Results for 'Douglas Eacersall'

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  1.  38
    Beyond Criticism of Ethics Review Boards: Strategies for Engaging Research Communities and Enhancing Ethical Review Processes.Andrew Hickey, Samantha Davis, Will Farmer, Julianna Dawidowicz, Clint Moloney, Andrea Lamont-Mills, Jess Carniel, Yosheen Pillay, David Akenson, Annette Brömdal, Richard Gehrmann, Dean Mills, Tracy Kolbe-Alexander, Tanya Machin, Suzanne Reich, Kim Southey, Lynda Crowley-Cyr, Taiji Watanabe, Josh Davenport, Rohit Hirani, Helena King, Roshini Perera, Lucy Williams, Kurt Timmins, Michael Thompson, Douglas Eacersall & Jacinta Maxwell - 2022 - Journal of Academic Ethics 20 (4):549-567.
    A growing body of literature critical of ethics review boards has drawn attention to the processes used to determine the ethical merit of research. Citing criticism on the bureaucratic nature of ethics review processes, this literature provides a useful provocation for (re)considering how the ethics review might be enacted. Much of this criticism focuses on how ethics review boards _deliberate,_ with particular attention given to the lack of transparency and opportunities for researcher recourse that characterise ethics review processes. Centered specifically (...)
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  2.  19
    The ethics review and the humanities and social sciences: disciplinary distinctions in ethics review processes.Jessica Carniel, Andrew Hickey, Kim Southey, Annette Brömdal, Lynda Crowley-Cyr, Douglas Eacersall, Will Farmer, Richard Gehrmann, Tanya Machin & Yosheen Pillay - 2023 - Research Ethics 19 (2):139-156.
    Ethics review processes are frequently perceived as extending from codes and protocols rooted in biomedical disciplines. As a result, many researchers in the humanities and social sciences (HASS) find these processes to be misaligned, if not outrightly obstructive to their research. This leads some scholars to advocate against HASS participation in institutional review processes as they currently stand, or in their entirety. While ethics review processes can present a challenge to HASS researchers, these are not insurmountable and, in fact, present (...)
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  3. Informal logic: a handbook for critical argumentation.Douglas Neil Walton - 1989 - New York: Cambridge University Press.
    This is an introductory guide to the basic principles of constructing good arguments and criticizing bad ones. It is nontechnical in its approach, and is based on 150 key examples, each discussed and evaluated in clear, illustrative detail. The author explains how errors, fallacies, and other key failures of argument occur. He shows how correct uses of argument are based on sound argument strategies for reasoned persuasion and critical questions for responding. Among the many subjects covered are: techniques of posing, (...)
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  4.  36
    "Schema abstraction" in a multiple-trace memory model.Douglas L. Hintzman - 1986 - Psychological Review 93 (4):411-428.
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  5.  54
    Retributivism and Over-Punishment.Douglas Husak - 2022 - Law and Philosophy 41 (2):169-191.
    Lately it has become a commonplace to complain about the injustice of mass incarceration. I share the sentiment that this phenomenon has been an injustice. But it also has become orthodoxy to allege that the acceptance of a retributive penal philosophy has been one of the chief factors that has brought about mass incarceration in the first place. As a self-proclaimed retributivist, I find these allegations to be troubling and unwarranted. The point of this paper is to take steps to (...)
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  6. Causation and recipes.Douglas Gasking - 1955 - Mind 64 (256):479-487.
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  7. Truth as a Substantive Property.Douglas Edwards - 2013 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 91 (2):279-294.
    One of the many ways that ‘deflationary’ and ‘inflationary’ theories of truth are said to differ is in their attitude towards truth qua property. This difference used to be very easy to delineate, with deflationists denying, and inflationists asserting, that truth is a property, but more recently the debate has become a lot more complicated, owing primarily to the fact that many contemporary deflationists often do allow for truth to be considered a property. Anxious to avoid inflation, however, these deflationists (...)
