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Douglas N. Walton [112]Douglas Neil Walton [1]
  1.  90
    Argumentation Schemes for Presumptive Reasoning.Douglas N. Walton - 1996 - L. Erlbaum Associates.
    This book identifies 25 argumentation schemes for presumptive reasoning and matches a set of critical questions to each.
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  2. Informal Logic: A Handbook for Critical Argumentation.Douglas N. Walton - 1989 - Cambridge University Press.
    This is an introductory guide to the basic principles of constructing good arguments and criticizing bad ones. It is nontechnical in its approach, and is based on 150 key examples, each discussed and evaluated in clear, illustrative detail. The author explains how errors, fallacies, and other key failures of argument occur. He shows how correct uses of argument are based on sound argument strategies for reasoned persuasion and critical questions for responding. Among the many subjects covered are: techniques of posing, (...)
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  3. Begging the Question: Circular Reasoning as a Tactic of Argumentation.Douglas N. Walton - 1991 - Greenwood Press.
     
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  4.  79
    Action Theory.M. Brand & Douglas N. Walton (eds.) - 1976 - Reidel.
    INTRODUCTION BY THE EDITORS Gilbert Ryle, in his Concept of Mind (1949), attacked volitional theories of human actions; JL Austin, in his "If and Cans" ...
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  5. What is Reasoning? What is an Argument?Douglas N. Walton - 1990 - Journal of Philosophy 87 (8):399-419.
    In redefining logic, philosophers need to go back to the Aristotelian roots of the subject, to expand the boundaries of the subject to include informal logic and to give up false oppositions between informal and formal logic.
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  6. A Theory of Presumption for Everyday Argumentation.David M. Godden & Douglas N. Walton - 2007 - Pragmatics and Cognition 15 (2):313-346.
    The paper considers contemporary models of presumption in terms of their ability to contribute to a working theory of presumption for argumentation. Beginning with the Whatelian model, we consider its contemporary developments and alternatives, as proposed by Sidgwick, Kauffeld, Cronkhite, Rescher, Walton, Freeman, Ullmann-Margalit, and Hansen. Based on these accounts, we present a picture of presumptions characterized by their nature, function, foundation and force. On our account, presumption is a modal status that is attached to a claim and has the (...)
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  7.  12
    Topical Relevance in Argumentation.Douglas N. Walton - 1982 - John Benjamins.
    It is a longstanding if not altogether coherent tradition of logic and rhetorical studies that an argument can be incorrect or fallacious in virtue of some ...
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  8.  35
    Practical Reasoning: Goal-Driven, Knowledge-Based, Action-Guiding Argumentation.Douglas N. Walton - 1990 - Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    This book is an analysis of the distinctive form of reasoning, called practical reasoning by Aristotle (as opposed to theoretical reasoning), that serves to guide behaviour.
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  9.  91
    A History of AI and Law in 50 Papers: 25 Years of the International Conference on AI and Law. [REVIEW]Trevor Bench-Capon, Michał Araszkiewicz, Kevin Ashley, Katie Atkinson, Floris Bex, Filipe Borges, Daniele Bourcier, Paul Bourgine, Jack G. Conrad, Enrico Francesconi, Thomas F. Gordon, Guido Governatori, Jochen L. Leidner, David D. Lewis, Ronald P. Loui, L. Thorne McCarty, Henry Prakken, Frank Schilder, Erich Schweighofer, Paul Thompson, Alex Tyrrell, Bart Verheij, Douglas N. Walton & Adam Z. Wyner - 2012 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 20 (3):215-319.
    We provide a retrospective of 25 years of the International Conference on AI and Law, which was first held in 1987. Fifty papers have been selected from the thirteen conferences and each of them is described in a short subsection individually written by one of the 24 authors. These subsections attempt to place the paper discussed in the context of the development of AI and Law, while often offering some personal reactions and reflections. As a whole, the subsections build into (...)
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  10.  80
    Are Circular Arguments Necessarily Vicious?Douglas N. Walton - 1985 - American Philosophical Quarterly 22 (4):263-274.
