Results for 'Dreams'

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  1. Why Are Dreams Interesting for Philosophers? The Example of Minimal Phenomenal Selfhood, Plus an Agenda for Future Research.Thomas Metzinger - 2013 - Frontiers in Psychology 4:746.
    This metatheoretical paper develops a list of new research targets by exploring particularly promising interdisciplinary contact points between empirical dream research and philosophy of mind. The central example is the MPS-problem. It is constituted by the epistemic goal of conceptually isolating and empirically grounding the phenomenal property of “minimal phenomenal selfhood,” which refers to the simplest form of self-consciousness. In order to precisely describe MPS, one must focus on those conditions that are not only causally enabling, but strictly necessary to (...)
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  2.  17
    Such Stuff as Dreams Are Made On? Elaborative Encoding, the Ancient Art of Memory, and the Hippocampus.S. Llewellyn - 2013 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 36 (6):589-607.
    This article argues that rapid eye movement (REM) dreaming is elaborative encoding for episodic memories. Elaborative encoding in REM can, at least partially, be understood through ancient art of memory (AAOM) principles: visualization, bizarre association, organization, narration, embodiment, and location. These principles render recent memories more distinctive through novel and meaningful association with emotionally salient, remote memories. The AAOM optimizes memory performance, suggesting that its principles may predict aspects of how episodic memory is configured in the brain. Integration and segregation (...)
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  3. Dreams: An Empirical Way to Settle the Discussion Between Cognitive and Non-Cognitive Theories of Consciousness.Miguel Ángel Sebastián - 2014 - Synthese 191 (2):263-285.
    Cognitive theories claim, whereas non-cognitive theories deny, that cognitive access is constitutive of phenomenology. Evidence in favor of non-cognitive theories has recently been collected by Block and is based on the high capacity of participants in partial-report experiments compared to the capacity of the working memory. In reply, defenders of cognitive theories have searched for alternative interpretations of such results that make visual awareness compatible with the capacity of the working memory; and so the conclusions of such experiments remain controversial. (...)
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  4.  27
    Dreams, Perception, and Creative Realization.Katie Glaskin - 2015 - Topics in Cognitive Science 7 (4):664-676.
    This article draws on the ethnography of Aboriginal Australia to argue that perceptual openness, extending from waking life into dreaming experience, provides an important cognitive framework for the apprehension of dreamt experience in these contexts. I argue that this perceptual openness is analogous to the “openness to experience” described as a personality trait that had been linked with dream recall frequency. An implication of identifying perceptual openness at a cultural rather than at an individual level is two-fold. It provides an (...)
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  5.  14
    'Typical Dreams' Reflections of Arousal.Rainer Schonhammer - 2005 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 12 (s 4-5):18-37.
    Dreams of chase or pursuit, falling, sex, flying, nudity, failing an examination, one's own and other's death, fire, teeth falling out and some other themes experienced, even if only rarely, by many people all over the world have been labelled 'typical dreams'. This essay argues that typical dreaming, rather a syndrome of themes than monothematic, reflects an extraordinary state of mind and brain. Odd and particularly memorable perceptions, as well as emerging awareness of sleep and dreaming -- i.e. (...)
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  6.  8
    Metaphysics as Kant’s Coquette: Rousseau’s Influence on Dreams of a Spirit-Seer.Jeremiah Alberg - 2015 - Kantian Review 20 (3):347-371.
    KantObservations on the Feeling of the Beautiful and the Sublime’ reveal a deep concern with the way in which the human drives to equality and unity lead inevitably to a drive for honour and its attendant delusions. He developed his thinking about these problems in the context of his reading of Rousseau. In his published Dreams of a Spirit-Seer, Kant tries to overcome the influence of the drive for honour by appealing to a metaphysics that is critical of itself. (...)
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    The Spirit of the School of Principles in Zhu XI's Discussion of “Dreams”—and on “Confucius Did Not Dream of Duke Zhou”.Yu Chang - 2010 - Frontiers of Philosophy in China 5 (1):94-110.