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  8.  27
    Burden of Proof, Presumption and Argumentation.Douglas Walton - 2014 - Cambridge University Press.
    The notion of burden of proof and its companion notion of presumption are central to argumentation studies. This book argues that we can learn a lot from how the courts have developed procedures over the years for allocating and reasoning with presumptions and burdens of proof, and from how artificial intelligence has built precise formal and computational systems to represent this kind of reasoning. The book provides a model of reasoning with burden of proof and presumption, based on analyses of (...)
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  9.  42
    Maximalism versus Omnism about Permissibility.Douglas Portmore - 2016 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 98 (S1):427-452.
    Roughly speaking, maximalism is the view that only certain options are to be assessed in terms of whether they have some right‐making property (such as that of producing optimal consequences), whereas omnism is the view that all options are to be assessed in terms of whether they have this property. I argue that maximalism is preferable to omnism because it provides a more plausible solution to what's known as the problem of act versions and is not subject to any significant (...)
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  10. Understanding the liar.Douglas Patterson - 2007 - In J. C. Beall (ed.), Revenge of the liar: new essays on the paradox. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 197.
    (Beall ed. The Revenge of the Liar, forthcoming from Oxford University Press) > The main presentation of my approach to the semantic paradoxes. I take them to show that understanding a natural language is sharing a cognitive relation to a logically false semantic theory with other speakers.
     
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  11.  20
    Left-Kantian Perfectionism.Douglas Moggach - 2021 - Critical Review: A Journal of Politics and Society 33 (2):184-205.
    ABSTRACT The historical context of early post-Kantian debates on politics reveals the emergence of a new type of perfectionist ethics no longer based on the state-sponsored promotion of happiness, as the dominant German tendency in the eighteenth century had been, but on individual freedom. Post-Kantian perfectionism focused on maintaining and enhancing the conditions for rightful interaction among self-defining individuals. Rather than isolating and alienating, Kantian negative freedom enabled a new conception of social interaction based on the idea of right and (...)
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  12.  72
    The Minnesota Case Study Collection: New Historical Inquiry Case Studies for Nature of Science Education.Douglas Allchin - 2012 - Science & Education 21 (9):1263-1281.
  13. An arugmentation framework for contested cases of statutory interpertation.Douglas Walton, Giovanni Sartor & Fabrizio Macagno - 2016 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 24 (1):51-91.
    This paper proposes an argumentation-based procedure for legal interpretation, by reinterpreting the traditional canons of textual interpretation in terms of argumentation schemes, which are then classified, formalized, and represented through argument visualization and evaluation tools. The problem of statutory interpretation is framed as one of weighing contested interpretations as pro and con arguments. The paper builds an interpretation procedure by formulating a set of argumentation schemes that can be used to comparatively evaluate the types of arguments used in cases of (...)
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  14.  12
    Scare Tactics: Arguments That Appeal to Fear and Threats.Douglas Walton - 2000 - Dordrecht, Netherland: Springer.
    Scare Tactics, the first book on the subject, provides a theory of the structure of reasoning used in fear and threat appeal argumentation. Such arguments come under the heading of the argumentum ad baculum, the `argument to the stick/club', traditionally treated as a fallacy in the logic textbooks. The new dialectical theory is based on case studies of many interesting examples of the use of these arguments in advertising, public relations, politics, international negotiations, and everyday argumentation on all kinds of (...)
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  15.  6
    One-Sided Arguments: A Dialectical Analysis of Bias.Douglas Walton - 1999 - Albany, NY, USA: State University of New York Press.
    A practical manual for evaluating bias that will be useful to anyone who has to deal with arguments, whether in academic reading or writing, or in everyday conversation.
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  16.  5
    The deep ecology of rhetoric in Mencius and Aristotle: a somatic guide.Douglas Robinson - 2016 - Albany: SUNY Press.
