ethics and Integrity in Health and Life Sciences Research (Advances in Research Ethics and Integrity, Volume 4). Emerald Publishing Limited. pp. 11-31.
    Achieving equity in international research is one of the pressing concerns of the twenty-first century. In this era of progressive globalization, there are many opportunities for the deliberate or accidental export of unethical research practices from high-income regions to low- and middle-income countries and emerging economies. The export of unethical practices, termed “ethics dumping,” may occur through all forms of research and can affect individuals, communities, countries, animals, and the environment. Ethics dumping may be the result of purposeful exploitation but (...)
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  15.  70
    Sharing the Benefits of Genetic Resources: From Biodiversity to Human Genetics.Doris Schroeder & Carolina Lasen-Diaz - 2006 - Developing World Bioethics 6 (3):135–143.
    Benefit sharing aims to achieve an equitable exchange between the granting of access to a genetic resource and the provision of compensation. The Convention on Biological Diversity, adopted at the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, is the only international legal instrument setting out obligations for sharing the benefits derived from the use of biodiversity. The CBD excludes human genetic resources from its scope, however, this article considers whether it should be expanded to include those resources, so as to (...)
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  16.  10
    Benefit Sharing: It's Time for a Definition.Doris Schroeder - 2007 - Journal of Medical Ethics 33 (4):205-209.
    Benefit sharing has been a recurrent theme in international debates for the past two decades. However, despite its prominence in law, medical ethics and political philosophy, the concept has never been satisfactorily defined. In this conceptual paper, a definition that combines current legal guidelines with input from ethics debates is developed. Philosophers like boxes; protective casings into which they can put concisely-defined concepts. Autonomy is the human capacity for self-determination; beneficence denotes the virtue of good deeds, coercion is the intentional (...)
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  17.  10
    Benefit Sharing: From Obscurity to Common Knowledge.Doris Schroeder - 2006 - Developing World Bioethics 6 (3):ii-ii.
  18.  73
    Justice and the Convention on Biological Diversity.Doris Schroeder & Thomas W. Pogge - 2009 - Ethics and International Affairs 23 (3):267-280.
    Abstract Benefit sharing as envisaged by the 1992 Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) is a relatively new idea in international law. Within the context of non-human biological resources, it aims to guarantee the conservation of biodiversity and its sustainable use by ensuring that its custodians are adequately rewarded for its preservation. Prior to the adoption of the CBD, access to biological resources was frequently regarded as a free-for-all. Bioprospectors were able to take resources out of their natural habitat and develop (...)
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  19.  93
    Human Genetic Banking: Altruism, Benefit and Consent.Doris Schroeder & Garrath Williams - 2004 - New Genetics and Society 23 (1):89-103.
    This article considers how we should frame the ethical issues raised by current proposals for large-scale genebanks with on-going links to medical and lifestyle data, such as the Wellcome Trust and Medical Research Council's 'UK Biobank'. As recent scandals such as Alder Hey have emphasised, there are complex issues concerning the informed consent of donors that need to be carefully considered. However, we believe that a preoccupation with informed consent obscures important questions about the purposes to which such collections are (...)
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  20.  8
    Benefit Sharing - It's Time for a Definition.Doris Schroeder - 2007 - Journal of Medical Ethics 33:205-209.
    Benefit sharing has been a recurrent theme in international debates for the past two decades. However, despite its prominence in law, medical ethics and political philosophy, the concept has never been satisfactorily defined. In this conceptual paper, a definition that combines current legal guidelines with input from ethics debates is developed. Philosophers like boxes; protective casings into which they can put concisely-defined concepts. Autonomy is the human capacity for self-determination; beneficence denotes the virtue of good deeds, coercion is the intentional (...)
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  21.  58
    A Child's Life or a “Little Bit of Torture”? State-Sanctioned Violence and Dignity.Doris Schroeder - 2006 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 15 (2):188-201.
    On September 28, 2002, 11-year-old Jakob von Metzler, a banker's son, was abducted on the way to his parents' house in Frankfurt. A sum of one million Euro was demanded for his release. Three days after Jakob's disappearance, Magnus Gäfgen, a 32-year-old law student, collected the ransom from the arranged tram stop in Frankfurt during the night. While under observation by the police, he ordered a new Mercedes and booked a holiday abroad. Seventy-six hours after Jakob's disappearance, the police arrested (...)
