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Douglas N. Walton [119]Douglas Neil Walton [1]
  1. Reasoning From Paradigms and Negative Evidence.Fabrizio Macagno & Douglas N. Walton - 2011 - Pragmatics and Cognitionpragmatics and Cognition 19 (1):92-116.
    Reasoning from negative evidence takes place where an expected outcome is tested for, and when it is not found, a conclusion is drawn based on the significance of the failure to find it. By using Gricean maxims and implicatures, we show how a set of alternatives, which we call a paradigm, provides the deep inferential structure on which reasoning from lack of evidence is based. We show that the strength of reasoning from negative evidence depends on how the arguer defines (...)
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  2.  53
    Argumentation Schemes for Presumptive Reasoning.Douglas N. Walton - 1996 - L. Erlbaum Associates.
    This book identifies 25 argumentation schemes for presumptive reasoning and matches a set of critical questions to each.
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  3.  35
    The Carneades Model of Argument and Burden of Proof.Thomas F. Gordon, Henry Prakken & Douglas N. Walton - 2007 - Artificial Intelligence 171 (10-15):875-896.
    We present a formal, mathematical model of argument structure and evaluation, taking seriously the procedural and dialogical aspects of argumentation. The model applies proof standards to determine the acceptability of statements on an issue-by-issue basis. The model uses different types of premises (ordinary premises, assumptions and exceptions) and information about the dialectical status of statements (stated, questioned, accepted or rejected) to allow the burden of proof to be allocated to the proponent or the respondent, as appropriate, for each premise separately. (...)
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  4. The New Dialectic Conversational Contexts of Argument.Douglas N. Walton - 1998 - University of Toronto Press.
     
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  5.  75
    Informal Logic: A Handbook for Critical Argumentation.Douglas N. Walton - 1989 - Cambridge University Press.
    This is an introductory guide to the basic principles of constructing good arguments and criticizing bad ones. It is nontechnical in its approach, and is based on 150 key examples, each discussed and evaluated in clear, illustrative detail. The author explains how errors, fallacies, and other key failures of argument occur. He shows how correct uses of argument are based on sound argument strategies for reasoned persuasion and critical questions for responding. Among the many subjects covered are: techniques of posing, (...)
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  6.  38
    Witness Testimony Evidence: Argumentation, Artificial Intelligence, and Law.Douglas N. Walton - 2008 - Cambridge University Press.
    Recent work in artificial intelligence has increasingly turned to argumentation as a rich, interdisciplinary area of research that can provide new methods related to evidence and reasoning in the area of law. Douglas Walton provides an introduction to basic concepts, tools and methods in argumentation theory and artificial intelligence as applied to the analysis and evaluation of witness testimony. He shows how witness testimony is by its nature inherently fallible and sometimes subject to disastrous failures. At the same time such (...)
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  7. Begging the Question: Circular Reasoning as a Tactic of Argumentation.Douglas N. Walton - 1991 - Greenwood Press.
     
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  8. A Theory of Presumption for Everyday Argumentation.David M. Godden & Douglas N. Walton - 2007 - Pragmatics and Cognition 15 (2):313-346.
    The paper considers contemporary models of presumption in terms of their ability to contribute to a working theory of presumption for argumentation. Beginning with the Whatelian model, we consider its contemporary developments and alternatives, as proposed by Sidgwick, Kauffeld, Cronkhite, Rescher, Walton, Freeman, Ullmann-Margalit, and Hansen. Based on these accounts, we present a picture of presumptions characterized by their nature, function, foundation and force. On our account, presumption is a modal status that is attached to a claim and has the (...)
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  9.  51
    Action Theory.M. Brand & Douglas N. Walton (eds.) - 1976 - Reidel.
    INTRODUCTION BY THE EDITORS Gilbert Ryle, in his Concept of Mind (1949), attacked volitional theories of human actions; JL Austin, in his "If and Cans" ...
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  10.  1
    A Theory of Presumption for Everyday Argumentation.David M. Godden & Douglas N. Walton - 2007 - Pragmatics and Cognitionpragmatics and Cognition 15 (2):313-346.
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  11. Logical Dialogue-Games and Fallacies.Douglas N. Walton - 1984
     
