Results for 'Dream'

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  1. The Twisted Matrix: Dream, Simulation, or Hybrid?Andy Clark - 2005 - In C. Grau (ed.), Philosophical Essays on the Matrix. Oxford University Press New York.
    “The Matrix is a computer-generated dreamworld built to keep us under control” Morpheus, early in The Matrix. “ In dreaming, you are not only out of control, you don’t even know it…I was completely duped again and again the minute my pons, my amygdala, my perihippocampal cortex, my anterior cingulate, my visual association and parietal opercular cortices were revved up and my dorsolateral prefrontal cortex was muffled” ” J. Allan Hobson, The Dream Drugstore, p.64 The Matrix is an exercise (...)
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  2.  28
    Binding in Dreams: The Bizarreness of Dream Images and the Unity of Consciousness.Antti Revonsuo & K. Tarkko - 2002 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 9 (7):3-24.
    Binding can be described at three different levels: In neuroscience it refers to the integration of single-cell activities to form functional neural assemblies, especially in response to global stimulus properties; in cognitive science it refers to the integration of distributed modular input processing to form unified representations for memory and action, and in consciousness studies it refers to the unity of phenomenal consciousness . To describe and explain the unity of consciousness, detailed phenomenological descriptions of binding at the phenomenal level (...)
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  3. A Butterfly Dream in a Brain in a Vat.Xiaoqiang Han - 2010 - Philosophia 38 (1):157-167.
    Zhuangzi’s Butterfly Dream story can be read as a skeptical response to the Cartesian Cogito, ergo sum solution, for it presents I exist as fundamentally unprovable, on the grounds that the notion about “I” that it is guaranteed to refer to something existing, which Descartes seems to assume, is unwarranted. The modern anti-skepticism of Hilary Putnam employs a different strategy, which seeks to derive the existence of the world not from some “indubitable” truth such as the existence of myself (...)
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  4.  57
    What Descartes' Demon Can Do and His Dream Cannot.Ruth Weintraub - 2006 - Theoria 72 (4):319-335.
    The reason Descartes cites for invoking the demon argument in addition to the dream argument is that the demon argument is intended to broaden the scope of Descartes’ scepticism, to subsume additional beliefs under it. I present an additional, unfamiliar reason. There is, I argue, an important difference between the two sceptical arguments. It pertains not to their scope, but to their “depth”, to the kind of scepticism they are capable of inducing.
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    Three Sosaian Responses and a Wittgensteinian Response to the Dream Argument in the Zhuangzi.Leo K. C. Cheung - 2016 - Philosophia 44 (3):721-743.
    Ernest Sosa has proposed at least three responses to the dream argument for skepticism in his writings in the past decade. The first and the main purpose of this paper is to critically examine the three Sosaian responses, as well as a Wittgensteinian response Sosa would endorse, by investigating whether they can refute the six different versions of the dream argument found in a passage in the Zhuangzi. The second purpose of this paper is exactly to offer an (...)
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  6.  42
    Sleep and Dream Suppression Following a Lateral Medullary Infarct: A First-Person Account.J. Allan Hobson - 2002 - Consciousness and Cognition 11 (3):377-390.
    Consciousness can be studied only if subjective experience is documented and quantified, yet first-person accounts of the effects of brain injury on conscious experience are as rare as they are potentially useful. This report documents the alterations in waking, sleeping, and dreaming caused by a lateral medullary infarct. Total insomnia and the initial suppression of dreaming was followed by the gradual recovery of both functions. A visual hallucinosis during waking that was associated with the initial period of sleep and (...) suppression is described in detail. Since the changes in sleep and their recovery are comparable to results of animal experiments, it can be concluded that damage to the medullary brain stem causes extreme but short-lived alterations in conscious state and that substantial recovery occurs even though the damage to the brain stem endures. (shrink)
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    On Being Immoral in a Dream.Gareth B. Matthews - 1981 - Philosophy 56 (January):47-64.
    What is often called Descartes' dream problem should perhaps be called Plato's dream problem instead. Certainly it can be found in Plato's Theaetetus at 158b–c. It can also be found in Cicero and, through Cicero's influence, in much of the work of St Augustine.
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  8.  35
    The Anomalous Foundations of Dream Telling: Objective Solipsism and the Problem of Meaning. [REVIEW]Richard A. Hilbert - 2010 - Human Studies 33 (1):41-64.