    Dreams were a topic of study even in ancient times, and they are a special spiritual phenomenon. Generations of literati have defined the meaning of dreams in their own way, while Zhu Xi was perhaps the most outstanding one among them. He made profound explanations of dreams from aspects such as the relationship between dreams and the principles li and qi, the relationship between dreams and the state of the heart, and the relationship between (...) and an individual’s moral improvement. He summarized previous generations’ understanding of dreams and infused a new dimension from the School of Principles, pointing out a direction for individuals’ moral cultivation and spiritual pursuit. Zhu Xi also examined the opinions of Zhang Zai, Cheng Yi, Hu Hong and other thinkers on Confucius not dreaming of Duke Zhou in his later years, revealing differences between thinkers in the School of Principles. An analysis of Zhu Xi’s thoughts on dreams will provide deeper insight into the research on the School of Principles. (shrink)
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  8. The Multidimensional Spectrum of Imagination: Images, Dreams, Hallucinations, and Active, Imaginative Perception.Nigel J. T. Thomas - 2014 - Humanities 3 (2):132-184.
    A theory of the structure and cognitive function of the human imagination that attempts to do justice to traditional intuitions about its psychological centrality is developed, largely through a detailed critique of the theory propounded by Colin McGinn. Like McGinn, I eschew the highly deflationary views of imagination, common amongst analytical philosophers, that treat it either as a conceptually incoherent notion, or as psychologically trivial. However, McGinn fails to develop his alternative account satisfactorily because (following Reid, Wittgenstein and Sartre) he (...)
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  9. I Cannot Tell You (Everything) About My Dreams: Reply to Ivanowich and Weisberg.Miguel Ángel Sebastián - 2013 - In Consciousness Inside and Out: Phenomenology, Neuroscience, and the Nature of Experience. Springer Studies in Brain and Mind.
  10.  12
    Metamorphosed Characters in Dreams: Constraints of Conceptual Structure and Amount of Theory of Mind.Richard Schweickert & Zhuangzhuang Xi - 2010 - Cognitive Science 34 (4):665-684.
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  11.  26
    Dreams as a Meta-Conceptual or Existential Experience.Jeremy Barris - 2014 - Philosophia 42 (3):625-644.
  12.  3
    Dreaming and its Discontents: US Cultural Models in the Theater of Dreams.Jeannette Mageo - 2013 - Ethos: Journal of the Society for Psychological Anthropology 41 (4):387-410.
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  13.  38
    Dreams, Nightmares, and a Defense Against Arguments From Evil.Gabriel Citron - 2015 - Faith and Philosophy 32 (3):247-270.
    This paper appeals to the phenomenon of dreaming to provide a novel defense against arguments from evil. The thrust of the argument is as follows: when we wake up after a nightmare we are often filled entirely with relief, and do not consider ourselves to have actually suffered very much at all; and since it is epistemically possible that this whole life is simply a dream, it follows that it is epistemically possible that in reality there is very little suffering. (...)
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    The Spirit of the School of Principles in Zhu Xi's Discussion of "Dreams"—And on "Confucius Did Not Dream of Duke Zhou".Yu Chang - 2010 - Frontiers of Philosophy in China 5 (1):94-110.
  15. A Peep Into the Spiritual Unconscious (a Philosophical Attempt to Explain the Phenomenon of Dreams).M. M. Zuhuruddin[from old catalog] Ahmad - 1936 - [Bombay, India Printing Works.
     
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  16. The Olympian Dreams and Youthful Rebellion of Rent Descartes.John R. Cole - 1992 - University of Illinois Press.
     
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  17. Art, Beauty and Truth: The Psychosocial Genomics of Consciousness, Dreams, and Brain Growth in Psychotherapy and Mind-Body Healing.Ernest Lawrence Rossi - 2004 - Annals of the American Psychotherapy Assn 7 (3):10-17.
  18.  13
    Philosophy of Dreams.Christoph Türcke - 2013 - Yale University Press.
    div A sweeping reconstruction of human consciousness and its breakdown, from the Stone Age through modern technology/DIV.
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  19. Aristotle's Concept of Soul, Sleep and Dreams.H. Wijsenbeek-Wijler - 1976 - [Uithoorn, Herman De Manlaan 8], Hakkert.
  20. Working with Your Dreams: Linking the Conscious and Unconscious in Self-Discovery.Lyn Webster Wilde - 1987 - Blandford.
     
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  21. The Reinterpretation of Dreams: An Evolutionary Hypothesis of the Function of Dreaming.Antti Revonsuo - 2000 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (6):877-901.
    Several theories claim that dreaming is a random by-product of REM sleep physiology and that it does not serve any natural function. Phenomenal dream content, however, is not as disorganized as such views imply. The form and content of dreams is not random but organized and selective: during dreaming, the brain constructs a complex model of the world in which certain types of elements, when compared to waking life, are underrepresented whereas others are over represented. Furthermore, dream content is (...)