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  22.  19
    Realizing Benefit Sharing - the Case of Post-Study Obligations.Doris Schroeder & Eugenijus Gefenas - 2012 - Bioethics 26 (6).
    In 2006, the Indonesian government decided to withhold avian flu samples from the World Health Organization. They argued that even though Indonesian samples were crucial to the development of vaccines, the results of vaccine research would be unaffordable for its citizens. Commentaries on the case varied from alleging blackmail to welcoming this strong stance against alleged exploitation. What is clear is that the concern expressed is related to benefit sharing. Benefit sharing requires resource users to return benefits to resource providers (...)
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  23.  61
    Post-Trial Obligations.Doris Schroeder - unknown
    In its essence, post-trial obligations describe a duty by research sponsors to provide a successfully tested drug to research participants who took part in the relevant clinical trials after the trial has been concluded. In some instances,this duty is extended beyond the research participants. This article is divided into three main parts. The first part outlines the legal basis for post-trial obligations by looking at international guidelines, including those issued by the World Medical Association. National legislation is exemplified through resolutions (...)
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  24.  21
    Benefit Sharing.Doris Schroeder - 2020 - In Ron Iphofen (ed.), Handbook of Research Ethics and Scientific Integrity. Springer International Publishing. pp. 1-2.
    Research cannot be done by researchers alone. In most cases, additional resources are required, including human research participants, access to biodiversity for biological and genetic resources, or traditional knowledge. Benefit sharing has been part of global conventions and international ethics guidelines for over 25 years, predicated on the understanding that those who contribute to the research process and its outcomes should share in the benefits as a matter of fairness. This chapter explores the different understandings of benefit sharing in a (...)
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  25.  27
    Responsible, Inclusive Innovation and the Nano-Divide.Doris Schroeder, Sally Dalton-Brown, Benjamin Schrempf & David Kaplan - 2016 - NanoEthics 10 (2):177-188.
    Policy makers from around the world are trying to emulate successful innovation systems in order to support economic growth. At the same time, innovation governance systems are being put in place to ensure a better integration of stakeholder views into the research and development process. In Europe, one of the most prominent and newly emerging governance frameworks is called Responsible Research and Innovation. This article aims to substantiate the following points: The concept of RRI and the concept of justice can (...)
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  26.  10
    Ethics, Justice and the Convention on Biological Diversity.Doris Schroeder & Balakrishna Pisupati - 2010 - United Nations Environment Program.
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  27.  28
    Human Rights and Their Role in Global Bioethics.Doris Schroeder - 2005 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 14 (2):221-223.
    Global bioethics is a bold project. In its moderate form, it aims to find solutions to the dilemmas posed by modern medicine and the biological sciences through intercultural understanding of human obligations and opportunities. In its more ambitious form, it endeavors to cover all possible ethical problems arising with regard to life and living things on earth. Given the ambitiousness of even the moderate aim, it is unsurprising that disputes are frequent and agreements are scarce. One of the most contentious (...)
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  28.  7
    The Rooibos Benefit Sharing Agreement–Breaking New Ground with Respect, Honesty, Fairness and Care.Doris Schroeder, Roger Chennells, Collin Louw, Leana Snyders & Timothy Hodges - 2019 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics:1-26.
    The 1992 Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and its 2010 Nagoya Protocol brought about a breakthrough in global policy making. They combined a concern for the environment with a commitment to resolving longstanding human injustices regarding access to, and use of biological resources. In particular, the traditional knowledge of indigenous communities was no longer going to be exploited without fair benefit sharing. Yet, for 25 years after the adoption of the CBD, there were no major benefit sharing agreements that led (...)
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  29.  44
    Homo Economicus on Trial: Plato, Schopenhauer and the Virtual Jury.Doris Schroeder - 2001 - Philosophy of Management 1 (2):65-74.