    Little sociological attention is directed to dreams and dreaming, and none at all is directed to how people tell one another about dreams. Ordinary settings in which dreams are told mimic the conditions of “breaching” experiments and should produce anomie, but dream telling proceeds without trouble. Foundational orientations of ordinary dream talk assimilate into professional dream studies, where dream narratives are “data” and the analysis of narratives is “dream analysis.” That such practices proceed without trouble (...)
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  9.  7
    An Entangled Dream Series: Fragmentation, Wholeness and the Collective Unconscious.Judy B. Gardiner - 2015 - Cosmos and History 11 (2):28-46.
    Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Based on an experiential dream series this consciousness study shapes a theory that the fragmentary nature of dreams seeks wholeness deriving from the Collective Unconscious. As dreams evolve from a microscopic-personal worldview to a macroscopic-transpersonal dimension, concern for survival of self is augmented with concern for survival of the species. Entangled dream imagery provides cues to quantum functions actualized through the tutelage of departed scientific luminaries. The intentionality, specificity, and (...)
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  10. Looking at Personal Development and the American Dream as Possible Solutions to Overcome the European Identity Crisis and the European Nightmare.Sandu Frunză - 2017 - Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies 16 (48):125-140.
    Europeans speak, both through their leaders and through the media, about the crisis of the European civilization. They cultivate the image of Europe threatened in its own existence by the waves of population wishing to settle in Western European countries. Additionally, the threat is sensed in the context of their belonging to other religions but the Christian one. To solve this crisis, we start from the premise that the European dream in the refugees’ case may be deemed similar to (...)
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  11. The Philosophy of Dreaming and Self-Consciousness: What Happens to the Experiential Subject During the Dream State?Jennifer Michelle Windt & Thomas Metzinger - 2007 - In Deirdre Barrett & Patrick McNamara (eds.), The New Science of Dreaming Vol 3: Cultural and Theoretical Perspectives. Praeger Publishers/Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 193-247.
  12.  68
    Snakes and Dragons, Rat's Liver and Fly's Leg: The Butterfly Dream Revisited.Robert E. Allinson - 2012 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 11 (4):513-520.
    The Zhuangzi begins with Peng, a soaring bird transformed from a bounded fish, which is the first metaphor that points beyond limited standpoints to a higher point of view. The transformation is one-way and symbolizes that there is a higher viewpoint to attain which affords mental freedom and the clarity and scope of great vision. Under the alternate thesis of constant transformation, values and understandings must ceaselessly transform and collapse. All cyclical transformations must collapse into skeptical relativism and confusion. But (...)
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  13.  43
    Work Ethic and Ethical Work: Distortions in the American Dream[REVIEW]Gayle Porter - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 96 (4):535 - 550.
    Economic progress in the United States has been attributed to the successful combination of two social structures — capitalism as an economic system and democracy as a political system. At the heart of this interaction is a particular work ethic in which hard work is considered the path to both immediate and future rewards. This article examines the evolution of work ethic in the United States, as well as the returns experienced through various adaptations in the country's history. From this (...)
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  14.  17
    The Relation of Eye Movements During Sleep to Dream Activity: An Objective Method for the Study of Dreaming.William Dement & Nathaniel Kleitman - 1957 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 53 (5):339.
  15. Sosa's Dream.Nathan Ballantyne & Ian Evans - 2010 - Philosophical Studies 148 (2):249 - 252.
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  16.  27
    The Relation of Eye Movements, Body Motility, and External Stimuli to Dream Content.William Dement & Edward A. Wolpert - 1958 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 55 (6):543.
  17.  34
    The Dream in Islam: From Qur'anic Tradition to Jihadist Inspiration. [REVIEW]Mehmet Karabela - 2013 - Political Studies Review 11 (2):232-233.
  18. Cognitive Psychology and Dream Research: Historical, Conceptual, and Epistemological Considerations.Robert E. Haskell - 1986 - Journal of Mind and Behavior 7 (2-3):131-159.
  19.  10
    Sosa’s Dream.Nathan Ballantyne & Ian Evans - 2010 - Philosophical Studies 148 (2):249-252.
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  20.  21
    Dream Time.Roger Squires - 1994 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 95:83-91.
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  21.  22
    Concerning Image, Idea, and Dream (Translation).Jean Hering - 1947 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 8 (December):188-205.