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  22. Consciousness, Dreams and Virtual Realities.Antti Revonsuo - 1995 - Philosophical Psychology 8 (1):35-58.
    In this paper I develop the thesis that dreams are essential to an understanding of waking consciousness. In the first part I argue in opposition to the philosophers Malcolm and Dennett that empirical evidence now shows dreams to be real conscious experiences. In the second part, three questions concerning consciousness research are addressed. (1) How do we isolate the system to be explained (consciousness) from other systems? (2) How do we describe the system thus isolated? (3) How do (...)
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  23.  40
    Impossible Dreams: Rationality, Integrity, and Moral Imagination.E. Babbitt Susan - 1996 - Westview Press.
    Conventional wisdom and commonsense morality tend to take the integrity of persons for granted. But for people in systematically unjust societies, self-respect and human dignity may prove to be impossible dreams.Susan Babbitt explores the implications of this insight, arguing that in the face of systemic injustice, individual and social rationality may require the transformation rather than the realization of deep-seated aims, interests, and values. In particular, under such conditions, she argues, the cultivation and ongoing exercise of moral imagination is (...)
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  24. The Interpretation of Dreams.Jim Hopkins - 1991 - In J. Neu (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Freud.
    Freud's account of dreams has a cogent interpretive basis.
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  25.  40
    Measuring Consciousness in Dreams: The Lucidity and Consciousness in Dreams Scale.Ursula Voss, Karin Schermelleh-Engel, Jennifer Windt, Clemens Frenzel & Allan Hobson - 2013 - Consciousness and Cognition 22 (1):8-21.
    In this article, we present results from an interdisciplinary research project aimed at assessing consciousness in dreams. For this purpose, we compared lucid dreams with normal non-lucid dreams from REM sleep. Both lucid and non-lucid dreams are an important contrast condition for theories of waking consciousness, giving valuable insights into the structure of conscious experience and its neural correlates during sleep. However, the precise differences between lucid and non-lucid dreams remain poorly understood. The construction of (...)
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    A Replication of the 5–7day Dream-Lag Effect with Comparison of Dreams to Future Events as Control for Baseline Matching. [REVIEW]Mark Blagrove, Josie Henley-Einion, Amanda Barnett, Darren Edwards & C. Heidi Seage - 2011 - Consciousness and Cognition 20 (2):384-391.
    The dream-lag effect refers to there being, after the frequent incorporation of memory elements from the previous day into dreams , a lower incorporation of memory elements from 2 to 4 days before the dream, but then an increased incorporation of memory elements from 5 to 7 days before the dream. Participants kept a daily diary and a dream diary for 14 days and then rated the level of matching between every dream report and every daily diary record. Baseline (...)
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    Evolutionary Function of Dreams: A Test of the Threat Simulation Theory in Recurrent Dreams.Antonio Zadra, Sophie Desjardins & Éric Marcotte - 2006 - Consciousness and Cognition 15 (2):450-463.
    Revonsuo proposed an intriguing and detailed evolutionary theory of dreams which stipulates that the biological function of dreaming is to simulate threatening events and to rehearse threat avoidance behaviors. The goal of the present study was to test this theory using a sample of 212 recurrent dreams that was scored using a slightly expanded version of the DreamThreat rating scale. Six of the eight hypotheses tested were supported. Among the positive findings, 66% of the recurrent dream reports contained (...)
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  28. Consciousness During Dreams.P. Cicogna & M. Bosinelli - 2001 - Consciousness and Cognition 10 (1):26-41.
    Two aspects of consciousness are first considered: consciousness as awareness (phenomenological meaning) and consciousness as strategic control (functional meaning). As to awareness, three types can be distinguished: first, awareness as the phenomenal experiences of objects and events; second, awareness as meta-awareness, i.e., the awareness of mental life itself; third, awareness as self-awareness, i.e., the awareness of being oneself. While phenomenal experience and self-awareness are usually present during dreaming (even if many modifications are possible), meta-awareness is usually absent (apart from some (...)
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  29.  24
    The Threat Simulation Theory of the Evolutionary Function of Dreaming: Evidence From Dreams of Traumatized Children.K. Valli, A. Revonsuo, O. Palkas, K. Ismail, K. Ali & R. Punamaki - 2005 - Consciousness and Cognition 14 (1):188-218.