    _Discusses philosophers Mencius and Aristotle as socio-ecological thinkers._ Mencius (385–303/302 BCE) and Aristotle (384–322 BCE) were contemporaries, but are often understood to represent opposite ends of the philosophical spectrum. Mencius is associated with the ecological, emergent, flowing, and connected; Artistotle with the rational, static, abstract, and binary. Douglas Robinson argues that in their conceptions of rhetoric, at least, Mencius and Aristotle are much more similar than different: both are powerfully socio-ecological, espousing and exploring collectivist thinking about the circulation of (...)
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  17.  15
    Argumentation Methods for Artificial Intelligence in Law.Douglas Walton - 2005 - Berlin and Heidelberg: Springer.
    Use of argumentation methods applied to legal reasoning is a relatively new field of study. The book provides a survey of the leading problems, and outlines how future research using argumentation-based methods show great promise of leading to useful solutions. The problems studied include not only these of argument evaluation and argument invention, but also analysis of specific kinds of evidence commonly used in law, like witness testimony, circumstantial evidence, forensic evidence and character evidence. New tools for analyzing these kinds (...)
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  18.  94
    On Alethic Disjunctivism.Douglas Edwards - 2012 - Dialectica 66 (1):200-214.
    Alethic pluralism is the view that truth requires different treatment in different domains of discourse. The basic idea is that different properties play important roles in the analysis of truth in different domains of discourse, such as discourse about the material world, moral discourse, and mathematical discourse, to take three examples. Alethic disjunctivism is a kind of alethic pluralism, and is the view that truth is to be identified with the disjunctive property that is formed using each of the domain-specific (...)
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  19.  63
    Practical Reasoning: Goal-Driven, Knowledge-Based, Action-Guiding Argumentation.Douglas N. Walton - 1990 - Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    This book is an analysis of the distinctive form of reasoning, called practical reasoning by Aristotle (as opposed to theoretical reasoning), that serves to guide behaviour.
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  20.  46
    Anamnêsis_ as _Aneuriskein, Anakinein_ and _Analambanein_ in Plato's _Meno.Douglas A. Shepardson - 2022 - Classical Quarterly 72 (1):138-151.
    This article examines the theory of recollection in Plato's Meno and attempts to unravel some long-standing puzzles about it. What are the prenatal objects of the soul's vision? What are the post-natal objects of the soul's recollection? What is innate in the Meno? Why does Socrates (prima facie) suggest that both knowledge and true opinion are innate? The article pays particular attention to the ana- prefix in the verbs aneuriskô, anakineô and analambanô, and suggests that they are used for two (...)
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  21.  16
    Economic Methodology in the Twenty-First Century (So Far): Some Post-Reflection Reflections.Douglas Wade Hands - 2020 - Revue de Philosophie Économique 20 (2):221-252.
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  22.  66
    Learnability and compositionality.Douglas Patterson - 2005 - Mind and Language 20 (3):326–352.
    In recent articles Fodor and Lepore have argued that not only do considerations of learnability dictate that meaning must be compositional in the wellknown sense that the meanings of all sentences are determined by the meanings of a finite number of primitive expressions and a finite number of operations on them, but also that meaning must be 'reverse compositional' as well, in the sense that the meanings of the primitive expressions of which a complex expression is composed must be determined (...)
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  23. Truth-conditions and the nature of truth: Re-solving mixed conjunctions.Douglas Edwards - 2009 - Analysis 69 (4):684-688.
    Alethic pluralism, on one version of the view , is the idea that truth is to be identified with different properties in different domains of discourse. 1 Whilst we operate with a univocal concept of truth, and a uniform truth predicate, the thought is that the truth property changes from one domain to the next. So the truth property for talk about the nature and state of the material world may be different from the truth property for moral discourse .Tappolet (...)
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  24.  33
    Scientific Knowledge: Causation, Explanation, and Corroboration.Douglas Shrader - 1981 - Tijdschrift Voor Filosofie 46 (3):541-542.
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  25. Why punish the deserving?Douglas N. Husak - 1992 - Noûs 26 (4):447-464.
  26.  40
    Karl Popper and Economic Methodology: A New Look.Douglas W. Hands - 1985 - Economics and Philosophy 1 (1):83-99.