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  22.  10
    Commentary on Sleep and Dream Suppression Following a Lateral Medullary Infarct: A First Person Account by J. Allan Hobson.Mark W. Mahowald - 2004 - Consciousness and Cognition 13 (1):134-137.
  23. The World as Dream.Arvind Sharma - 2006 - D. K. Printworld.
     
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  24.  33
    Waking and Dreaming: Related but Structurally Independent. Dream Reports of Congenitally Paraplegic and Deaf-Mute Persons.Ursula Voss, Inka Tuin, Karin Schermelleh-Engel & Allan Hobson - 2011 - Consciousness and Cognition 20 (3):673-687.
    Models of dream analysis either assume a continuum of waking and dreaming or the existence of two dissociated realities. Both approaches rely on different methodology. Whereas continuity models are based on content analysis, discontinuity models use a structural approach. In our study, we applied both methods to test specific hypotheses about continuity or discontinuity. We contrasted dream reports of congenitally deaf-mute and congenitally paraplegic individuals with those of non-handicapped controls. Continuity theory would predict that either the deficit itself (...)
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  25.  22
    Continuity Between Waking Activities and Dream Activities.M. Schredl - 2003 - Consciousness and Cognition 12 (2):298-308.
    Empirical studies largely support the continuity hypothesis of dreaming. Despite of previous research efforts, the exact formulation of the continuity hypothesis remains vague. The present paper focuses on two aspects: the differential incorporation rate of different waking-life activities and the magnitude of which interindividual differences in waking-life activities are reflected in corresponding differences in dream content. Using a correlational design, a positive, non-zero correlation coefficient will support the continuity hypothesis. Although many researchers stress the importance of emotional involvement on (...)
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  26.  11
    A Replication of the 5–7day Dream-Lag Effect with Comparison of Dreams to Future Events as Control for Baseline Matching. [REVIEW]Mark Blagrove, Josie Henley-Einion, Amanda Barnett, Darren Edwards & C. Heidi Seage - 2011 - Consciousness and Cognition 20 (2):384-391.
    The dream-lag effect refers to there being, after the frequent incorporation of memory elements from the previous day into dreams , a lower incorporation of memory elements from 2 to 4 days before the dream, but then an increased incorporation of memory elements from 5 to 7 days before the dream. Participants kept a daily diary and a dream diary for 14 days and then rated the level of matching between every dream report and every (...)
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  27.  16
    Studying Dream Content Using the Archive and Search Engine on DreamBank.Net.G. Domhoff & A. Schneider - 2008 - Consciousness and Cognition 17 (4):1238-1247.
    This paper shows how the dream archive and search engine on DreamBank.net, a Web site containing over 22,000 dream reports, can be used to generate new findings on dream content, some of which raise interesting questions about the relationship between dreaming and various forms of waking thought. It begins with studies that draw dream reports from DreamBank.net for studies of social networks in dreams, and then demonstrates the usefulness of the search engine by employing word strings (...)
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  28.  7
    Phenomenology and Anthropology in Foucault's Introduction to Binswanger's 'Dream and Existence': A Mirror Image to The Order of Things?H. B. Han-Pile - 2016 - History and Theory 55 (4):7-22.
    In this paper, I examine the relation between phenomenology and anthropology by placing Foucault?s first published piece, Introduction to Binswanger?s?Dream and Existence? in dialectical tension with The Order of Things. I argue that the early work, which so far hasn?t received much critical attention, is of particular interest because while OT is notoriously critical of anthropological confusions in general, and of?Man? as an empirico-transcendental double in particular, IB views?existential anthropology? as a unique opportunity to establish a new and fruitful (...)
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  29.  18
    Seeking Patterns in Dream Content: A Systematic Approach to Word Searches.Kelly Bulkeley - 2009 - Consciousness and Cognition 18 (4):905-916.
    This paper systematizes the word search potential of DreamBank.net by formulating and testing a set of word strings that can be used as default analytic categories in future investigations. The word strings are applied to the 981 dream reports of college students gathered by Hall and Van de Castle and the 136 dream reports of an 80-year old male gathered by Bulkeley . The results show a basic compatibility with the frequencies identified by Hall and Van de Castle’s (...)
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  30.  8
    Predictive Brains, Dreaming Selves, Sleeping Bodies: How the Analysis of Dream Movement Can Inform a Theory of Self- and World-Simulation in Dreams.Jennifer M. Windt - forthcoming - Synthese:1-49.