    The threat simulation theory of dreaming states that dream consciousness is essentially an ancient biological defence mechanism, evolutionarily selected for its capacity to repeatedly simulate threatening events. Threat simulation during dreaming rehearses the cognitive mechanisms required for efficient threat perception and threat avoidance, leading to increased probability of reproductive success during human evolution. One hypothesis drawn from TST is that real threatening events encountered by the individual during wakefulness should lead to an increased activation of the system, a threat simulation (...)
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  30.  41
    Induction of Lucid Dreams: A Systematic Review of Evidence.Tadas Stumbrys, Daniel Erlacher, Melanie Schädlich & Michael Schredl - 2012 - Consciousness and Cognition 21 (3):1456-1475.
    In lucid dreams the dreamer is aware of dreaming and often able to influence the ongoing dream content. Lucid dreaming is a learnable skill and a variety of techniques is suggested for lucid dreaming induction. This systematic review evaluated the evidence for the effectiveness of induction techniques. A comprehensive literature search was carried out in biomedical databases and specific resources. Thirty-five studies were included in the analysis , of which 26 employed cognitive techniques, 11 external stimulation and one drug (...)
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  31.  21
    Born to Adapt, but Not in Your Dreams.T. Mulder, J. Hochstenbach, P. Dijkstra & J. Geertzen - 2008 - Consciousness and Cognition 17 (4):1266-1271.
    The brain adapts to changes that take place in the body. Deprivation of input results in size reduction of cortical representations, whereas an increase in input results in an increase of representational space. Amputation forms one of the most dramatic disturbances of the integrity of the body. The brain adapts in many ways to this breakdown of the afferent–efferent equilibrium. However, almost all studies focus on the sensorimotor consequences. It is not known whether adaptation takes place also at other “levels” (...)
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    A Differentiating Empirical Linguistic Analysis of Dreamer Activity in Reports of EEG-Controlled REM-Dreams and Hypnagogic Hallucinations.Jana Speth, Clemens Frenzel & Ursula Voss - 2013 - Consciousness and Cognition 22 (3):1013-1021.
    We present Activity Analysis as a new method for the quantification of subjective reports of altered states of consciousness with regard to the indicated level of simulated motor activity. Empirical linguistic activity analysis was conducted with dream reports conceived immediately after EEG-controlled periods of hypnagogic hallucinations and REM-sleep in the sleep laboratory. Reports of REM-dreams exhibited a significantly higher level of simulated physical dreamer activity, while hypnagogic hallucinations appear to be experienced mostly from the point of passive observer. This (...)
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    Predictive Brains, Dreaming Selves, Sleeping Bodies: How the Analysis of Dream Movement Can Inform a Theory of Self- and World-Simulation in Dreams.Jennifer M. Windt - forthcoming - Synthese:1-49.
    In this paper, I discuss the relationship between bodily experiences in dreams and the sleeping, physical body. I question the popular view that dreaming is a naturally and frequently occurring real-world example of cranial envatment. This view states that dreams are functionally disembodied states: in a majority of dreams, phenomenal experience, including the phenomenology of embodied selfhood, unfolds completely independently of external and peripheral stimuli and outward movement. I advance an alternative and more empirically plausible view of (...)
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    Emotions in Diary Dreams.M. Schredl & E. Doll - 1998 - Consciousness and Cognition 7 (4):634-646.
    Even though various investigations found a preponderance of negative emotions in dreams, the conclusion that human dream life is, in general, negatively toned is limited by several methodological issues. The present study made use of three different approaches to measure dream emotions: dream intensity rated by the dreamer, intensity rated by a judge, and scoring of explicitly mentioned emotions (Hall & Van de Castle, 1966). Results indicate that only in the case of external raters' estimates do negative emotions outweigh (...)
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  35.  9
    Emotion Profiles in the Dreams of Men and Women.Jane M. Merritt, Robert Stickgold, Edward Pace-Schott, Julie Williams & J. Allan Hobson - 1994 - Consciousness and Cognition 3 (1):46-60.
    We have investigated the emotional profile of dreams and the relationship between dream emotion and cognition using a form that specifically asked subjects to identify emotions within their dreams. Two hundred dream reports were collected from 20 subjects, each of whom produced 10 reports. Compared to previous studies, our method yielded a 10-fold increase in the amount of emotion reported. Anxiety/fear was reported most frequently, followed, in order, by joy/elation, anger, sadness, shame/guilt, and, least frequently, affection/eroticism. Unexpectedly, there (...)
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  36.  37
    The Phantom Limb in Dreams☆.P. Brugger - 2008 - Consciousness and Cognition 17 (4):1272-1278.