    Discussions of Karl Popper's falsificationist philosophy of science appear regularly in the recent literature on economic methodology. In this literature, there seem to be two fundamental points of agreement about Popper. First, most economists take Popper's falsificationist method of bold conjecture and severe test to be the correct characterization of scientific conduct in the physical sciences. Second, most economists admit that economic theory fails miserably when judged by these same falsificationist standards. As Latsis states, “the development of economic analysis would (...)
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  27.  51
    Similarity, precedent and argument from analogy.Douglas Walton - 2010 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 18 (3):217-246.
    In this paper, it is shown (1) that there are two schemes for argument from analogy that seem to be competitors but are not, (2) how one of them is based on a distinctive type of similarity premise, (3) how to analyze the notion of similarity using story schemes illustrated by some cases, (4) how arguments from precedent are based on arguments from analogy, and in many instances arguments from classification, and (5) that when similarity is defined by means of (...)
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  28.  75
    Causal asymmetry.Douglas Ehring - 1982 - Journal of Philosophy 79 (12):761-774.
    This thesis addresses the problem of causal asymmetry. This problem may be characterized as follows: what is the relation R such that if an event c causes an event e c bears relation R to e but e does not bear relation R to e. The traditional Humean account of causal asymmetry is that "R" may be replaced by "temporally prior." Difficulties with this account based on consideration of cases of simultaneous causation and backward causation have given rise to non-Humean (...)
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  29. Paternalism and autonomy.Douglas N. Husak - 1981 - Philosophy and Public Affairs 10 (1):27-46.
  30.  12
    Some logical fallacies in the classical ethological point of view.Douglas Wahlsten - 1979 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 2 (1):48-49.
  31.  38
    Formalizing Informal Logic.Douglas Walton & Thomas F. Gordon - 2015 - Informal Logic 35 (4):508-538.
    This paper presents a formalization of informal logic using the Carneades Argumentation System, a formal, computational model of argument that consists of a formal model of argument graphs and audiences. Conflicts between pro and con arguments are resolved using proof standards, such as preponderance of the evidence. CAS also formalizes argumentation schemes. Schemes can be used to check whether a given argument instantiates the types of argument deemed normatively appropriate for the type of dialogue.
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  32. The carneades model of argument and burden of proof.Douglas Walton - manuscript
    with Thomas F. Gordon and Henry Prakken. Artificial Intelligence, forthcoming. [Preprint posted.].
     
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  33.  16
    Color associations in abstract semantic domains.Douglas Guilbeault, Ethan O. Nadler, Mark Chu, Donald Ruggiero Lo Sardo, Aabir Abubaker Kar & Bhargav Srinivasa Desikan - 2020 - Cognition 201 (C):104306.
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  34.  85
    Hobbes's atheism.Douglas M. Jesseph - 2002 - Midwest Studies in Philosophy 26 (1):(2002), 140–166.
  35.  97
    Truth as a relational property.Douglas Edwards - 2016 - Synthese 198 (2):735-757.
    In this paper I investigate the claim that truth is a relational property. What does this claim really mean? What is its import?—Is it a basic feature of the concept of truth; or a distinctive feature of the correspondence theory of truth; or even both? After introducing some general ideas about truth, I begin by highlighting an ambiguity in current uses of the term ‘relational property’ in the truth debate, and show that we need to distinguish two separate ideas: that (...)
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  36. Equalities.Douglas Rae - 1985 - Ethics 95 (4):934-936.
     
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  37. Examination dialogue: An argumentation framework for critically questioning an expert opinion.Douglas Walton - manuscript
     
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  38.  22
    Supererogation.Douglas N. Walton - 1985 - Noûs 19 (2):284-288.
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  39. Story Similarity in Arguments from Analogy.Douglas Walton - 2012 - Informal Logic 32 (2):190-221.