  11.  66
    Dialogue Theory for Critical Thinking.Douglas N. Walton - 1989 - Argumentation 3 (2):169-184.
    A general outline of a theory of reasoned dialogue is presented as an underlying basis of critical analysis of a text of argument discourse. This theory is applied to the analysis of informal fallacies by showing how textual evidence can be brought to bear in argument reconstruction. Several basic types of dialogue are identified and described, but the persuasive type of dialogue is emphasized as being of key importance to critical thinking theory.
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  12. Begging the Question as a Pragmatic Fallacy.Douglas N. Walton - 1994 - Synthese 100 (1):95 - 131.
    The aim of this paper is to make it clear how and why begging the question should be seen as a pragmatic fallacy which can only be properly evaluated in a context of dialogue. Included in the paper is a review of the contemporary literature on begging the question that shows the gradual emergence over the past twenty years or so of the dialectical conception of this fallacy. A second aim of the paper is to investigate a number of general (...)
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  13. Reasoning From Paradigms and Negative Evidence.Fabrizio Macagno & Douglas N. Walton - 2011 - Pragmatics and Cognition 19 (1):92-116.
    Reasoning from negative evidence takes place where an expected outcome is tested for, and when it is not found, a conclusion is drawn based on the significance of the failure to find it. By using Gricean maxims and implicatures, we show how a set of alternatives, which we call a paradigm, provides the deep inferential structure on which reasoning from lack of evidence is based. We show that the strength of reasoning from negative evidence depends on how the arguer defines (...)
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  14.  5
    What Is Reasoning? What Is an Argument?Douglas N. Walton - 1990 - Journal of Philosophy 87 (8):399-419.
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  15. Arguer's Position: A Pragmatic Study of Ad Hominem Attack, Criticism, Refutation, and Fallacy.Douglas N. Walton - 1985 - Greenwood Press.
     
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  16.  7
    Supererogation.Douglas N. Walton - 1985 - Noûs 19 (2):284-288.
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  17.  17
    The Speech Act of Presumption.Douglas N. Walton - 1993 - Pragmatics and Cognition 1 (1):125-148.
    This paper presents a speech act analysis of presumption, using the framework of a dialogue in which two parties reason together. In the speech act of presumption, as opposed to that of assertion, the burden of proof resides not on the proponent to prove, but on the respondent to rebut. Some connections of this account with nonmonotonic reasoning and informal fallacies in argumentation are explored.
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  18.  37
    Enthymemes, Common Knowledge, and Plausible Inference.Douglas N. Walton - 2001 - Philosophy and Rhetoric 34 (2):93-112.
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  19.  88
    The Ad Hominem Argument as an Informal Fallacy.Douglas N. Walton - 1987 - Argumentation 1 (3):317-331.
    This article outlines criteria for the evaluation of the argumentum ad hominem (argument against the person, or personal attack in argument) that is traditionally a part of the curriculum in informal logic. The argument is shown to be a kind of criticism which works by shifting the burden of proof in dialogue through citing a pragmatic inconsistency in an arguer's position. Several specific cases of ad hominem argumentation which pose interesting problems in analyzing this type of criticism are studied.
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  20.  53
    The Carneades Model of Argument Invention.Douglas N. Walton & Thomas F. Gordon - 2012 - Radical Philosophy Review of Books 20 (1):1-31.
    Argument invention is a method that can be used to help an arguer find arguments that could be used to prove a claim he needs to defend. The aim of this paper is to show how argumentation systems recently developed in artificial intelligence can be applied to the task of argument invention. One such system called Carneades is featured. Carneades can be used to analyze arguments, evaluate arguments, to make an argument diagram, and to construct arguments from a database. Using (...)
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  21.  16
    Games, Graphs and Circular Arguments.Douglas N. Walton & Lynn M. Batten - 1984 - Logique Et Analyse 106 (6):133-164.
  22.  11
    The Carneades Model of Argument Invention.Douglas N. Walton & Thomas F. Gordon - 2012 - Pragmatics and Cognition 20 (1):1-31.