    Mulder and colleagues [Mulder, T., Hochstenbach, J., Dijkstra, P. U., Geertzen, J. H. B. . Born to adapt, but not in your dreams. Consciousness and Cognition, 17, 1266–1271.] report that a majority of amputees continue to experience a normally-limbed body during their night dreams. They interprete this observation as a failure of the body schema to adapt to the new body shape. The present note does not question this interpretation, but points to the already existing literature on the (...)
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  37. Reviews : T. Cutler, K. Williams and J. Williams, Keynes, Beveridge and Beyond (Routledge, 1986); J. Clarke, A. Cochrane and C. Smart, Ideologies of Welfare: From Dreams to Disillusion (Hutchinson, 1987). [REVIEW]Peter Beilharz - 1990 - Thesis Eleven 27 (1):250-252.
    Reviews : T. Cutler, K. Williams and J. Williams, Keynes, Beveridge and Beyond ; J. Clarke, A. Cochrane and C. Smart, Ideologies of Welfare: From Dreams to Disillusion.
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    Dreams, Agency, and Judgement.Matthew Soteriou - forthcoming - Synthese:1-16.
    Sosa : 7–18, 2005) argues that we should reject the orthodox conception of dreaming—the view that dream states and waking states are “intrinsically alike, though different in their causes and effects”. The alternative he proposes is that “to dream is to imagine”. According to this imagination model of dreaming, our dreamt conscious beliefs, experiences, affirmations, decisions and intentions are not “real” insofar as they are all merely imagined beliefs, experiences, affirmations, decisions and intentions. This paper assesses the epistemic implications of (...)
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  39. Self‐Representation and Perspectives in Dreams.Rosen Melanie & Sutton John - 2013 - Philosophy Compass 8 (11):1041-1053.
    Integrative and naturalistic philosophy of mind can both learn from and contribute to the contemporary cognitive sciences of dreaming. Two related phenomena concerning self-representation in dreams demonstrate the need to bring disparate fields together. In most dreams, the protagonist or dream self who experiences and actively participates in dream events is or represents the dreamer: but in an intriguing minority of cases, self-representation in dreams is displaced, disrupted, or even absent. Working from dream reports in established databanks, (...)
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  40. Dreaming Souls: Sleep, Dreams, and the Evolution of the Conscious Mind.Owen J. Flanagan - 2000 - Oxford University Press.
    What, if anything, do dreams tell us about ourselves? What is the relationship between types of sleep and types of dreams? Does dreaming serve any purpose? Or are dreams simply meaningless mental noise--"unmusical fingers wandering over the piano keys"? With expertise in philosophy, psychology, and neuroscience, Owen Flanagan is uniquely qualified to answer these questions. In this groundbreaking work, he provides both an accessible survey of the latest research on sleep and dreams and a compelling new (...)
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    Binding in Dreams: The Bizarreness of Dream Images and the Unity of Consciousness.Antti Revonsuo & K. Tarkko - 2002 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 9 (7):3-24.
    Binding can be described at three different levels: In neuroscience it refers to the integration of single-cell activities to form functional neural assemblies, especially in response to global stimulus properties; in cognitive science it refers to the integration of distributed modular input processing to form unified representations for memory and action, and in consciousness studies it refers to the unity of phenomenal consciousness . To describe and explain the unity of consciousness, detailed phenomenological descriptions of binding at the phenomenal level (...)
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  42.  10
    The Self and Dreams During a Period of Transition.Caroline L. Horton, Christopher J. A. Moulin & Martin A. Conway - 2009 - Consciousness and Cognition 18 (3):710-717.
    The content of dreams and changes to the self were investigated in students moving to University. In study 1, 20 participants completed dream diaries and memory tasks before and after they had left home and moved to university, and generated self images, “I am…” statements , reflective of their current self. Changes in “I ams” were observed, indicating a newly-formed ‘university’ self. These self, images and related autobiographical knowledge were found to be incorporated into recent dreams but not (...)
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  43.  14
    Threat in Dreams: An Adaptation?S. MalcolmSmith, M. SolMs, O. Turnbull & C. Tredoux - 2008 - Consciousness and Cognition 17 (4):1281-1291.
    Revonsuo’s influential Threat Simulation Theory predicts that people exposed to survival threats will have more threat dreams, and evince enhanced responses to dream threats, compared to those living in relatively safe conditions. Participants in a high crime area differed significantly from participants in a low crime area in having greater recent exposure to a life-threatening event . Contrary to TST’s predictions, the SA participants reported significantly fewer threat dreams , and did not differ from the Welsh participants in (...)