    In this paper a hybrid model of argument from analogy is presented that combines argumentation schemes and story schemes. One premise of the argumentation scheme for argument from analogy in the model claims that one case is similar to another. Story schemes are abstract representations of stories (narratives, explanations) based on common knowledge about how sequences of actions and events we are familiar with can normally be expected to unfold. Story schemes are used (a) to model similarity between two cases, (...)
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  40.  75
    Abductive, presumptive and plausible arguments.Douglas Walton - 2001 - Informal Logic 21 (2).
    Current practice in logic increasingly accords recognition to abductive, presumptive or plausible arguments, in addition to deductive and inductive arguments. But there is uncertainty about what these terms exactly mean, what the differences between them are (if any), and how they relate. By examining some analyses ofthese terms and some of the history of the subject (including the views of Peirce and Cameades), this paper sets out considerations leading to a set of definitions, discusses the relationship of these three forms (...)
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  41.  12
    Theology among the human humanities.Douglas F. Ottati - 2021 - Zygon 56 (3):704-717.
    This essay indicates how theology of a certain sort may contribute to the “human humanities” as Willem B. Drees understands them, but also that there is no single entirely satisfactory solution to the question of how to give due attention to the intensely self‐involving character of plural religions. The best we can do is to undertake theology, religious studies, and philosophy of religion in proximity to one another. This helps to maintain the sense that, in the humanities generally and the (...)
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  42.  53
    Response to Tony Lawson: Sociology Versus Economics and Philosophy.Douglas Porpora - 2016 - Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 46 (4):420-425.
  43.  23
    The speech act of presumption.Douglas N. Walton - 1993 - Pragmatics and Cognition 1 (1):125-148.
    This paper presents a speech act analysis of presumption, using the framework of a dialogue in which two parties reason together. In the speech act of presumption, as opposed to that of assertion, the burden of proof resides not on the proponent to prove, but on the respondent to rebut. Some connections of this account with nonmonotonic reasoning and informal fallacies in argumentation are explored.
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  44.  69
    Lewis, temporary intrinsics and momentary tropes.Douglas Ehring - 1997 - Analysis 57 (4):254-258.
  45.  21
    Question-reply argumentation.Douglas Neil Walton - 1989 - New York: Greenwood Press.
    Walton's book is a study of several fallacies in informal logic. Focusing on question-answer dialogues, and committed to a pragmatic rather than a semantic approach, he attempts to generate criteria for evaluating good and bad questions and answers. The book contains a discussion of such well-recognized fallacies as many questions, black-or-white questions, loaded questions, circular arguments, question-begging assertions and epithets, ad hominem and tu quoque arguments, ignoratio elenchi, and replying to a question with a question. In addition, Walton develops several (...)
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  46.  8
    Historical Foundations of Informal Logic.Douglas N. Walton & Alan Brinton - 1997 - Brookfield, VT, USA: Routledge.
    In response to the growing recognition of informal logic as a discipline in its own right, this collection of essays from leading contributors in the field provides the formative knowledge and historical context required to understand the development of a so far little studied subject area.
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  47.  22
    The Carneades model of argument invention.Douglas N. Walton & Thomas F. Gordon - 2012 - Pragmatics and Cognition 20 (1):1-31.
    Argument invention is a method that can be used to help an arguer find arguments that could be used to prove a claim he needs to defend. The aim of this paper is to show how argumentation systems recently developed in artificial intelligence can be applied to the task of argument invention. One such system called Carneades is featured. Carneades can be used to analyze arguments, evaluate arguments, to make an argument diagram, and to construct arguments from a database. Using (...)
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  48.  64
    Vehicles and Crashes.Douglas Husak - 2004 - Social Theory and Practice 30 (3):351-370.
  49.  36
    Character traits in explanation.Douglas Butler - 1988 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 49 (2):215-238.
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  50.  19
    Bentham on Liberty: Jeremy Bentham's Idea of Liberty in Relation to His Utilitarianism.Douglas G. Long & Douglas Long - 1977
    Jeremy Bentham was a British philosopher, jurist, and social reformer. He is regarded as the founder of modern utilitarianism.
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