    In this paper, I discuss the relationship between bodily experiences in dreams and the sleeping, physical body. I question the popular view that dreaming is a naturally and frequently occurring real-world example of cranial envatment. This view states that dreams are functionally disembodied states: in a majority of dreams, phenomenal experience, including the phenomenology of embodied selfhood, unfolds completely independently of external and peripheral stimuli and outward movement. I advance an alternative and more empirically plausible view of dreams as weakly (...)
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  31.  18
    Last Night I Had the Strangest Dream: Varieties of Rational Thought Processes in Dream Reports.R. Wolman & M. KozMova - 2007 - Consciousness and Cognition 16 (4):838-849.
    From the neurophysiological perspective, thinking in dreaming and the quality of dream thought have been considered hallucinatory, bizarre, illogical, improbable, or even impossible. This empirical phenomenological research concentrates on testing whether dream thought can be defined as rational in the sense of an intervening mental process between sensory perception and the creation of meaning, leading to a conclusion or to taking action. From 10 individual dream journals of male participants aged 22–59 years and female participants aged 25–49 (...)
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  32. The Influence of Nietzsche in Wang Guowei's Essay "on the Dream of the Red Chamber".Zong-qi Cai - 2004 - Philosophy East and West 54 (2):171-193.
    There are numerous traces of Nietzsche's influence in Wang Guowei's "On the Dream of the Red Chamber" even though there is not a single mention of Nietzsche's name in that seminal essay. Nietzschean thought looms large where Wang openly disagrees with or quietly departs from the views of Schopenhauer and, to a lesser extent, those of Kant and Aristotle. His questioning of Schopenhauer's "no-life-ism" harks back to Nietzsche's challenge to Schopenhauer's life-negating ethics. His portrayal of Bao Yu reveals three (...)
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    Dream Experience and a Revisionist Account of Delusions of Misidentification.Philip Gerrans - 2012 - Consciousness and Cognition 21 (1):217-227.
    Standard accounts of delusion explain them as responses to experience. Cognitive models of feature binding in the face recognition systems explain how experiences of mismatch between feelings of "familiarity" and faces can arise. Similar mismatches arise in phenomena such as déjà and jamais vu in which places and scenes are mismatched to feelings of familiarity. These cognitive models also explain similarities between the phenomenology of these delusions and some dream states which involve mismatch between faces, feelings of familiarity and (...)
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  34.  59
    Is the Dream Solution of the Continuum Hypothesis Attainable?Joel David Hamkins - 2015 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 56 (1):135-145.
    The dream solution of the continuum hypothesis would be a solution by which we settle the continuum hypothesis on the basis of a newly discovered fundamental principle of set theory, a missing axiom, widely regarded as true. Such a dream solution would indeed be a solution, since we would all accept the new axiom along with its consequences. In this article, however, I argue that such a dream solution to $\mathrm {CH}$ is unattainable.
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  35.  59
    Wendell Stanley's Dream of a Free-Standing Biochemistry Department at the University of California, Berkeley.Angela N. H. Creager - 1996 - Journal of the History of Biology 29 (3):331-360.
    Scientists and historians have often presumed that the divide between biochemistry and molecular biology is fundamentally epistemological.100 The historiography of molecular biology as promulgated by Max Delbrück's phage disciples similarly emphasizes inherent differences between the archaic tradition of biochemistry and the approach of phage geneticists, the ur molecular biologists. A historical analysis of the development of both disciplines at Berkeley mitigates against accepting predestined differences, and underscores the similarities between the postwar development of biochemistry and the emergence of molecular biology (...)
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  36. Torture and the Dream of Reason.Paul W. Kahn - 2011 - Social Research: An International Quarterly 78 (3):747-766.
    The torture prohibition is not just one rule among many. Its status as an absolute prohibition in both domestic and international law suggests that it lies at the very foundation of the rule of law. Yet, the prohibition is oddly discontinuous with other practices of state sanctioned violence. I argue here that the prohibition functions as much as symbol as norm. To explain what it symbolizes, I deploy some of the interpretive methodology Freud used to interpret dreams. The torture prohibition (...)
     
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  37.  13
    Dream Research in Schizophrenia: Methodological Issues and a Dimensional Approach.Michael Schredl - 2011 - Consciousness and Cognition 20 (4):1036-1041.