    Argument invention is a method that can be used to help an arguer find arguments that could be used to prove a claim he needs to defend. The aim of this paper is to show how argumentation systems recently developed in artificial intelligence can be applied to the task of argument invention. One such system called Carneades is featured. Carneades can be used to analyze arguments, evaluate arguments, to make an argument diagram, and to construct arguments from a database. Using (...)
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  23.  55
    New Directions in the Logic of Dialogue.Douglas N. Walton - 1985 - Synthese 63 (3):259 - 274.
  24.  43
    New Directions in the Logic of Dialogue.Douglas N. Walton - 1984 - Synthese 58 (2):259 - 274.
  25.  52
    Reasoned Use of Expertise in Argumentation.Douglas N. Walton - 1989 - Argumentation 3 (1):59-73.
    This article evaluates the strengths and weaknesses of arguments based on appeals to expertise. The intersection of two areas is explored: (i) the traditional argumentum ad verecundiam (literally, “appeal to modesty,” but characteristically the appeal to the authority of expert judgment) in informal logic, and (ii) the uses of expert systems in artificial intelligence. The article identifies a model of practical reasoning that underlies the logic of expert systems and the model of argument appropriate for the informal logic of the (...)
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  26.  11
    Practical Reasoning.Douglas N. Walton - 1991 - Mind 100 (3):417-418.
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  27.  26
    Ethotic Arguments and Fallacies: The Credibility Function in Multi-Agent Dialogue Systems.Douglas N. Walton - 1999 - Pragmatics and Cognition 7 (1):177-203.
    In this paper, it is shown how formal dialectic can be extended to model multi-agent argumentation in which each participant is an agent. An agent is viewed as a participant in a dialogue who not only has goals, and the capability for actions, but who also has stable characteristics of types that can be relevant to an assessment of some of her arguments used in that dialogue. When agents engage in argumentation in dialogues, each agent has a credibility function that (...)
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  28.  22
    Metadialogues for Resolving Burden of Proof Disputes.Douglas N. Walton - 2007 - Argumentation 21 (3):291-316.
    In this paper, a solution to the problem of analyzing burden of proof in argumentation is developed by building on the pioneering work of Erik C. W. Krabbe on metadialogues. Three classic cases of burden of proof disputes are analyzed, showing how metadialogue theory can solve the problems they pose. The solution is based on five dialectical requirements: (1) global burden of proof needs to be set at the confrontation stage of a dialogue, (2) there need to be special mechanisms (...)
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  29.  23
    Argument Kinds and Argument Roles in the Ontario Provincial Election, 2011.Hans V. Hansen & Douglas N. Walton - 2013 - Journal of Argumentation in Context 2 (2):226-258.
    This paper is a report of a pilot study of how candidates argue when they are running for political office. The election studied was the provincial election in Ontario, Canada, in the fall of 2011. Having collected about 250 arguments given during the election from newspaper media, we sought answers to the following questions, among others: which argumentation schemes have the greatest currency in political elections? Is a list of the best known argumentation schemes sufficient to classify the arguments given (...)
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  30.  90
    Epistemology of Brain Death Determination.Douglas N. Walton - 1981 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 2 (3):259-274.
    This article assesses what standards of safety and certainty of diagnosis need to be met in the determination of brain death. Recent medical, legal, and philosophical developments on brain death are summarized. It is argued that epistemologically adequate standards require the finding of whole-brain death rather than destruction of the cortex. Because of the possibility of positive error in misdiagnosing death, a tutioristic approach of being on the safe side is advocated. Given uncertainties in diagnosis of so-called vegetative states like (...)
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  31.  25
    Omitting, Refraining and Letting Happen.Douglas N. Walton - 1980 - American Philosophical Quarterly 17 (4):319 - 326.
  32.  13
    Brain Death: Ethical Considerations.Douglas N. Walton - 1982 - Philosophical Review 91 (4):656-657.
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  33.  19
    Pe'titio Principii and Argument Analysis.Douglas N. Walton - forthcoming - Informal Logic: The First International Symposium.