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  44.  4
    I Know How You Felt Last Night, or Do I? Self- and External Ratings of Emotions in REM Sleep Dreams.Pilleriin Sikka, Katja Valli, Tiina Virta & Antti Revonsuo - 2014 - Consciousness and Cognition 25 (1):51-66.
    We investigated whether inconsistencies in previous studies regarding emotional experiences in dreams derive from whether dream emotions are self-rated or externally evaluated. Seventeen subjects were monitored with polysomnography in the sleep laboratory and awakened from every rapid eye movement sleep stage 5 min after the onset of the stage. Upon awakening, participants gave an oral dream report and rated their dream emotions using the modified Differential Emotions Scale, whereas external judges rated the participants’ emotions expressed in the dream reports, (...)
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  45. Walking Dreams in Congenital and Acquired Paraplegia.Marie-Thérèse Saurat, Maité Agbakou, Patricia Attigui, Jean-Louis Golmard & Isabelle Arnulf - 2011 - Consciousness and Cognition 20 (4):1425-1432.
    To test if dreams contain remote or never-experienced motor skills, we collected during 6 weeks dream reports from 15 paraplegics and 15 healthy subjects. In 9/10 subjects with spinal cord injury and in 5/5 with congenital paraplegia, voluntary leg movements were reported during dream, including feelings of walking , running , dancing , standing up , bicycling , and practicing sports . Paraplegia patients experienced walking dreams just as often as controls . There was no correlation between the (...)
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    Bizarreness in Dreams and Fantasies: Implications for the Activation-Synthesis Hypothesis.J. Williams - 1992 - Consciousness and Cognition 1 (2):172-185.
    Dreaming is a statistically robust cognitive correlate of REM sleep, but all of its formal features may occur in other states of sleep and even in waking, especially during fantasy. In order to test the hypothesis that the brain basis of such cognitive features as dream bizarreness is to be found in REM sleep neurophysiology, it is critical to quantify bizarreness in dreams and other mental states and to analyze the data with respect to both the magnitude and the (...)
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    Freud, Bion and Kant : Epistemology and Anthropology in The Interpretation of Dreams.Stella Sandford - unknown
    This interdisciplinary article takes a philosophical approach to The Interpretation of Dreams, connecting Freud to one of the few philosophers with whom he sometimes identified - Immanuel Kant. It aims to show that Freud's theory of dreams has more in common with Bion's later thoughts on dreaming than is usually recognized. Distinguishing, via a discussion of Kant, between the conflicting 'epistemological' and 'anthropological' aspects of The Interpretation of Dreams, it shows that one specific contradiction in the book (...)
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    Approach/Avoidance in Dreams.Susan Malcolm-Smith, Sheri Koopowitz, Eleni Pantelis & Mark Solms - 2012 - Consciousness and Cognition 21 (1):408-412.
    The influential threat simulation theory asserts that dreaming yields adaptive advantage by providing a virtual environment in which threat-avoidance may be safely rehearsed. We have previously found the incidence of biologically threatening dreams to be around 20%, with successful threat avoidance occurring in approximately one-fifth of such dreams. TST asserts that threat avoidance is over-represented relative to other possible dream contents. To begin assessing this issue, we contrasted the incidence of ‘avoidance’ dreams with that of their opposite: (...)
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    Autoscopic Phenomena and One's Own Body Representation in Dreams.Miranda Occhionero & Piera Carla Cicogna - 2011 - Consciousness and Cognition 20 (4):1009-1015.
    Autoscopic phenomena are complex experiences that include the visual illusory reduplication of one’s own body. From a phenomenological point of view, we can distinguish three conditions: autoscopic hallucinations, heautoscopy, and out-of-body experiences. The dysfunctional pattern involves multisensory disintegration of personal and extrapersonal space perception. The etiology, generally either neurological or psychiatric, is different. Also, the hallucination of Self and own body image is present during dreams and differs according to sleep stage. Specifically, the representation of the Self in REM (...)
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    The Illusory Function of Dreams: Another Example of Cognitive Bias.Linda Mealey - 2000 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (6):971-972.
    Patterns of dream content indicating a predominance of themes relating to threat are likely to reflect biases in dream recall and dream scoring techniques. Even if this pattern is not artifactual, it is yet reflective of threat-related biases in our conscious and nonconscious waking cognition, and is not special to dreams. [Revonsuo].
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