    The concept of Homo economicus, one of the major foundations of neoclassical economics and a subset of the ideology of laisser-faire capitalism, was recently charged and tried in the island high court. Using the island's virtual jury system for the first time, the accused was tried before a jury of three - Plato, Schopenhauer and feminist economists - chosen by him while under a veil of ignorance of the charge. All three returned guilty verdicts. Plato's was prescriptive: 'One ought not (...)
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  30. Too Early for Global Ethics?Miltos Ladikas & Doris Schroeder - 2005 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 14 (4):404-415.
    “Globalisation is the Yeti of … newspapers. Everybody knows it, but nobody has ever seen it. What does it look like? Tall, monkeyish, hairy? Or rather weasel-like? With glasses? Like a ferret or a marten?” Globalization means different things to different people, a laudable development uniting humankind or an epidemic crushing the vulnerable peoples of the earth. Whether it is something we can control remains to be seen, but it is certainly upon us. The move to “go global” is such (...)
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  31. Access to Life-Saving Medicines.Doris Schroeder, Thomas Pogge & Peter Singer - 2011 - In Michael Boylan (ed.), The Morality and Global Justice Reader. Westview Press. pp. 229.
     
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  32.  3
    Indigenous Peoples, Consent and Benefit Sharing– Learning Lessons From the San-Hoodia Case.Rachel Wynberg, Doris Schroeder & Roger Chennells (eds.) - 2009 - Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer.
    Indigenous Peoples, Consent and Benefit Sharing is the first in-depth account of the Hoodia bioprospecting case and use of San traditional knowledge, placing it in the global context of indigenous peoples’ rights, consent and benefit-sharing. It is unique as the first interdisciplinary analysis of consent and benefit sharing in which philosophers apply their minds to questions of justice in the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), lawyers interrogate the use of intellectual property rights to protect traditional knowledge, environmental scientists analyse implications (...)
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  33. Wickedness, Idleness and Basic Income.Doris Schroeder - 2001 - Res Publica 7 (1):1-12.
    This paper critically analyses the position that basic income schemes foster idleness and thereby create harm. The view is based on an alleged empirical link between idleness and violent crime and an equation of non-activity with the creation of burden for others. It will be argued that the empirical claim is weak because it relies on conjectures derived from studies on unemployment. In addition, opponents arguing that basic income leads to an unfair distribution of burden between `lazy idlers'' and `honest (...)
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  34.  7
    Sharing the Benefits of Genetic Research.Doris Schroeder - 2005 - British Medical Journal 331:1351-1352.
    BMJ Editorial -/- Campaigners are calling on policy makers at next week's sixth World Trade Organization ministerial conference in Hong Kong to make trade fairer for and improve the lives and health of the world's poorest people. This broad and important aim may dominate the headlines, but ministers will also be discussing technical issues surrounding international patenting laws. One issue with implications for the development of medical products is the tension between international patenting laws and benefit sharing requirements, which may (...)
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  35.  7
    Editorial: Looking for Justice From the Health Industry.Doris Schroeder & Julie Cook - 2019 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 28 (1):121-123.
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  36.  63
    Transgenerational Obligations: Twenty-First Century Germany and the Holocaust.Doris Schroeder & Bob Brecher - 2003 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 20 (1):45–57.
    Has history assigned special obligations to Germans that can transcend generation borders? Do the grandchildren of Holocaust perpetrators or the grandchildren of inactive bystanders carry any obligations that are only related to their ancestry? These questions will be at the centre of this investigation. It will be argued that five different models of justification are available for or against transgenerational obligations, namely liberalism, the unique evil argument, the psychological view, a form of consequentialist pragmatism and the community-based approach. Only two (...)
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  37.  62
    Evolutionary Ethics.Doris Schroeder - 2001 - Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  38.  17
    Towards Principled Responsible Research and Innovation: Employing the Difference Principle in Funding Decisions.Doris Schroeder & Miltos Ladikas - 2015 - Journal of Responsible Innovation 2 (2).
    Responsible Research and Innovation has emerged as a science policy framework that attempts to import broad social values into technological innovation processes whilst supporting institutional decision-making under conditions of uncertainty and ambiguity. When looking at RRI from a ‘principled’ perspective, we consider responsibility and justice to be important cornerstones of the framework. The main aim of this article is to suggest a method of realising these principles through the application of a limited Rawlsian Difference Principle in the distribution of public (...)