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  34.  12
    Which of the Fallacies Are Fallacies of Relevance?Douglas N. Walton - 1992 - Argumentation 6 (2):237-250.
    This paper looks around among the major traditional fallacies — centering mainly around the so-called “gang of eighteen” — to discuss which of them should properly be classified as fallacies of relevance. The paper argues that four of these fallacies are fallacies primarily because they are failures of relevance in argumentation, while others are fallacies in a way that is more peripherally related to failures of relevance. Still others have an even more tangential relation to failures of relevance. This paper (...)
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  35.  19
    Practical Reasoning and the Structure of Fear Appeal Arguments.Douglas N. Walton - 1996 - Philosophy and Rhetoric 29 (4):301 - 313.
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  36.  20
    Philosophical Basis of Relatedness Logic.Douglas N. Walton - 1979 - Philosophical Studies 36 (2):115 - 136.
  37.  2
    Goods and Virtues.Douglas N. Walton - 1986 - Noûs 20 (2):263-268.
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  38.  33
    Using Conversation Policies to Solve Problems of Ambiguity in Argumentation and Artificial Intelligence.Douglas N. Walton - 2006 - Pragmatics and Cognition 14 (1):3-36.
    This investigation joins recent research on problems with ambiguity in two fields, argumentation and computing. In argumentation, there is a concern with fallacies arising from ambiguity, including equivocation and amphiboly. In computing, the development of agent communication languages is based on conversation policies that make it possible to have information exchanges on the internet, as well as other forms of dialogue like persuasion and negotiation, in which ambiguity is a problem. Because it is not possible to sharply differentiate between problems (...)
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  39.  21
    Relatedness in Intensional Action Chains.Douglas N. Walton - 1979 - Philosophical Studies 36 (2):175 - 223.
  40.  16
    Hamblin on the Standard Treatment of Fallacies.Douglas N. Walton - 1991 - Philosophy and Rhetoric 24 (4):353 - 361.
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  41.  19
    Ignoring Qualifications (Secundum Quid) as a Subfallacy of Hasty Generalization.Douglas N. Walton - 1990 - Logique Et Analyse 129 (130):113-154.
  42.  13
    Why Is the 'Ad Populum' a Fallacy?Douglas N. Walton - 1980 - Philosophy and Rhetoric 13 (4):264 - 278.
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  43.  53
    Critical Notice.David Miller, Catherine Z. Elgin, Jonathan E. Adler & Douglas N. Walton - 1980 - Synthese 43 (3):125 – 140.
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  44.  42
    Case Study of the Use of a Circumstantial Ad Hominem in Political Argumentation.Douglas N. Walton - 2000 - Philosophy and Rhetoric 33 (2):101 - 115.
  45.  8
    Practical Reasoning in Human Affairs.Douglas N. Walton - 1989 - Noûs 23 (5):702-706.
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  46.  27
    Courage, Relativism and Practical Reasoning.Douglas N. Walton - 1990 - Philosophia 20 (1-2):227-240.
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  47.  28
    The Normative Structure of Case Study Argumentation.Douglas N. Walton - 1993 - Metaphilosophy 24 (3):207-226.
  48.  47
    Ethics of Withdrawal of Life-Support Systems: Case Studies on Decision-Making in Intensive Care.Douglas N. Walton - 1983 - Greenwood Press.
    " Journal of the American Medical Association "Walton has made a successful attempt to write about medical concerns without ever leaving the layperson to ...
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  49.  52
    Omissions and Other Negative Actions.Douglas N. Walton - 1980 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 1 (3):305-324.
    This essay offers an action-theoretic analysis of the distinction between positively bringing something about and passively letting something happen. The analysis, based on the notion of an agent''s bringing about some state of affairs, is closest to the analysis of omissions of Brand (1971), but utilizes the relatedness logic of Epstein (1979). Syntactic features bring out the idea that an action can be partially positive and partially negative, e.g., by not bringing about one thing an agent can bring about something (...)
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  50.  28
    Cans, Advantages, and Possible Worlds.Douglas N. Walton - 1984 - Philosophia 14 (1-2):83-97.
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  51. Nothing found.