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  12.  35
    A History of AI and Law in 50 Papers: 25 Years of the International Conference on AI and Law. [REVIEW]Trevor Bench-Capon, Michał Araszkiewicz, Kevin Ashley, Katie Atkinson, Floris Bex, Filipe Borges, Daniele Bourcier, Paul Bourgine, Jack G. Conrad, Enrico Francesconi, Thomas F. Gordon, Guido Governatori, Jochen L. Leidner, David D. Lewis, Ronald P. Loui, L. Thorne McCarty, Henry Prakken, Frank Schilder, Erich Schweighofer, Paul Thompson, Alex Tyrrell, Bart Verheij, Douglas N. Walton & Adam Z. Wyner - 2012 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 20 (3):215-319.
    We provide a retrospective of 25 years of the International Conference on AI and Law, which was first held in 1987. Fifty papers have been selected from the thirteen conferences and each of them is described in a short subsection individually written by one of the 24 authors. These subsections attempt to place the paper discussed in the context of the development of AI and Law, while often offering some personal reactions and reflections. As a whole, the subsections build into (...)
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  13. What is Reasoning? What is an Argument?Douglas N. Walton - 1990 - Journal of Philosophy 87 (8):399-419.
    In redefining logic, philosophers need to go back to the Aristotelian roots of the subject, to expand the boundaries of the subject to include informal logic and to give up false oppositions between informal and formal logic.
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  14.  91
    Begging the Question as a Pragmatic Fallacy.Douglas N. Walton - 1994 - Synthese 100 (1):95 - 131.
    The aim of this paper is to make it clear how and why begging the question should be seen as a pragmatic fallacy which can only be properly evaluated in a context of dialogue. Included in the paper is a review of the contemporary literature on begging the question that shows the gradual emergence over the past twenty years or so of the dialectical conception of this fallacy. A second aim of the paper is to investigate a number of general (...)
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  15.  30
    Enthymemes, Common Knowledge, and Plausible Inference.Douglas N. Walton - 2001 - Philosophy and Rhetoric 34 (2):93-112.
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  16. Arguer's Position: A Pragmatic Study of Ad Hominem Attack, Criticism, Refutation, and Fallacy.Douglas N. Walton - 1985 - Greenwood Press.
  17.  15
    Practical Reasoning: Goal-Driven, Knowledge-Based, Action-Guiding Argumentation.Douglas N. Walton - 1990 - Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    This book is an analysis of the distinctive form of reasoning, called practical reasoning by Aristotle (as opposed to theoretical reasoning), that serves to guide behaviour.
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  18. Plausible Argument in Everyday Conversation.Douglas N. Walton - 1992
     
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  19.  35
    Are Circular Arguments Necessarily Vicious?Douglas N. Walton - 1985 - American Philosophical Quarterly 22 (October):263-274.
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  20. Argument Structure a Pragmatic Theory.Douglas N. Walton - 1996
     
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  21.  6
    Topical Relevance in Argumentation.Douglas N. Walton - 1982 - John Benjamins.
    It is a longstanding if not altogether coherent tradition of logic and rhetorical studies that an argument can be incorrect or fallacious in virtue of some ...
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  22.  42
    Dialogue Theory for Critical Thinking.Douglas N. Walton - 1989 - Argumentation 3 (2):169-184.
    A general outline of a theory of reasoned dialogue is presented as an underlying basis of critical analysis of a text of argument discourse. This theory is applied to the analysis of informal fallacies by showing how textual evidence can be brought to bear in argument reconstruction. Several basic types of dialogue are identified and described, but the persuasive type of dialogue is emphasized as being of key importance to critical thinking theory.
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  23. Informal Fallacies: Towards a Theory of Argument Criticisms.Douglas N. Walton - 1987 - John Benjamins.
     
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  24.  14
    Metadialogues for Resolving Burden of Proof Disputes.Douglas N. Walton - 2007 - Argumentation 21 (3):291-316.
    In this paper, a solution to the problem of analyzing burden of proof in argumentation is developed by building on the pioneering work of Erik C. W. Krabbe on metadialogues. Three classic cases of burden of proof disputes are analyzed, showing how metadialogue theory can solve the problems they pose. The solution is based on five dialectical requirements: (1) global burden of proof needs to be set at the confrontation stage of a dialogue, (2) there need to be special mechanisms (...)
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  25.  3
    Courage: A Philosophical Investigation.Douglas N. Walton - 1988 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 23 (2):117-118.
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  26.  1
    The Carneades Model of Argument Invention.Douglas N. Walton & Thomas F. Gordon - 2012 - Pragmatics and Cognitionpragmatics and Cognition 20 (1):1-31.
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  27.  15
    The Carneades Model of Argument Invention.Douglas N. Walton & Thomas F. Gordon - 2012 - Radical Philosophy Review of Books 20 (1):1-31.
    Argument invention is a method that can be used to help an arguer find arguments that could be used to prove a claim he needs to defend. The aim of this paper is to show how argumentation systems recently developed in artificial intelligence can be applied to the task of argument invention. One such system called Carneades is featured. Carneades can be used to analyze arguments, evaluate arguments, to make an argument diagram, and to construct arguments from a database. Using (...)
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  28. Fallacies Arising From Ambiguity.Douglas N. Walton - 1996
     
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  29.  14
    Games, Graphs and Circular Arguments.Douglas N. Walton & Lynn M. Batten - 1984 - Logique Et Analyse 106 (6):133-164.
  30.  17
    Pe'titio Principii and Argument Analysis.Douglas N. Walton - forthcoming - Informal Logic: The First International Symposium.
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  31.  8
    The Speech Act of Presumption.Douglas N. Walton - 1993 - Pragmatics and Cognitionpragmatics and Cognition 1 (1):125-148.
    This paper presents a speech act analysis of presumption, using the framework of a dialogue in which two parties reason together. In the speech act of presumption, as opposed to that of assertion, the burden of proof resides not on the proponent to prove, but on the respondent to rebut. Some connections of this account with nonmonotonic reasoning and informal fallacies in argumentation are explored.
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  32. On Defining Death.Douglas N. Walton - 1981 - Ethics 92 (1):148-149.
     