    Dreaming in patients with schizophrenia was and is of particular interest to researchers and clinicians due to the phenomenological similarities between the dreaming state and schizophrenic daytime symptomatology such as bizarre thoughts or hallucinations. Extensive literature reviews have shown that dream studies in the field of psychopathology often do not fulfill common scientific criteria. The present paper focuses on the methodological issues like sampling methods, the dream collection method, and dream content analysis that are crucial with regard (...)
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  38.  12
    Oneiric Activity in Schizophrenia: Textual Analysis of Dream Reports.Marco Zanasi, Fabrizio Calisti, Giorgio di Lorenzo, Giulia Valerio & Alberto Siracusano - 2011 - Consciousness and Cognition 20 (2):337-348.
    This work evaluated the structure of dreams in people affected by schizophrenia. The verbal reports of 123 schizophrenic patients were compared with 123 dream reports from a control group. In accordance with the Jungian conceptualization of, dreams as texts, dream reports were assessed using textual analysis processing techniques.Significant differences were found in textual parameters, showing that the dreams reports of schizophrenic patients differ from those of the control group. It is thus possible that schizophrenia probably underlies changes in (...)
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  39.  83
    Persons and Popper's World 3: Do Humans Dream of Electric Sheep?Ray Scott Percival - 2004 - In Jeffrey A. Schaler (ed.), Szasz Under Fire: The Psychiatric Abolitionist Faces His Critics. Open Court Publishing Company. pp. 119-130.
    In the film classic Blade Runner, the story explores the notion of personal identity through that of carefully crafted androids. Can an android have a personality; can androids be persons? The title of the original story by Philip K. Dick is Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? The story suggests that our sense of being a person depends on our having memories that connect us with our childhood. In the movie, the androids are only a couple of years old, (...)
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  40.  49
    What is It Like to Be a Butterfly? A Philosophical Interpretation of Zhuangzi's Butterfly Dream.Jung H. Lee - 2007 - Asian Philosophy 17 (2):185 – 202.
    This paper attempts to recast Zhuangzi's Butterfly Dream within the larger normative context of the 'Inner Chapters' and early Daoism in terms of its moral significance, particularly in the way that it prescribes how a Daoist should live through the 'significant symbol' of the butterfly. This normative reading of the passage will be contrasted with two recent interpretations of the passage - one by Robert Allinson and the other by Harold Roth - that tend to focus more on the (...)
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  41.  31
    Phenomenology and Anthropology in Foucault's “Introduction to Binswanger's Dream and Existence “: A Mirror Image of the Order of Things?Béatrice Han-Pile - 2016 - History and Theory 55 (4):7-22.
    In this paper, I examine the relation between phenomenology and anthropology by placing Foucault’s first published piece, Introduction to Binswanger’s ‘Dream and Existence’ in dialectical tension with The Order of Things. I argue that the early work, which so far hasn’t received much critical attention, is of particular interest because while OT is notoriously critical of anthropological confusions in general, and of ‘Man’ as an empirico-transcendental double in particular, IB views ‘existential anthropology’ as a unique opportunity to establish a (...)
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  42.  73
    Did Ancestral Humans Dream for Their Lives?Antti Revonsuo - 2000 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (6):1063-1082.
    The most challenging objections to the Threat Simulation Theory (TST) of the function of dreaming include such issues as whether the competing Random Activation Theory can explain dreaming, whether TST can accommodate the apparently dysfunctional nature of post-traumatic nightmares, whether dreams are too bizarre and disorganized to constitute proper simulations, and whether dream recall is too biased to reveal the true nature of dreams. I show how these and many other objections can be accommodated by TST, and how several (...)
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  43.  2
    Dream Recall Frequency: Impact of Prospective Measures and Motivational Factors.Antonio Zadra & Geneviève Robert - 2012 - Consciousness and Cognition 21 (4):1695-1702.
    Significant individual differences exist in dream recall frequency but some variance is likely attributable to instrument choice in measuring DRF. Three hundred and fifty eight participants estimated their weekly DRF and recorded their dreams in either a narrative log or checklist log for 2–5 weeks. There was an early peak in DRF within the first week of both types of prospective logs after which DRF remained relatively stable. Although the two groups did not differ in their estimated DRF, significantly (...)