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  39.  10
    Turning the Tables.Karen Wright & Doris Schroeder - 2016 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 25 (2):219-227.
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  40.  17
    Introduction: Access to Life-Saving Medicines and Intellectual Property Rights.Doris Schroeder - 2011 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 20 (2):277-278.
    As the authors of the Millennium Development Goals Gap Task Force have noted, access to medicines is a vital component of realizing the human right to health. Without reliable access to drugs, the highest attainable standard of health cannot be achieved.
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  41.  23
    The Truth About Markets. Their Genius, Their Limits, Their Follies by John Kay.Doris Schroeder - 2005 - Philosophy of Management 5 (1):99-101.
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  42.  29
    Guest Editorial: Vulnerability Revisited.Doris Schroeder & Gardar Arnason - 2009 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 18 (2):110.
    In Jane Austen's Mansfield Park, Fanny, an 18-year-old orphan who lives with her aunt Lady Bertram, received an attractive offer of marriage, which she vehemently rejected and is not prepared to reconsider.
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  43.  32
    Public Health, Ethics, and Functional Foods.Doris Schroeder - 2007 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 20 (3):247-259.
    Functional foods aim to provide a positive impact on health and well-being beyond their nutritive content. As such, they are likely candidates to enhance the public health official’s tool kit. Or are they? Although a very small number of functional foods (e.g., phytosterol-enriched margarine) show such promise in improving individual health that Dutch health insurance companies reimburse their costs to consumers, one must not draw premature conclusions about functional foods as a group. A large number of questions about individual products’ (...)
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  44.  24
    Editorial: Rights and Procreative Liberty.Doris Schroeder - 2007 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 16 (3):325-325.
    edited by Doris Schroeder, welcomes contributions on all areas outlined below. Submitted papers are peer-reviewed. To submit a paper or to discuss suitable topics, please e-mail Doris Schroeder at dschroeder@uclan.ac.uk.
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  45.  25
    Response.Doris Schroeder - 2010 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 7 (4):377-378.
    Response Content Type Journal Article DOI 10.1007/s11673-010-9259-x Authors Doris Schroeder, Centre for Professional Ethics, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, PR1 2HE England Journal Journal of Bioethical Inquiry Online ISSN 1872-4353 Print ISSN 1176-7529.
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  46.  24
    Justice Beyond Borders.Phil Cole & Doris Schroeder - 2004 - Res Publica 10 (2):107-113.
    Liberal theories of social justicefocus predominantly on the national, ratherthan international, level, and where they doaddress international concerns they insist thatprinciples of justice at the national levelhave priority over principles at theinternational level. We question the coherenceof this arrangement, given liberal theory'scommitment to moral equality of persons as suchrather than to that of particular sets of persons. What isat issue is whether liberal theory can providea coherent basis for international justice atall. If it is to do so, we suggest that (...)
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  47.  25
    Borders.Doris Schroeder - 2002 - Res Publica 8 (3):285-293.
  48.  21
    Argumentation Theory and GM Foods.Miltos Ladikas & Doris Schroeder - 2005 - Poiesis and Praxis 3 (3):216-225.
    The European debate around genetically modified foods was one of the most sustained and ardent public discussions in the late 1990s. Concerns about risks to human health and the environment were voiced alongside claims that healthier foods can be produced more efficiently and in a more environmentally friendly manner using the new technology. The aims of this paper are to test the usefulness of Stephen Toulmin’s argumentation model for the analysis of public debates almost 50 years after it was first (...)
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  49.  17
    Trust and Functional Foods. New Products, Old Issues.Miltos Liakopoulos & Doris Schroeder - 2003 - Poiesis and Praxis 2 (1):41-52.
    Trust in the "agro-food" sector has been declining in recent years reflecting a general decline of trust in traditional decision making processes. The introduction of new technologies in the production of foods re-introduces the problem of trust and highlights the parameters affecting its structure and direction. This paper discusses the issue of trust in relation to the introduction of functional foods into the market. Trust is assessed as both a philosophical and a psychological construct with particular emphasis on its communication (...)
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  50.  8
    Unemployment Assistance - Social Justice or 'Social Hammock'?Doris Schroeder - unknown
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