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  33.  87
    Epistemology of Brain Death Determination.Douglas N. Walton - 1981 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 2 (3):259-274.
    This article assesses what standards of safety and certainty of diagnosis need to be met in the determination of brain death. Recent medical, legal, and philosophical developments on brain death are summarized. It is argued that epistemologically adequate standards require the finding of whole-brain death rather than destruction of the cortex. Because of the possibility of positive error in misdiagnosing death, a tutioristic approach of being on the safe side is advocated. Given uncertainties in diagnosis of so-called vegetative states like (...)
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  34.  21
    Reasoned Use of Expertise in Argumentation.Douglas N. Walton - 1989 - Argumentation 3 (1):59-73.
    This article evaluates the strengths and weaknesses of arguments based on appeals to expertise. The intersection of two areas is explored: (i) the traditional argumentum ad verecundiam (literally, “appeal to modesty,” but characteristically the appeal to the authority of expert judgment) in informal logic, and (ii) the uses of expert systems in artificial intelligence. The article identifies a model of practical reasoning that underlies the logic of expert systems and the model of argument appropriate for the informal logic of the (...)
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  35.  7
    Argument Kinds and Argument Roles in the Ontario Provincial Election, 2011.Hans V. Hansen & Douglas N. Walton - 2013 - Journal of Argumentation in Context 2 (2):226-258.
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  36.  33
    The Ad Hominem Argument as an Informal Fallacy.Douglas N. Walton - 1987 - Argumentation 1 (3):317-331.
    This article outlines criteria for the evaluation of the argumentum ad hominem (argument against the person, or personal attack in argument) that is traditionally a part of the curriculum in informal logic. The argument is shown to be a kind of criticism which works by shifting the burden of proof in dialogue through citing a pragmatic inconsistency in an arguer's position. Several specific cases of ad hominem argumentation which pose interesting problems in analyzing this type of criticism are studied.
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  37. Question-Reply Argumentation.Douglas N. Walton - 1989 - Greenwood Press.
  38.  4
    Ethotic Arguments and Fallacies: The Credibility Function in Multi-Agent Dialogue Systems.Douglas N. Walton - 1999 - Pragmatics and Cognitionpragmatics and Cognition 7 (1):177-203.
    In this paper, it is shown how formal dialectic can be extended to model multi-agent argumentation in which each participant is an agent. An agent is viewed as a participant in a dialogue who not only has goals, and the capability for actions, but who also has stable characteristics of types that can be relevant to an assessment of some of her arguments used in that dialogue. When agents engage in argumentation in dialogues, each agent has a credibility function that (...)
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  39. Alltagslogik: Struktur Und Funktion von Argumentationsmustern.Manfred Kienpointner & Douglas N. Walton - 1994 - Philosophy and Rhetoric 27 (3):270-275.
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  40. Appeal to Pity Argumentum Ad Misericordiam.Douglas N. Walton - 1997
     
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  41. Physician-Patient Decision-Making: A Study in Medical Ethics.Douglas N. Walton - 1985 - Greenwood Press.
     
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  42.  19
    Omitting, Refraining and Letting Happen.Douglas N. Walton - 1980 - American Philosophical Quarterly 17 (4):319 - 326.
  43.  34
    New Directions in the Logic of Dialogue.Douglas N. Walton - 1985 - Synthese 63 (3):259 - 274.
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  44.  17
    Relatedness in Intensional Action Chains.Douglas N. Walton - 1979 - Philosophical Studies 36 (2):175 - 223.
  45.  2
    Brain Death: Ethical Considerations.Douglas N. Walton - 1982 - Philosophical Review 91 (4):656-657.
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  46.  2
    Practical Reasoning.Douglas N. Walton - 1991 - Mind 100 (3):417-418.
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  47.  30
    New Directions in the Logic of Dialogue.Douglas N. Walton - 1984 - Synthese 58 (2):259 - 274.
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  48.  44
    Critical Notice.David Miller, Catherine Z. Elgin, Jonathan E. Adler & Douglas N. Walton - 1980 - Synthese 43 (3):125 – 140.
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  49.  11
    Using Conversation Policies to Solve Problems of Ambiguity in Argumentation and Artificial Intelligence.Douglas N. Walton - 2006 - Pragmatics and Cognition 14 (1):3-36.
    This investigation joins recent research on problems with ambiguity in two fields, argumentation and computing. In argumentation, there is a concern with fallacies arising from ambiguity, including equivocation and amphiboly. In computing, the development of agent communication languages is based on conversation policies that make it possible to have information exchanges on the internet, as well as other forms of dialogue like persuasion and negotiation, in which ambiguity is a problem. Because it is not possible to sharply differentiate between problems (...)
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  50. Arguments From Ignorance.Douglas N. Walton - 1997 - Philosophy and Rhetoric 30 (1):97-101.
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1 — 50 / 117