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  44.  89
    Zhuangzi's "Dream of the Butterfly": A Daoist Interpretation.Hans-Georg Möller - 1999 - Philosophy East and West 49 (4):439-450.
    Guo Xiang's (252-312) reading of the famous "Butterfly Dream" passage from the Zhuangzi differs significantly from modern readings, particularly those that follow the Giles translation. Guo Xiang's view is based on the assumption that the character of Zhuang Zhou has no recollection of his dream after awakening and therefore does not entertain doubts about what or who he really is. This leads to a specific understanding of the allegorical and philosophical meaning of the text that stands in contradistinction (...)
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  45.  16
    Word Associations Contribute to Machine Learning in Automatic Scoring of Degree of Emotional Tones in Dream Reports.Reza Amini, Catherine Sabourin & Joseph de Koninck - 2011 - Consciousness and Cognition 20 (4):1570-1576.
    Scientific study of dreams requires the most objective methods to reliably analyze dream content. In this context, artificial intelligence should prove useful for an automatic and non subjective scoring technique. Past research has utilized word search and emotional affiliation methods, to model and automatically match human judges’ scoring of dream report’s negative emotional tone. The current study added word associations to improve the model’s accuracy. Word associations were established using words’ frequency of co-occurrence with their defining words as (...)
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  46.  12
    Dream Rebound of Suppressed Emotional Thoughts: The Influence of Cognitive Load.Richard A. Bryant, Miriam Wyzenbeek & Julia Weinstein - 2011 - Consciousness and Cognition 20 (3):515-522.
    Initial evidence suggests that suppressing a thought prior to sleep results in subsequent dreaming of that thought. The present research examined the influence of cognitive load on dreaming following suppression. In Experiment 1, 100 participants received either a suppression instruction or no instruction for an intrusive thought prior to sleep, and subsequently completed a dream diary. Participants instructed to suppress reported dreaming about the target thought more than controls; dream rebound was predicted by poorer performance on a working (...)
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  47.  7
    Constraint on the Transformation of Characters, Objects, and Settings in Dream Reports.Cynthia D. Rittenhouse, Robert Stickgold & J. Allan Hobson - 1994 - Consciousness and Cognition 3 (1):100-113.
    To extend the hypothesis that bizarre discontinuities in dreams result from the interaction of chaotic, "bottom-up" brainstem activation with "top-down" cortical synthesis, we have performed a detailed analysis of dream discontinuities using a new methodology that allows for objective characterization of this formal dream feature. Transformations of characters and objects in dream reports were found to follow definite associational rules. While there were 11 examples of character–character transformation and 7 of inanimate object–inanimate object transformation, transformations of characters (...)
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  48. Descartes' Dream: The World According to Mathematics.Philip J. Davis - 1986 - Dover Publications.
    Philosopher Rene Descartes visualized a world unified by mathematics, in which all intellectual issues could be resolved rationally by local computation. This series of provocative essays takes a modern look at the seventeenth-century thinker’s dream, examining the physical and intellectual influences of mathematics on society, particularly in light of technological advances. They survey the conditions that elicit the application of mathematic principles; the effectiveness of these applications; and how applied mathematics constrain lives and transform perceptions of reality. Highly suitable (...)
     
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  49.  6
    Dream Splicing: A New Technique for Assessing Thematic Coherence in Subjective Reports of Mental Activity.Robert Stickgold, Cynthia D. Rittenhouse & J. Allan Hobson - 1994 - Consciousness and Cognition 3 (1):114-128.
    A novel "dream splicing" technique allows the objective evaluation of thematic coherence in dreams. In this study, dream reports were cut into segments and segments randomly recombined to form spliced reports. Judges then attempted to distinguish spliced reports from intact ones. Five judges correctly scored 22 spliced and intact reports 82% of the time ; 13 of the 22 reports were correctly scored by all five judges . We conclude that most dream reports contain sufficient coherence to (...)
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  50.  3
    Dream Content: Individual and Generic Aspects☆.A. Hobson & D. Kahn - 2007 - Consciousness and Cognition 16 (4):850-858.
    Dream reports were collected from normal subjects in an effort to determine the degree to which dream reports can be used to identify individual dreamers. Judges were asked to group the reports by their authors. The judges scored the reports correctly at chance levels. This finding indicated that dreams may be at least as much like each other as they are the signature of individual dreamers. Our results suggest that dream reports cannot be used to identify the (...)
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